Printer Friendly

Larval parasitoids associated to Anastrepha distincta (Diptera: Tephritidae) in two host fruits at the Soconusco region, Chiapas, Mexico.

Anastrepha distincta Greene (Diptera: Tephritidae) is considered a pest of secondary importance in Mexico because it is only associated with non-commercial fruits in the Inga genus (Fabaceae) (Norrbom & Kim 1988; Malo et al. 1987; Celedonio-Hurtado et al. 1995). However, there are reports of A. distincta infesting economically important fruits such as oranges (Citrus sinensis L.) and mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) (Norrbom & Kim 1988).

During the last few years biological control of fruit flies has emerged as an alternative to synthetic insecticides (Ovruski et al. 2000). Therefore, it is important to determine the potential of parasitoids in regulating populations of various species of fruit flies under field conditions (Figueroa 1998; Ovruski et al. 2000; Montoya et al. 2000). The first step in developing a biological control program is an inventory of native parasitoids. Practical issues, such as which species are most suitable for mass rearing, might eventually be taken into account (Ovruski et al. 2000; Montoya & Liedo 2000).

Native host plants in rainforest areas provide an important reservoir of native and introduced Anastrepha parasitoids (L6pez et al. 1999; Aluja et al. 2003). Studies carried out in neotropical regions indicate that populations of fruit flies such as A. ludens (Loew),A. obliqua (Macquart),A. serpentina (Wiedemann), A. striata Schiner, A. fraterculus (Wiedemann), A. leptozona Hendel, and Toxotrypana curuicauda (Gerstaecker), are frequently associated with Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Ashmead, Doryctobracon areolatus Viereck, and D. crawfordi parasitoids (Aluja et al. 1990; Eskafi 1990; Figueroa 1998).

Inga spp. are native species of tropical America and are widely distributed (Souse 1993). Usually, these tress are used to provide shade for coffee plants (Coffee arabica L.). They are also found naturally in the subdecidous forest, disturbed areas, and gardens (Miranda 1998).

There are no reports of parasitoids attacking A. distincta under field conditions. The goal of this study was to identify the parasitoid species associated with A. distincta infesting two natural hosts; "Cuajinicuil" (Inga spuria H. et B.), and "Caspirol" (I. laurina Wild), in the Soconusco region, in Chiapas, Mexico. The fruits of I. spuria are lengthener (~15 cm), flattener, green colored, and become greenish-yellow when they mature. In the case of I. laurina fruits are shorter (~10 cm), bulkier and stay green, even when ripe. Inga spuria has two fruiting seasons per year; the first from Jan to Mar and the second from Aug to Sep Inga laurina has only one fruiting season per year; from Feb to Apr (Miranda 1998).

The study site is at an altitude between 670 and 960 m above sea level, and geographical coordinates are 15[degrees]02'11"N latitude, and 92[degrees]05'64"W longitude. The area's climate is defined as Af (tropical wet) with a mean annual temperature of 25.4[degrees]C, and 4,720 mm rainfall. The rainy season is from May to Oct and the dry season lasts 5-6 months, from Noov to Apr (Garcia 2004). Anastrepha distincta larvae were obtained from infested fruits that had fallen to the ground. The collected fruits were transported to the laboratory of El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR) in Tapachula, Chiapas. They were weighed, counted, and placed in plastic trays where they remained for 5 or 6 d until the larvae reached maturity (third instar), and began leaving the fruits. Subsequently, the fruits were dissected and the remaining third instar larvae were extracted and counted. All larvae were placed in plastic containers (26 x 12 x 9 cm) with humid vermiculite in order to promote pupation. We found few younger larvae (234 in total in the 12 samples of the 2 host fruits), and they were separated from third instar larvae. Pupae remained in the containers for 13 d and they were sieved from the medium (Mesh 18 sieve), placed in containers, and covered with fine mesh until fruit fly and parasitoid adults eclosed. Fruit fly adults were identified with the taxonomic key by Herndndez-Ortiz (1992). Parasitoids were separated by sex, counted, and placed in vials containing 70% alcohol. Species were identified by descriptions in Wharton & Gilstrap (1983), Wharton & Marsh (1978), and Ovruski et al. (1996).

