Late Pleistocene and Holocene Bison of the Colorado Plateau.
The most recent comprehensive analysis of Bison distribution in continental North America illustrates an apparent geographic 'gap' of bison records for much of the arid Southwest, especially on the Colorado Plateau (CP; Mc Donald, 1981; Fig. 1). In the western United States, there are well-documented occurrences of Quaternary-aged Bison in physiographic provinces neighboring the CP, such as the Great Basin (Jennings, 1978; Scott and Cox, 2008), southern and middle Rocky Mountains (McDonald, 1981), Wyoming Basin (McDonald, 1981), Arizona deserts (Agenbroad and Haynes, 1975; Wolff, 2013), Bonneville Basin (Madsen et al., 2001), and Rio Grande Rift basin (Harris, 2014).
In recent years, bison from Arizona's House Rock Valley in Arizona have dispersed onto the Kaibab Plateau on the North Rim of the Grand Canyon National Park (NP). Resource managers subsequently questioned the nativity of Bison on the CP and concluded, from lack of evidence and limited tangential environmental assessments (Reimondo, 2012; Huffer, 2013), that bison are not native to the area. These prior studies made no examination of specimens in collections but relied upon published literature. Thus, it is necessary to complete a comprehensive assessment of unpublished accounts of Bison remains from paleontological and archaeological sites that are preserved in local museum collections.
Here, we synthesize the paleontological and archaeological localities known to contain Bison from the Grand Canyon and the surrounding CP along with a few just off the plateau for adjacent references. Our data set includes published and unpublished accounts and unstudied museum specimens along with those records archived in database systems that have recently emerged. Our goal is to address two main questions: 1) when and 2) where did Bison occur on the CP, especially within the Grand Canyon NP and the Greater Grand Canyon Region (as defined in MATERIALS AND METHODS)? We address these questions by assessing, and in some cases describing, museum specimens of Bison from 74 localities on and around the CP (Table 1; Fig. 1). Details about each locality are in the thesis by Martin (2014); we provide only pertinent data herein.
BACKGROUND--Today, there are two, albeit disputed, subspecies of Bison (Cronin et al., 2013): 1) Bison bison bison are historically found in the Great Plains and elsewhere throughout much of North America, and 2) Bison bison athabascae are historically found north of 49[degrees]N latitude in Canada and Alaska. This project does not address subspecies or species but focuses on the animal at the generic level. In all, Bison bison, Bison antiquus, and Bison latifrons have been reported on the CP and in the surrounding provinces (Table 1).
The historical chronicle of bison in the Southwest is complex and confusing. Northern Arizona has scarce historical records, in general, but the Spanish reported a small herd of Bison in the 16th century in east-central New Mexico and adjacent to the CP (Reed, 1952). Native Americans in the 1200s AD and earlier created pictographs and petroglyphs on the walls of Kanab Creek near Kanab, Utah (among other places; Malotki and Wallace, 2011). However, the ideas, memories, and thoughts that inspired these renderings could conceivably have travelled great distances and well beyond the actual zoogeographic distributions, which brings into question the idea that the pictographs and petroglyphs represent local occurrences of bison. A few unrelated, documented occurrences confirm that bison frequented the CP near the Greater Grand Canyon Region in small but self-sustaining herds that most likely had relatively large home ranges to endure the low carrying capacity of the region (Seager et al., 2007).
In 1905, Charles J. "Buffalo" Jones brought bison to the Kaibab Plateau on the North Rim of the Grand Canyon NP (Hoffmeister, 1986) and crossbred them with Bos taurus to create a hardy livestock animal he called "cattelo." In 1906, when Congress established the Grand Canyon Game Preserve, they listed bison as one of the wildlife species that should be maintained on the Kaibab Plateau (unpublished report to U.S. Congress, Protection of Wild Animals in the Grand Canyon Forest Preserve). The Kaibab Plateau was described as "ideal for buffalo [Bison], deer and other wild game" and was "to be recognized as a breeding place therefore" (Wakeling, 2006:25). Most importantly, "the Preserve was created on 28 November 1906 by President Theodore Roosevelt and is still in effect. It predates the establishment of the [Kaibab] National Forest [in 1909], Grand Canyon National Park [in 1919], and the Arizona Game and Fish Commission [in 1913]" (Wakeling, 2006:25). In 1909, these bison were relocated east to the House Rock Valley (Marble Platform) because of the creation of the Kaibab National Forest when CJ. Jones moved all but 15-20 animals out of the area. The 15-20 remaining bison became property of James T. "Uncle Jim" Owens and, by 1927, the herd had increased to 98 individuals and was purchased by the State of Arizona via the Arizona Game and Fish Department. Over the past half-century, introduced 'purebred' Bison bison from Oklahoma and Montana have been added to the bison herd to improve its natural resilience (see discussions in Hoffmeister, 1986; Wakeling, 2006).
