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Late colonization of east Polynesia.

The settlement of East Polynesia, a vast region (20 million sq. km), stretching between Hawaii, New Zealand and Easter Island and containing little and scattered land (0.29 million sq. km), raises intriguing questions about prehistoric development of maritime skills, cultural change and adaptation to island environments, but hypotheses about these depend importantly upon the chronology of colonization. An older model had initial settlement of the Marquesas about AD 300, then dispersal to Easter Island about AD 400, Hawaii about AD 750 and the Societies and New Zealand about AD 800 (Sinoto 1970; 1983a; Bellwood 1978a; Jennings 1979). A more recent model argues for initial colonization of the Marquesas during the 1st millennium BC, both Hawaii and Easter Island by AD 400 or earlier, and attributes scarcity of early evidence in central East Polynesia to sampling error (Kirch 1986). A derived argument has New Zealand colonized before AD 500 (Sutton 1987). The difference between the models cannot be attributed substantially to new data. Rather, old dates were reconsidered and differentially approved. In our view, however, there remains a significant lack of critical rigour in doing so.

A recent study of dates for early Hawaiian settlement (Hunt & Holsen 1991), for example, takes reported radiocarbon ages en masse to examine the pattern of dates, virtually without regard to problems such as suitability of dated material and stratigraphic inconsistency of some early dates. The 'old wood' problem is referred to, but only as a question for future study. Hunt & Holsen's conclusion is that the dates 'might be suggestive of a human presence as early as the first century A.D.' (1991: 158). The justification for the blanket acceptance of the Hawaiian radiocarbon corpus is threefold (Hunt & Holsen 1991: 157-8). First, that natural fires as a source for charcoal are rare in Hawaii and the products of vulcanism should be easy to distinguish, leaving a human origin for the dated charcoal almost certain even when the charcoal is in secondary deposition. Second, that the earliest sites have had the most time to be destroyed and are the hardest to locate, and also that the bulk of dated sites are in leeward environments likely to have been settled later than the more fertile windward regions. Third, that 'in spite of the real potential for erroneously early dates, we must be careful that current predilections about what is "too early" do not seriously bias our interpretations' (1991: 158).

The case for the rarity of natural fire in Hawaii, particularly in dry, leeward areas, has not been convincingly established. Fires caused by volcanic flows certainly have the potential to spread considerably beyond the areas affected by vulcanism. The claim that almost any carbonized particles dated in Hawaii will relate to human occupation is unverifiable and likely to lead to serious misinterpretation in what amounts to an 'anything goes' approach to dating (Hunt & Holsen 1991: 158):

The fact that in some cases carbonized particles are transported and deposited anew means that human activity is dated, but not the activity necessarily associated with the excavated context. In light of this consideration, even dates seemingly 'out of context' may be telling us something about the presence of people and their use of the surrounding landscape.

That the earliest sites have had the greatest time to be destroyed is not in doubt, although as the New Zealand case shows (Anderson 1991: 792) it does not necessarily mean they are likely to be invisible. The assertion that leeward zones were occupied later than the wetter windward areas is open to dispute, however: more benign climate, productive and sheltered fisheries, perhaps a greater variety of avian fauna occurring in more open situations where hunting was easier and ease of clearing dry forests for agriculture might well have made particular leeward areas most attractive as early settlement sites.

The recent bias in East Polynesia, at least since Kirch's (1986) paper, has not been against 'too early' dates, but precisely the opposite. The claimed dates for early settlement of individual archipelagoes are being continually pushed back. We feel it is time to rein in the speculation and take a hard look at what evidence is actually available for early settlement dates. While the papers cited earlier draw on diverse sources of evidence, we concentrate upon the fundamental underpinning of radiocarbon dates from archaeological sites.

The regional radiocarbon sample

Our sample consists of all available East Polynesian radiocarbon dates older than 1000 b.p. (1375 b.p. for marine shell dates), for which a human association has been claimed. New Zealand is excluded from detailed treatment as it has recently been discussed at length by Anderson. Dates from pollen cores and sediment columns are treated separately from the archaeological samples. The rest of the samples, 109 from Hawaii and 38 from elsewhere in East Polynesia, are presented in TABLES 1 & 2. For ease of reference TABLE 1 is laid out in the same order as Hunt & Holsen's dates table (1991: table 1). Their table contains 68 dates from the period in question, 1 of them relating to a non-archaeological marsh sediment sequence. There are 6 dates from B.P. Bishop Museum data files for which no further details are available, leaving 61 which were also considered in this study. A further 48 Hawaiian dates not available to Hunt & Holsen are included here and are referenced separately in TABLE 1.