Throughout the Holocene, Bison abundances spatially varied over most of North America possibly because of hunting and intraspecific competition; yet, the population steadily increased in the Great Plains until European contact when their abundance probably reached their apex (Flores, 1991). This increase in bison might have occurred because of a few conditions including limited trophic-equivalent competition (Flores, 1991); reduced abundance and diversity of presumed predators since the Pleistocene extinction of the dire wolf (Canis dirus), American lion (Panthera atrox), and the giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus; Flores, 1991); and cooler, wetter climate conditions, which are favorable for grass growth (Wisely et al., 2008; Craine, 2013; Craine et al., 2013). Thus, the observations made by early western explorers (Hornaday, 1889) are likely misleading or at least poorly representative of Bison abundance.
Furthermore, earlier in the Holocene, Bison were less abundant in the Great Plains and were intermittently present in the Southwest (Broughton et al., 2008). There are potentially multiple factors contributing to the seemingly poor fossil record of Bison during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene on the CP. Yet, the region is incompletely studied by Quaternary paleontologists and zooarchaeologists compared with the neighboring provinces, most likely because of its remoteness.
MATERIALS AND METHODS--The Colorado Plateau is an immense physiographic province between the Colorado Rocky Mountains and the Great Basin Desert (Blakey and Ranney, 2008). The Grand Canyon is defined as the geological gorge that incises the Colorado Plateau (Ranney, 2012) and is immediately surrounded by Grand Canyon NP. We define the Greater Grand Canyon Region as the ecosystem of Grand Canyon NP adjacent to the Colorado River corridor and the plateaus immediately rimming the Grand Canyon gorge. This includes the Coconino, Hualapai, Kaibab, Kanab, Uinkaret, and Shivwits plateaus and the Marble Platform. Thus, we also extend the Greater Grand Canyon Region to approximately 80 km beyond the borders of Grand Canyon NP to encompass the habitats of each plateau (Fig. 1).
Each Bison locality on the CP is listed in Table 1 and is numbered consecutively to correspond with the location shown in Figure 1. Undocumented and misidentified specimens from archaeological and paleontological localities are critical to our assessment. These specimens are archived in collections at the Museum of Northern Arizona (MNA), at the Grand Canyon NP, and at the East Tennessee State University Vertebrate Paleontology lab. The previously undescribed specimens consist predominately of dung and skeletal remains from cave, rock shelter, and packrat midden localities. We verified the identification of each specimen and, if necessary, corrected it using Balkwill and Cumbaa (1992), who improved upon identification guides by Lawrence (1951) and Olsen (1960). In an attempt to capture the full extent of variation, Balkwill and Cumbaa (1992) included every postcranial element and provide 192 quantifiable, osteological characters for comparing Bison, represented by 27 individuals of B. bison bison and B. bison athabascae, and Bos taurus, represented by 16 individuals of several breeds including Holstein, Ayrshire, Shorthorn, Longhorn, and Africander. Balkwill and Cumbaa (1992) described specimens of both sexes and of various ages to account for natural variation within Bison and Bos.
Occurrences of Bison were also recovered from the following online data sets: Neotoma Paleoecology Database (NeotomaDB, wwwneotomadb.org); Arizona's Cultural Resource Inventory (AZSite, wwwazsite.asurite.ad.asu.edu/azsite/); and Neogene Mammal Mapping Portal (NeoMap, wwwucmp. berkely.edu/neomap/). Several localities were in the legal format of Township and Range, which creates a large polygon instead of a point and is imprecise when using point data for other site localities. For each site that was in the legal format, we converted the data into the coordinate system by using a centralized datum in the Township and Range overlay (B. Clark, Earth Point: Township and Range--Public Land Survey System on Google Earth, wwwearthpoint.us.; Earth Point Corporation, Kuna, Idaho) in Google Earth Pro (Google Earth Pro, version 126.96.36.1997; Google Inc., Googleplex, Mountain View, California) using decimal degrees. The location is less accurate but more precise for geospatial assessment and analysis.
Each locality has a name and numbering system used by the archiving institution and maintained here. As part of this research, we directly radiocarbon dated Bison specimens from two sites, B:16:0461 and Grand Falls. For other sites, the age is first given as reported in the literature (if provided) or archival database. We converted the given age(s) to calendar years BP as a single mean geologic age for geospatial representation (Fig. 2). The calibration of the radiocarbon years was completed using OxCal Online Tool (https://c14.arch.ox.ac.uk/) by employing the IntCal13 curve (Reimer et al., 2013). We assumed the average date of the calibrated age to be accurate, but it should be understood to be imprecise. We provide details including pertinent published references, archival databases, and dating sources for each site when available.
North American Quaternary Chronologies--There are a number of chronologies that are defined by specific metrics and cannot be easily integrated because of the inherent differences of paleontological and archaeological definitions; we define these below (Fig. 3). Each chronology used here is necessary for relating our various paleozoological sites that contain Bison remains. Furthermore, we implemented a climatic representation for understanding the environmental context of each period.
The Pleistocene is divided into biochronological units referred to as North American Land Mammal Ages based on faunal assemblage components. The Rancholabrean Land Mammal Age is defined by the first appearance of Bison south of 55[degrees]N latitude and begins approximately 160,000 years BP (Bell et al., 2004). Furthermore, the Rancholabrean Land Mammal Age terminates 14,000 years BP when the Santarosaean Land Mammal Age begins (see discussion in Barnosky et al., 2014, for Land Mammal Age divisions within the Holocene).
In addition to the mammal ages, archaeological stages were implemented based on North American human cultures in the Southwest (Polyak and Asmerom, 2001). The Pecos Classification was used in this study because it is culturally specific to the CP region and to the Southwest, and it often relates to the specimens we observed in museum collections. The later subdivisions of the Pecos Classification are within modern times. For this study, 850 years BP to today, which includes the formal historic, prehistoric, and protohistoric periods, is considered modern times to illustrate Bison nativity both precontact and postcontact with Europeans in the Southwest.
RESULTS--Herein, we report 74 sites located on or near the CP (with a few on the periphery) that contain Bison. We add 26 localities to the 48 reported in a recent study by Huffer (2013). Moreover, the previous study found that only 16 localities were described from the Holocene, of which 10 were on the CP (Huffer, 2013). In contrast to the Huffer (2013) study, we found 52 sites from the Holocene, of which 40 were on the CP.
Our assessment resulted in the summary data presented in Table 2. We present two sites of interest in and near Grand Canyon NP--B:16:0461 (specimen GRCA 69396) and Grand Falls (specimen MNA V8301; Table 1). We selected these specimens because they were previously insufficiently identified and only relatively dated.
Site B:16:0461, in the Mather Campground area of Grand Canyon NP, was a surface collection that had not been previously reported or identified. It is a lateral half of a proximal phalanx that is identified as Bison sp. because the lateral margin is curved (see Balkwill and Cumbaa (1992) and Martin (2014) for discussion). This sample returned a radiocarbon date (Beta 374436) of 50 [+ o -] 30 years BP (measured radiocarbon age of 100.5 [+ o -] 0.4 pMC).
The Grand Falls specimens represent two nearly complete postcranial individuals deposited 15 m apart in the same arroyo. In collections, these specimens' elements are mostly joined together with consolidant and adhesive. Here, we only describe the right astragalus because it was not treated with consolidant or adhesive. The medial tubercle of the astragalus is on a level with or above the line drawn across the proximal margin of the distal trochlea, as elaborated in Balkwill and Cumbaa (1992). The posterior surface of the astragalus is excavated and extends as far as the lateral margin. Grand Falls was described in the MNA computer database as an arroyo site near the Little Colorado River, which suggests that it is possibly of Pleistocene age. However, radiocarbon dating (Beta 374435) returned an age of 50 [+ o -] 30 years BP (measured radiocarbon age of 102.4 [+ o -] 0.4 pMC). Subsequently, we placed both B:16:0461 and Grand Falls at the beginning of the 20th century (Pueblo V).