The Hawaiian data (collected by Spriggs) have been taken from the original reports, most of them unpublished contract reports lodged at the Historic Sites Division of the State of Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources. Further dates were obtained from radiocarbon files of organizations in Hawaii engaged in contract archaeology: PHRI Inc., the Bishop Museum, IARI Inc. and ACH Inc. To avoid overloading the bibliography, references which are given in Hunt & Holsen's table 1 are not included here and the reader is referred to their paper. Data from elsewhere in East Polynesia were compiled for this paper using mainly published and thesis sources, with additional information on Marquesan samples provided by Barry Rolett of the University of Hawaii, for the Society Islands (Tahiti) by Yosihiko Sinoto of the Bishop Museum, and for the Cook Islands by Masashi Chikamori of Keio University.

Dates are calibrated after Stuiver & Pearson (1986) and Stuiver et al. (1986), according to the CALIB computer program (version 2.O) of Stuiver & Reimer (1986). The 10-year charcoal curve was used with results given at 2 sd (standard deviations) or 95% confidence limits. Delta R for marine shell samples was set at 115|+ or -~50 for northern and eastern islands (cf. Hunt & Holsen 1991: 148), 45|+ or -~30 for central islands and 65|+ or -~25 for the southern islands, following Stuiver et al. Following a reviewer's comments we have decided not to use the median calibrated date as a shorthand for the calendrical age. The calibration curve is not monotonic and calibrated ages are often multi-modal in probability distribution. The median figure thus has little meaning. More detailed discussions of the dates for particular archipelagoes are in preparation.

Protocol for acceptance or rejection of dates

A protocol of acceptability was developed so that results could be culled to those likely to be closest to calendrical ages of cultural events. It builds on earlier discussions in Spriggs (1989; 1990: 16) and Anderson (1991: 782-3). Results are rejected if they are:

A. Gakushuin Laboratory (Gak-) dates uncorroborated by other laboratories. Many Gakushuin dates for Pacific and Asian samples are anomalous in comparison with results from other laboratories (see Kirch 1975: 49-51; 1984: 73; Spriggs 1989: 604; Anderson 1991: 768). Later-run Gakushuin dates, Gak-4500 and later, do not appear to suffer from these problems.

B. On unacceptable materials for short Pacific chronologies: sea-urchin spines, fish, human and other animal bone and land snails (cf. Anderson 1991: 768). These materials can be grossly affected by the uptake of old carbon in sea-water or from limestones and coral, or are subject to other forms of contamination.

C. Stratigraphically inverted with respect to younger dates.

D. Old dates which do not overlap at 2 sd with younger results from the same context.

E. Single dates on dispersed charcoal from basal agricultural contexts. These are considered to represent burning of an original forest vegetation and therefore are likely to include charcoal from mature forest trees of considerable age.

F. In no clear cultural context. Natural burning or old tree roots may be the origin of samples which have no clear cultural association.

G. Clearly anomalous compared to more acceptable dates for the same cultural material from other sites. This is a question of the balance of evidence, where a particular cultural phase may be well-dated at several sites compared with a single much earlier result for the same association at another site.

H. On samples of high inbuilt age. This is the 'old wood' problem of comparatively long-lived species and relative durability of particular timber types (Anderson 1991: 780-81).

I. On samples of mixed isotopic fractionation. An example in this sample was Gak-2866 from Easter Island, described as 'charcoal and burned earth' (Ayres 1971: 500). A later Easter Island sample (McCoy 1973: 63) consisted of freshwater reeds (Scirpus riparius), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), and ti (Cordyline fruticosa).

J. Inadequately pre-treated (this is usually noted in reporting of results on very small samples, such as for I-6880 and I-6883 reported in Hommon & Bevacqua 1973: 21, 33), or showing evidence of contamination from older materials.

Results are considered questionable (rejected in the New Zealand corpus where a larger number of results were available: Anderson 1991) where:

K. The oldest date is adrift at 2 sd of the next date in a sequence otherwise overlapping at 2 sd.

L. They are single dates on marine shell or unidentified charcoal or wood, and there is no alternative indication of age such as a tephrochronological context (e.g. samples from beneath or between ash layers deposited by independently dated volcanic events).