DISCUSSION--Much of what we know about bison on the CP is based on historical and modern studies. Although these are valuable resources, they are incomplete and do not explore the prehistoric record. We found that 13 of our newly identified 26 Bison localities (50%) were either previously not identified as Bison or were incorrectly identified as "unknown," "large mammal," or "Bos." Previous studies rarely identified Bison remains from in situ, pre-European contact because it was traditionally thought that Bison did not inhabit the CP. We are particularly intrigued that some researchers identified an in situ, pre-European contact faunal remain as "Bos taurus," knowing that this taxon arrived with the exploration of Spanish conquistadors, approximately 1540 Common Era. We hope to dispel this persistent line of circular reasoning by providing a thorough assessment of Bison on the CP since the latest Pleistocene.
Some hypothesize that the bison found in the Greater Grand Canyon Region were carrion from scavengers, bloat-and-float from upstream Colorado River, or goods traded by peoples. However, it would seem that the pre-Colombian cultural trading of Bison elements might not have been traded long distances but more locally (Cannon, 2001). Reed (1952, 1955) points out that the bison skeletal and artifactual remains found in a pre-Spanish context across the southern CP (Arizona) are likely due to trade connections; albeit, Reed does state that the record of bison ("cibola") provided by the Havasupai Indians in the Grand Canyon probably represents a local procurement and not a trade item (independently described in Garces and Coues, 1900:403, 406).
In addition, Bison are not known to frequent caves and are categorized as low frequenters of such shelters, with no more than 16.9% of all Bison remains found in caves across the contiguous United States (Jass and George, 2010). Thus, finding Bison remains in caves or rock shelters at 45 of 74 (60.8%) sites on the CP appears to be significant because either they were inhabiting the area or they were scavenged from a nearby location. For comparison, approximately 85.7% of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) remains are found in caves (Jass and George, 2010).
CONCLUSION--The direct impact of this study is the production of the first comprehensive review of late Pleistocene and Holocene Bison on the Colorado Plateau. The results indicate that the geographic range of fossil and modern Bison can be extended to include the CP. Our data imply that Bison have been part of the CP from at least approximately 44,000 radiocarbon years ago though the latest Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) to the onset of the Holocene (~11,000 years ago). The past approximately 11,700 years is a critical time because it marks the beginning of the modern climate based on paleobotanical records (McClaran and Van Devender, 1995; Coats et al., 2008). Major ecological and faunal turnover occurred at or by approximately 11,700 years ago, yet the early Holocene climate was still colder than today. The fossil Bison record for the early Holocene is not well-reported on the CP, but there appears to be good evidence of Bison presence during the late Holocene, through the various cultural phases, and up to the time of European contact. The southern CP (south of the Grand Canyon) in Arizona appears to have been fairly devoid of bison; but, within the Grand Canyon (likely just north of the Colorado River) and north, Bison were likely present, albeit never likely abundant based on its record. Though Bison were not overly common, such as observed on the Plains, the fossil record clearly demonstrates that this iconic bovid played a role in the biotic communities over much, if not all, of the Colorado Plateau up to the time of European contact.
Submitted 7 July 2016. Accepted 19 December 2016.
Associate Editor was Troy Ladine.
We thank S. L. Swift and M. Carpenter for the countless hours contributed to data collection and improvement of this project. We thank the National Park Service (ZION 12396, Zion National Park Museum Collection) for the courtesy of abundant information and a specimen approved for destructive radiocarbon analysis (GRCA 69396) from the Grand Canyon National Park (research permit# GRCA-2013-SCI-0052), and C. Hyde and B. Holton for informative discussions about the House Rock Valley bison herd. We thank the Navajo Nation, who in conjunction with the Museum of Northern Arizona provided their specimen for destructive radiocarbon analysis MNAV8301, Loc. 1104 (Navajo Nation Minerals Department research permit date: 30 August 2013). We thank many staff members of the Museum of Northern Arizona for their assistance. S. Emslie and M. Stiger provided important information for bison presence in the Gunnison Basin. We thank the National Buffalo Foundation, the Dr. Ken Throlson American Buffalo Scholarship, Experiment.com (a crowd-sourcing platform), the Western Bison Association, the East Tennessee State University (ETSU) Don Sundquist Center of Excellence in Paleontology, and the ETSU Graduate School Graduate Student Research Grant for providing funds to JMM. We appreciate the continued support of The Mammoth Site and contribution of anonymous reviewers for much improvement of the manuscript.
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Jeff M. Martin, * Rachel A. Martin, and Jim I. Mead
Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843 (JMM)
Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843 (RAM)
The Mammoth Site, Hot Springs, SD 57747 (JIM)
Don Sundquist Center of Excellence in Paleontology, East Tennessee State University Gray Fossil Site and Museum,
Gray, TN 37615 (JMM, RAM, JIM)
* Correspondent: firstname.lastname@example.org
Caption: FIG. 1--Map of Bison localities (placement is approximate) on the Colorado Plateau (CP, heavy line) and surrounding region. Locality numbers refer to Table 1. Hashed line represents our definition of the Greater Grand Canyon Region (GGC, see Materials and Methods section) surrounding Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP, shaded area).
Caption: Fig. 2--Map of Bison localities placed in chronological context on the Colorado Plateau (CP, heavy black line) and surrounding region. Hashed line represents our definition of the Greater Grand Canyon Region (GGC; see text). Time unit is in thousands of calendar years ago BP (kya).
Caption: FIG. 3--Integrated North American Quaternary chronology. This time scale displays geological, paleontological (North American Land Mammal Ages: [Bell et al., 2004; Barnosky et al., 2014]), climatic (Climate Regime: Zhao et al., ; Cohen et al., ), and cultural (Pecos Classification: Polyak and Asmerom ) units that are all important for relating Bison localities. Not all units are displayed to scale; some cultural units are enlarged for legibility. The relative temperature (solid line) is represented as a proxy derived from 818-Oxygen isotopes from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP2). Data from Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages (Anderson et al., 2000); and temperature from GISP2 (Grootes et al., 1993). Abbreviations: ka = kilo annum (thousand years ago); BP, Before Present; CE, Common Era; %, part per thousand.
TABLE 1--Summary table of Bison localities from the Colorado Plateau region. Key refers to number and location in Figure 1. Mean age in calendar years Before Present (cal yr BP) calibrated by IntCal13 (Reimer et al., 2013). References other than primary literature include GRCA collection (Grand Canyon National Park collections), MNA (Museum of Northern Arizona), AZSite (Arizona's Cultural Resource Inventory), NeotomaDB (Neotoma Paleoecology Database), and NeoMap (Neogene Mammal Mapping Portal). "--" indicates no data. Empty cells indicate no information is applicable. Key Locality name Database reference 1 The Neck (a) 42SA8502 2 Ada Mesa (a) NA20657 Lots 50 & 52 3 Alcove Spring 42SA8512 4 Awatovi (a) NeotomaDB 5910; NeoMap 2332 5 AZJ:14:356 (a) 6 AZ P:8:3 (a) 7 Mather Campground B:16:0461 8 B:16:105 GRCA 69396 9 Badger House NeotomaDB 1453; NeoMap 1268 10 Badger Spring MNA.Loc.112-0; MNA Ariz D:5:13; NA10924 11 Battleship Rock 12 Beamer's Cabin AZ C:13:0004 GC 13 Bear Ruin AZ P:16:1 14 Bechan Cave NAU QSP Site 872; GLCA Accession 81 15 Bessie Bottom Site 48UT1186; NeotomaDB 4810 16 Bison Alcove 42GR538 (ARCH 115); MNA.Loc. 9144; NeotomaDB 