M. They are multiple dates on unidentified material from the same sample or same stratum and restricted area of the site. This is because the sample constituents may be shared significantly.

Results are accepted where:

N. A single date had associated cultural materials of known narrow chronological range dated similarly elsewhere.

O. They gave comparable results on samples from different features or excavations of a single stratum.

P. They formed a tight series in stratigraphic order. They would be acceptable even if the samples were on unidentified materials.

Q. They were on identified material of short lifespan and had been adjusted for |Delta~13C as appropriate.


In the Hawaiian sample of 109 dates, 60 were rejected, 28 were considered questionable, and 21 were accepted. Of the 61 results shared between our sample and that of Hunt & Holsen (1991), we reject 32, consider 15 to be questionable and accept 14.

Commonly quoted early occupation dates for Hawaii (Kirch 1984: 74; 1986: 32) which are rejected here include Gak-1819 from Layer II of the Bellows site (018) on O'ahu which is stratigraphically inverted in relation to other dates from the site (criterion C), and Grn-2225 from the Pu'u Ali'i site (H1) on Hawai'i Island which is considerably earlier than the eight other radiocarbon dates from the same stratum (criterion D). One of the Bellows' excavators suggested in relation to Gak-1819 that 'We might entertain the hypothesis that the date represents charcoal displaced vertically from Layer III by one of the nearby disturbances' (Kirch 1974: 114). The problem with this hypothesis is that none of the Layer III dates are likely to be as old, the only overlap at 2 sd being provided by the large standard deviation (|+ or -~370 years) of Beta-20853. The Pu'u Ali'i excavators themselves rejected the early Grn-2225 date, considering the sample as 'possibly coming from a drifted log older than the hearth, or wood from a tree which had grown up near a volcanic fumarole, or perhaps from a castaway's fire, and in any case not dating the cultural stratum above it' (Emory & Sinoto 1969: 10). Emory & Sinoto also dated two driftwood samples collected near the site (1969: 4). They proved to be from American conifers and dated to AD 130-1400 (WSU-428, 1200|+ or -~325 b.p.) and AD 1250-1955 (WSU-424, 470|+ or -~160 b.p.)!

The best dated early site in Hawaii is Wai'ahukini shelter (H8) on Hawai'i Island with both shell and charcoal series for Layer II suggesting initial occupation beginning around AD 650-850. There are nine acceptable Hawaiian dates with standard deviations of 150 radiocarbon years or less, all with calibrated ages at 95% confidence limits starting at AD 610 or later. Increasing tolerated standard deviations to 200 years adds a further six dates: three charcoal dates beginning at AD 650, AD 640 and AD 610 and three shell ones beginning at AD 700, AD 570 and AD 230. The overall Hawaiian pattern of dates suggests a relatively late settlement, probably after AD 600. There is a further date from Fanning Island (Sinoto 1973), a possible stopover point in voyaging to Hawaii, of AD 260-650. As a single date it is rendered questionable and may well be on driftwood.

For the central islands (Cooks, Societies) there are only 13 pre-1000 b.p. samples, and 2 of these (GXO-207 from the Maupiti burials and Gak-4629 from Vaito'otia-Fa'ahia in the Society Islands) are rejected as they are on human and whale bone respectively (criterion B). Other, more acceptable dates from the Vaito'otia-Fa'ahia sites on Huahine Island give age ranges of AD 680-1020 (I-10770), 690-1030 (I-10769) and 770-1152 (I-9650) with high probabilities (.92, .95 and .94) that the true ages are later than AD 750. A further date from the same layer, thought by the excavator to represent a habitation site overwhelmed by a tidal wave, gave an even later age of AD 980-1260 (Gak-5244, 910|+ or -~75 b.p.).

Lepofsky et al. (1992) report two dates on coconut (Cocos nucifera) recovered from swamp sediments in the Opunohu Valley on Mo'orea, of AD 590-780 (Beta-41160) and AD 650-890 (Beta-41159). Although coconut is now thought to be a natural component of the vegetation of the central islands (cf. Parkes & Flenley 1990: 43), Beta-41160 consisted of a whole coconut considered to represent a hybrid of wild and domesticated forms. It is therefore of cultural origin and accepted (criterion Q). These dates overlap with those from Huahine.