6290; NeoMap 2958 17 Black Mesa (a) D:11:2062; D:7:0713; NeotomaDB 6010 & 5980 18 Canyon Diablo Dam NA8793.Lot.1 #7136 19 Catclaw Cave AZ F:2:1(ASM) 20 Cement Creek Cave 21 Charley Day Spring NA1898; MNA.Loc. 1491 22 Cottonwood Seep Spring (a) NA14674.Lot.955 and Lot.985 & GSPS6 23 Cowboy Cave 45WN420; NeotomaDB 9761; NeoMap 2048 24 Coyote Creek NA14064 25 Dust Devil Cave NA7613.Lot. 1066.A9V6; MNA.UT:V: 13:160 26 Ephraim (Witch's Knoll) NeotomaDB: 7683 27 Fort Davy Crockett 5MF605; NeotomaDB 5210; NeoMap 1165 28 Furnace Flats AZ C:13:0010 GC 29 Grand Falls MNA V8301 Loc.1104 30 Gray Water Wash MNA.Loc.358-0 31 Grobot Grotto NAU QSP Site 878; GLCA Accession 82 32 Hamblin Springs NeoMap 6329 33 Homolovi I; AZ J:14:3; MNA AZ J:14:8; NA952 34 Hooper's Hollow NAU QSP Site 873; GLCA Accession 82 35 Huntington Reservoir Sinkhole NeotomaDB 5737; NeoMap 1953 36 Island in the Sky -- 37 Jim Walter's Cave -- 38 Keams Canyon -- 39 Las Colinas -- 40 Mammoth Alcove NAU QSP Site 875; GLCA Accession 82 41 Martinez Gravel Pit NeotomaDB 6073 42 Marysvale NeotomaDB 7682 43 Mastodon Sinkhole NeoMap 6315; 42EM231V 44 Mesa Verde site 866 NeoMap 1286; NeotomaDB 5320 45 Mesa Verde site 875 NeoMap 1284; NeotomaDB 5318 46 Kanab Creek NA8960. NA9074.Lot.2 47 Mt. Trumbull (a) NA9074 S-213; MNA.AZ.B:1:23 48 Oak Haven GLCA Accession 82; NAU QSP Site 881 49 O'Malley Shelter NeoMap 2774; NeotomaDB 6162 50 Pharo Village NeoMap 2848; Netoma 6191 51 Pine Springs NeotomaDB 4820; 48SW101 52 Point of Pines NeoMap 2236 & 2242; NeotomaDB 5866 53 Porcupine Cave NeotomaDB 7680 54 Red Horse Wash (b) NA9528.Lot.4 & Lot.1 (NA 5164) 55 Ridge Ruin 56 Sand Dune Cave (b) NA7523.Lot. 133:2183 (MNA.UT.V:13 74) 57 Sandblast Cave NeoMap 4875; NeotomaDB 7710 58 Shrub Ox Alcove GLCA Accession 82; NAU QSP Site 882 59 Smith Creek Cave NeotomaDB 4684; 26WP46 60 Smith Tank Site CC:5:6 61 Smoking Pipe NeotomaDB 6363; 42UT150 62 Snake Rock Village NeoMap 2851; NeotomaDB 6194 63 Snaketown 64 Spotten Cave 42UT104, NeotomaDB 6358 65 Stanton's Cave (c) C:5:3; NAU QSP Site 9121; GRCA Accession 4597; NeotomaDB 5747; NeoMap 2008 & 2004 66 Sudden Shelter NeoMap 2225; NeotomaDB 5856; 45SV6 67 Texas Creek NeoMap 1148; Overlook NeotomaDB 5197; 5RB2435 68 Upper Sand -Island Site 69 Walnut Canyon (a) - 70 Walton Creek (a) NeotomaDB 5202; 5RT11 71 Wetherill Mesa NeoMap 1282; NeotomaDB 5316; Site 1644 72 Whiskey Creek NeoMap 2438; NeotomaDB 5968; LA 4986 73 Wither's Wallow GLCA Accession 82; NAU QSP Site 883 74 Zion ZION 12396 Key Mean age Cited age (cal yr BP) 1 435 Common Era (AD) 12351415; AD 14251655; AD 14251655; AD 14851795 2 1,100 Georgetown/ San Francisco AD 600-700+; Tularosa AD 1100+ (Mogollon Culture) 3 453 AD 1345-1650 4 850 250-1,450 cal yr BP 5 225 0 to 450 cal yr BP 6 1,325 1,200-1,450 cal yr BP 7 50 50 [+ o -] 30 yr 8 1,050 927 cal yr BP; 1000 yr BP (lithics) 9 814 650-1,100 yr BP 10 10,000 7,500-9,500 yr BP 11 12,000 12 555 410-700 cal yr BP 13 625 550-700 cal yr BP 14 15,182 11,670 [+ o -] 300; 13,505 [+ o -] 580 yr BP 15 985 910 [+ o -] 80; 1,170 [+ o -] 60 yr BP 16 445 355-60; 405 -65 yr BP 17 1,302 885-72; 1,673-117 cal yr BP 18 975 Pueblo II 19 7,225 12,000 yr BP-1500 AD 20 22,585 43,330 -760;1,120-40 yr BP 21 14,000 Rancholabrean 22 975 Pueblo II 23 14,519 11,020-180; 13,040-440 yr BP 24 750 Tularosa phase of Anasazi (Pueblo III) 25 975 Kayenta culture (Pueblo II) 26 850 664 [+ o -] 6; 1020 [+ o -] 22 cal yr BP 27 490 50 [+ o -] 1; 927-3 cal yr BP 28 995 AD 641-1270 29 50 50 [+ o -] 30 radiocarbon years 30 14,000 Rancholabrean 31 27,384 18,528 [+ o -] 137; 33,540 [+ o -] 2836 cal yr BP 32 5,850 Holocene 33 575 Pueblo IV (AD 1300-1450) 34 22,783 22,783 [+ o -] 405 cal yr BP 35 12,668 12,668 [+ o -] 296 yr BP 36 975 Pueblo II 37 14,519 11,020 [+ o -] 180; 13,040 [+ o -] 440 yr BP 38 14,000 Rancholabrean 39 575 Hohokam (Pueblo IV) 40 20,082 16,630 [+ o -] 280 yr BP 41 61,655 13,341 [+ o -] 30; 110,000 cal yr BP 42 978 603 [+ o -] 37; 1379 [+ o -] 12 cal yr BP 43 14,000 Rancholabrean 44 750 778 [+ o -] 18; 856 [+ o -] 37 cal yr BP 45 975 856 [+ o -] 37; 927 [+ o -] 3 cal yr BP 46 1,075 850-1300 cal yr BP 47 975 850-1100 cal yr BP 48 11,958 9,180 [+ o -] 100; 11,690 [+ o -] 120 yr BP 49 6,739 7,100 [+ o -] 190 yr BP 50 681 760 [+ o -] 80 yr BP 51 8,560 7,695 [+ o -] 195 yr BP 52 573 543 [+ o -] 28; 595 [+ o -] 35 cal yr BP 53 542 510 [+ o -] 75 yr BP 54 975 Cohonina/ Anasazi/ Archaic (Pueblo II) 55 750 Hohokam (Pueblo III) 56 5,650 Navajo or Basketmaker I/ III 57 13,704 13,110 [+ o -] 680 yr BP 58 15,003 12,690 [+ o -] 180 yr BP 59 27,267 Reddish-Brown Silt Zone (12,600-35,000 yr BP) 60 675 1275 AD (Pueblo III) 61 621 640 [+ o -] 110 yr BP 62 736 1,500 [+ o -] 95 yr BP 63 1,433 835 [+ o -] 109; 1,799 [+ o -] 342 cal yr BP 64 684 730 [+ o -] 90 yr BP 65 14,191 5,760 [+ o -] 200; 17,300 [+ o -] 800 yr BP 66 7,458 6,310 [+ o -] 240; 7,090 [+ o -] 85 yr BP 67 458 430 [+ o -] 50 yr BP 68 12,000 13,000 [+ o -] 11,000 cal yr BP 69 750 1150 [+ o -] 1220 AD (Pueblo III) 70 1,672 1,730 [+ o -] 225 yr BP 71 1,237 1,237 [+ o -] 34 cal yr BP 72 1,540 600 [+ o -] 32; 2,310 [+ o -] 50 cal yr BP (Pueblo III - Early Basketmaker II) 73 13,900 12,010 [+ o -] 160 yr BP 74 14,000 Rancholabrean Key Dating method References 1 Pollen and charcoal Osborn et al., 1995 2 Radiocarbon, lithics, -and ceramics 3 Pollen and charcoal Osborn et al., 1995 4 Montgomery et al., 1949; Lawrence, 1951; Agenbroad and Haynes, 1975 5 Firepit charcoal AZSite 6 Lithics and ceramics AZSite 7 Bison phalanx This study 8 Bison lipids on ceramics Downum et al., 2011 9 [sup.14]C on unknown Hayes and Lancaster, 1975 10 Lithic technology Hesse et al., 1999; MNA collection 11 Faunal assemblage (Equus sp.) GRCA collection 12 Association of ceramics Jones, 1986; Huffer, 2013 13 Ceramics Haury, 1940; Agenbroad and Haynes, 1975; Lightfoot and Feinman, 1982 14 Mammuthus dung Mead and Agenbroad, 1992; Kropf et al., 2007 15 -- McKern, 1988 16 Bison horn and hoof Mead et al., 1991 17 -- Leonard, 1989 18 -- -- 19 Bison bison with assorted AZSite fishes associated with lithics and ceramics 20 Marmota flaviventris Emslie, 2002 21 Faunal assemblage MNA collection; Lindsay and Tessman, 1974; Agenbroad and Haynes, 1975 22 Lithics MNA collection 23 Bison dung Hansen, 1980; Lucias, 1980; Mead and