The oldest Cook Island dates are from Pukapuka in the northern Cooks. They are all single dates from sites and therefore questionable (criterion L). The cultural context too is not clear from the published information: no artefacts are recorded as coming from the dated 2 x 2m excavation squares at the 3 sites, indeed at the site from which sample N-5107 came no artefacts were recorded at all (Chikamori & Yoshida 1988: table 1). At the site from which the earliest sample (N-5101, on Tridacna sp. shell) came, no artefacts were recovered from the dated layer 2 or below in an excavation of 84 sq. m. In site W5 the nearest artefacts in Layer 2, from where N-5106 came, are in a square about 7 m away (Chikamori & Yoshida 1988: figure 5). The cultural context of the dates must therefore be called into question in the absence of more detailed published description. It should be noted that Pukapukan is a Samoic (i.e. West Polynesian) language rather than an East Polynesian one, in contrast to languages spoken in the other Cook Islands. This in itself suggests a somewhat different settlement history than the rest of East Polynesia.

The oldest acceptable dated Cook Islands sites are Ureia on Aitutaki at AD 810-1170 (Beta-25250), supported by a good sequence of later dates (Allen & Steadman 1990) and a comparable date from an earlier excavation (Bellwood 1978b: NZ-1252, 969|+ or -~83 b.p., AD 890-1240), and a site on Rakahanga with three cultural dates in sequence beginning AD 780-1160 (N-5874, M. Chikamori pers. comm.). Dates from Tangatatau shelter on Mangaia (Kirch et al. 1991) suggest somewhat disturbed stratigraphy in a sequence beginning AD 900-1220 (Beta-32826, 980|+ or -~70 b.p.), a date which does not quite overlap at 2 sd with a second sample from the same lowest stratigraphic zone of AD 1250-1633 (Beta-32816, 550|+ or -~120 b.p.).

Leaving aside the Pukapuka dates, settlement no earlier than about AD 600-800 is indicated for the central islands of East Polynesia.

In the eastern archipelagoes there are only post-1000 b.p. dates published for the Tuamotus, Mangareva, Pitcairn and Henderson Island, although a preliminary report of recent work on Henderson notes new calibrated radiocarbon ages extending back to the late 8th century AD (Weisler et al. 1991: 7).

The Marquesas and Easter Island samples include 23 dates, 10 of which are rejected, 3 considered questionable and 10 accepted. Mention in a popular work of a further date of 'AD 850' from a midden at 3 m depth at Anakena on Easter Island (Heyerdahl 1989: 228) cannot be evaluated without further details.

From Suggs' (1961) pioneering Marquesan excavations at Ha'atuatua on Nuku Hiva we reject I-48 (criterion C), regard I-43 (400 BC-AD 240) as questionable (Criterion L) and accept I-41 (AD 610-1270). The date from the base of the cultural deposit at Anapua of 390 BC-AD 80 (no laboratory number given, Ottino 1985) is contradicted by a much later shell date from the same context (Ottino 1991). A further three shell dates suggest that settlement did not begin until about AD 1100-1200 (Leach et al. 1990). Driftwood use resulting in the very early date is a distinct possibility on this almost inaccessible beach (Ottino 1985). The Hane site on Uahuka has produced the most dates (Sinoto 1970). Level VII is undated, but there is an acceptable shell date (WSU-516) of 360 BC-AD 630 for level VI, and a charcoal date from the same context of AD 259-1030 (WSU-490). Other acceptable charcoal dates for the early levels are: 100 BC-AD 690 (WSU-491) and AD 340-990 (WSU-492), plus shell dates of AD 510-1290 (WSU-512) and AD 1-670 (WSU-524). Culturally equivalent is Hanatukua shelter on Hiva Oa, plausibly dated to AD 567-890 (Gak-1962) and AD 600-990 (Gak-1963). A third, much earlier date from this shelter (Gak-1964) was stratigraphically inverted and did not overlap at 2 sd with the other two dates (criteria C, D). There are only three acceptable early dates for the Marquesas with standard deviations of 150 radiocarbon years or less, one of whose calibrated ages starts at AD 1 at 95% confidence limits (a shell date) and the other two at AD 567 and AD 600. If we increase tolerated standard deviation limits to 200 years then a further six dates are added, beginning AD 610, AD 510 (shell), AD 340, AD 259, 100 BC and 360 BC (shell). Initial habitation of the Marquesas in the period AD 300-600 seems likely. The chronological case for earlier settlement is weak but cannot be entirely dismissed. Occasional potsherds in probable secondary context, some of them of Fijian origin far to the west, have long been used to argue for the primacy of Marquesan settlement within East Polynesia (Kirch 1986: 27-8).

For Easter Island AD 400 is the usually quoted age for early settlement, but this is based on dates which must be rejected on grounds of lack of clear cultural association in the case of K-502 (criterion F, D also applies) and of unsuitable material in the case of M-732 (criterion B, G also applies). K-502 is from a sample found at the contact between the pre-existing ground surface and the bottom layer of a mound of spoil from the digging of the Poike Ditch (Smith 1961: 394). In addition to the lack of association between the dated sample and ditch construction (the ditch fill gave a much more recent date) a natural origin seems possible for this sample. M-732 was rejected by the excavators as too early for the cultural context (Smith 1961: 394) and is on unburned totora reeds (Scirpus riparius) which are likely to be an unsuitable material for datingu. Kirch (1986: 34-5) notes that a relatively early date of settlement for Easter (4th or 5th century AD) is most strongly indicated on linguistic grounds. The linguistic grounds themselves, however, are not independent of the archaeologically-based dating for Eastern Polynesia as a whole and so provide no real indication of settlement age.

The earliest acceptable radiocarbon date for settlement is AD 410-1270 (WSU-1146) on Thespesia populnea charcoal from an inland house site (McCoy 1973). Thespesia is believed to be a Polynesian introduction to the island (Flenley et al. 1991: 88). There are questionable dates of AD 570-1280 (M-710) from Ahu Vinapu and AD 780-1180 (Ua-618) from Rano Raraku. Present evidence thus suggests colonization towards the end of the 1st millennium AD.

The New Zealand data have been considered in detail elsewhere (Anderson 1991) and it only remains to reiterate the conclusions of that study which suggest first settlement of mainland New Zealand in the period AD 1000-1200, the Kermadecs in the 13th century at the earliest and the Chatham Islands not before the 14th century.

Evidence for anthropogenic environmental change

Any of the proposed colonization models would be strengthened by matching evidence of anthropogenic environmental changes, particularly forest disturbance. Many of the current data, however, are questionable. In the Hawaiian Islands, the Kahana, O'ahu, shell date (Beta-6968) of 540 BC-AD 1, associated with Aleurites nut fragments and other Polynesian introductions, came from mixed marine and terrigenous sediments (Beggerly 1990). Another shell sample from an equivalent stratum (Beta-12753) gave an even earlier date. Both are considered to result from natural deposits (criterion F), and the presence of the introduced plants can probably be explained by reworking of the sediments. A date on peat from above this stratum (Beta-15255) gave an age largely within the 2nd millennium AD, but would also be rejected on the grounds of unsuitable material (criterion B) and possibly inadequate pretreatment (criterion J). Elsewhere on O'ahu, forest clearance is questionably dated to AD 250-660 (Beta-13477) and AD 420-1010 (Beta-16266), with clearer evidence of deforestation and introduced plants after about AD 1000 (Allen 1987; Athens & Ward 1991: 104).

If it proves possible to calibrate the Honouliuli birdbone samples to calendar years, the interesting sequences of human introduced fauna found in the sinkholes will provide important corroborating evidence for the date of human colonization. Bird bone-charcoal and bird bone-marine shell pairs from the area do not show a consistent pattern, despite the ingenious attempt at correlation by Davis (1990: chapter IX).