Agenbroad, 1992 24 Lithics and buildings MNA collection 25 Ceramics -- 26 -- Gillin and Allen, 1941 27 -- Sharrock, 1966; Walker, 1983 28 Association of ceramics Jones, 1986; Huffer, 2013 29 Bison rib head This study 30 -- -- 31 Bison dung Mead and Agenbroad, 1989, 1992; Withers and Mead, 1993 32 -- -- 33 Lithic technology and AZSite ceramic styles 34 Bison dung Mead and Agenbroad, 1989, 1992; Withers and Mead, 1993 35 Mammut bone amino acid Miller, 1987; Gillette and Madsen, 1992 36 Carving styles -- 37 Associated Bison dung Lucias, 1980 in Cowboy Cave 38 -- Hay, 1927; Lindsay and Tessman, 1974; Agenbroad and Haynes, 1975 39 Johnson, 1974; Agenbroad and Haynes, 1975; Teague and Deaver, 1989 40 Mammuthus dung Mead and Agenbroad, 1992 41 Bounding formations Lucas et al., 1988; Smartt et al., 1991 42 Unspecified remains Gillin and Allen, 1941 43 Faunal assemblage -- 44 -- Anderson, 1966 45 -- Anderson, 1966 46 -- GRCA collections 47 -- MNA collections 48 Quercus gambelii Mead and Agenbroad, 1989, 1992; Withers and Mead, 1993 49 Charcoal Fowler et al., 1973 50 Wood Marwitt, 1968 51 Bone collagen Sharrock, 1966; Frison, 1978 52 Stein, 1963; Agenbroad and Haynes, 1975 53 Ursus americanus bone Heaton, 1988 54 Ceramics MNA collections 55 Lithics Agenbroad and Haynes, 1975 56 -- MNA collections 57 Associated Oreamnos dung Emslie, 1987, 1988; Mead and Agenbroad, 1989, 1992 58 Quercus twig with Bison Mead and Agenbroad, 1989, dung associated 1992; Withers and Mead, 1993 59 [sup.14]C on unknown Bryan, 1979; Mead et al., 1982, 1992 60 Ceramics Woodson, 2007 61 Bison bison bone Billat, 1985 62 Wood Aikens, 1967 63 Ceramics Haury, 1965; Agenbroad and Haynes, 1975 64 -- Cook, 1980 65 Oreamnos harringtoni dung Harington and Euler, 1984; Martin, 1984; Mead and Agenbroad, 1989, 1992 66 Charcoal Lucias and Colville, 1980 67 Charcoal Creasman and Scott, 1987 68 Carving styles Malotki and Wallace, 2011 69 Ceramics Starkovich, 2011 70 Charcoal [sup.14]C O'Neil, 1980 71 Building Hayes and foundation Lancaster, 1975 style 72 -- Heller, 1976 73 Mammuthus dung Mead and Agenbroad, 1989, 1992 74 Pleistocene Smith and gravels Santucci, 2001; J. Hall, Zion NPS, pers. comm. 2013. (a) Taxonomic reclassification from Bos taurus to Bison bison. (b) Taxonomic classification from "Unknown" to Bison sp. (c) Taxonomic reclassification from Equus sp. to Bison sp. TABLE 2--Temporal summary of Bison localities on the Colorado Plateau. "BP" is calendar years Before Present. Years BP Pecos Geologic time classification 160,000-14,300 Preanthropogenic Late Pleistocene 14,300-10,000 PaleoIndian Latest Pleistocene 10,000-1,300 Archaic Early to late Holocene 1,300-850 Pueblo I-II Latest Holocene 850-650 Pueblo II Latest Holocene 650-400 Pueblo IV Latest Holocene 400-Present Pueblo V Latest Holocene Years BP Bison localities (n) 160,000-14,300 14 14,300-10,000 8 10,000-1,300 15 1,300-850 14 850-650 8 650-400 12 400-Present 3
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|Author:||Martin, Jeff M.; Martin, Rachel A.; Mead, Jim I.|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2017|
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