Preliminary pollen data suggesting forest disturbance from about 1600 b.p. in the Cook Islands (Kirch et al. 1991) have yet to be fully published and need to be evaluated adequately in relation to potential sources of error such as the enrichment of sampled sediments by ancient coralline carbon. Lakes and swamps with a groundwater influenced by limestone or coral often have sediments deficient in 14C relative to the proportion of the isotope in the atmosphere at the time of deposition. This is the 'old carbon' source of error which produces spuriously old determinations (MacDonald et al. 1991). Evidence for a major disturbance in vegetation around Lake Temae on Mo'orea in the Society Islands at 1210 b.p. (SRR-3088) has also recently been presented (Parkes & Flenley 1990). The dating of evidence for small scale anthropogenic disturbance of vegetation in the Lake Vaihiria sequence from Tahiti at 1290 b.p. (SRR-2522) is rendered questionable by a much later date from a lower level in a core a few metres distant. Possible contamination with older material from the catchment is suggested (Parkes & Flenley 1990: 21). Easter Island pollen core dates for human impact from 1360 b.p. onwards are difficult to evaluate because of suspected inwash of soil carbon (Flenley & King 1984; Flenley et al. 1991). In New Zealand, numerous dates for deforestation fall in the early to mid 2nd millennium AD, but old carbon from limestone and soil inwash is suspected in the earliest dates that are otherwise acceptable (Anderson 1991: 788-9).

A preliminary assessment of the pollen and forest disturbance data suggests that while there are significant differences at face-value with archaeological data in some cases, further analysis of the pollen data may bring them into agreement.


Analysis of the radiocarbon dates for East Polynesia is a continuing process. We have attempted to show that a critical approach to the data, especially to those determinations made 20-30 years ago which provided basic points of reference for the current models of colonization sequence, does not support either of them. There is nothing to demonstrate settlement in East Polynesia earlier than AD 300-600, and then only in the Marquesas, where Rolett's (1989) recent dates from Hanamiai (a site which, in its lower levels, seems to represent habitation in a pristine environment), might prove the harbinger of a later sequence for the archipelago as a whole. Otherwise, we see settlement beginning in the period AD 600-950 in the central, northern and eastern archipelagoes, and AD 1000-1200 in the New Zealand region.

The currently popular tactic of searching for signs of earlier human habitation in pollen cores is fraught with various technical and interpretational problems. For instance, Kirch et al. (1991) argue from pollen data that settlement began about 1600 b.p. on Mangaia, and therefore that extensive evidence of the extirpation of avifauna in the oldest cultural deposits, dating perhaps AD 900-1220, must represent a late, localized phenomenon (Steadman & Kirch 1990). That a suite of otherwise extinct species should survive for over 500 years in one corner of an island of less than 10 km diameter, when wholesale extinctions occurred more rapidly throughout the comparatively vast archipelagoes of Hawaii and New Zealand, strikes us as distinctly implausible. In our view it is more probable that the radiocarbon determinations from the pollen core do not record accurately the period of colonization.

A later chronology of colonization has several important implications for East Polynesian prehistory, which we note briefly here. It compels the retention of an apparent 1300-1600 year standstill in Pacific colonization after the first settlement of West Polynesia (Spriggs 1990) and requires, therefore, rapid colonization of East Polynesia once the process began. Explanation of these contrasting phenomena remains elusive but East Polynesian colonists presumably outran the push of population growth in older settled TABULAR DATA OMITTED areas of West Polynesia, and were pulled, perhaps, by continuing expectations of rich, easily exploited reserves of pristine faunal resources such as colonial-nesting birds, turtles and reef fish which occurred on uninhabited islands. This process is possibly represented by early depauperation of Polynesian avifaunas (Steadman 1989; Anderson & McGlone 1991). A shortened prehistory allows less time for socio-cultural developments which are evolutionary in character, and therefore it is more likely that the widespread phenomenon of chiefdoms reflects an ancestral form (cf. Kirch 1984: chapter 3), rather than any significant convergent development. Proposed scenarios of demographic growth and cultural change, including rates of linguistic divergence between island groups, will also need to be reconsidered.

Acknowledgements. We thank Peter Bellwood, Masashi Chikamori, Tom Dye, Roger Green, Toni Han, Muffett Jourdane, Eric Komori, Matt McGlone, Barry Rolett, Kanalei Shun, Yosi Sinoto, Chuck Streck, Richard Walter, Farley Watanabe and Douglas Yen for help in the preparation of this paper. Matthew Spriggs' 1992 trip to Hawaii was funded by the Department of Prehistory, RSPacS, ANU. He thanks PHRI Inc. (Paul Rosendahl), the Department of Anthropology, Bishop Museum, Archaeological Consultants of Hawaii Inc. (Joseph Kennedy), and International Archaeological Research Institute Inc. (Stephen Athens) for access to their radiocarbon files; and the Historic Sites Division, State of Hawaii and the Department of Anthropology, University of Hawaii at Manoa for their assistance and hospitality.


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