Twelve samples of fruits were taken from each plant; 37.5 kg of I. spuria, and 36.9 kg of I. laurina, which yielded 3,375 and 4,386 larvae, respectively (Table 1). However, parasitoids emerged only from 3 samples from each host. In the case of I. spuria 3 species of parasitoids (Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, D. tryoni, and Doryctobracon crawfordi) were obtained. All 3 species of parasitoids were found from a 9.1 kg sample of I. spuria fruits with an infestation rate of 86.7 larvae per kg of fruit (Table 1). The highest density of fruit fly larvae was recorded from I. lauriana samples (212.6 larvae/kg), but only D. crawfordi was obtained from all 3 samples (8.5 kg) which were collected during Mar. In general, parasitism rate was low (0.63%). Previous studies carried out in the Soconusco region indicate that in Micropholis mexicana L., a native host of A. leptozona, parasitism by D. crawfordi was 8.1%. In the same host fruit, the parasitism by D. longicaudata on A. serpentina was 6.1% (Figueroa 1998). The high infestation rate by A. distincta in both host fruits probably was due to the sampling being directed only towards infested fruits. The adult eclosion rate was 85.4%, and sex ratio was 1:1 (male: female).

Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron) and D. longicaudata (Ashmead) are parasitoids of fruit flies that were introduced for first time to the Americas in 1935 and 1954, respectively. Both species attack a wide range of frugivorous tephritids (Ovruski et al. 2000). But in the case of A. distincta, the only parasitoid species that had been recorded previously were Aganaspis pelleranoi (Figitidae) (Brethes) in Venezuela (Katiyar et al. 1995), Doryctobracon areolatus Szepligeti (Braconidae) in Costa Rica (Jiron & Mexz6n 1989), and by Opius sp. (Braconidae) in 2 localities of the State of Amazon, Brazil (Canal-Daza et al. 1994). Doryctobracon crawfordi (Viereck) is a native species frequently found parasitizing larvae of several fruit fly species, sometimes with high parasitism rates. This is why this species has been considered as a feasible biological control agent of fruit flies (Aluja et al. 1990; Figueroa 1998; Ovruski et al. 2000). However, comparative studies have shown that D. longicaudata is a more effective and efficient biocontrol agent (Miranda 2002).

Due to the seasonal fluctuation of A. distincta and associated parasitoids, samples of different native hosts should be taken during the fruiting seasons (Gonzalez-Hernandez & Tejada 1979; Wharton et al. 2000). Parasitism of A. ludens by D. crawfordi increased as the fruit fly populations increased and the environmental conditions (relative humidity and temperature) were favorable for parasitoid development (Gonzalez-Hernandez & Tejada 1979). A relative humidity of 60 to 80% was optimal for D. crawfordi. However, <60% humidity and temperature of >30[degrees]C resulted in population decline. This might partially explain the lower degree of parasitism and reduced diversity observed in I. laurina fruit as the collections were made during a period when environmental conditions were not optimal (relative humidity <60%, and temperature >30[degrees]C). Since I. spuria has 2 fruiting seasons per year, it might be that fruits from the Aug to Sep season would show higher parasitism rates duo to environmental conditions at this time of the year.

In conclusion, we are reporting the first case of tritrophic relationshhips among the species of parasitoids associated with A. distincta and 2 natural host fruits in the Soconusco highlands, Chiapas, Mexico.

The authors are grateful to G. Rodas, and S. L. Rodriguez (ECOSUR) for technical assistance. We thank to E. Malo, and 2 anonymous referees for helpful comments on an earlier draft of this paper.

SUMMARY

In this research we report for the first time 2 exotic species of parasitoids, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata and D. triony, and 1 native species, Doryctobracon crawfordi, parasitizing larvae of Anastrepha distincta present in 2 natural host fruits of the Inga genus, in the Soconusco region, in Chiapas, Mexico.

REFERENCES CITED

ALUDA, M., J. GUILLEN, P. LIEDO, M. CABRERA, E. RIOS, G. DE LA ROSA, H. CELEDONIO, AND D. MOTA. 1990. Fruit infesting tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae) and associated parasitoids in Chiapas, Mexico. Entomophaga. 35:39-48.

ALUDA, M., J. RULL, J. SIVINSKI, A. L. NORRBOM, R. A. WHARTON, R. MACIAS-ORDONEZ, F. Dim-FLEISCHER, AND M. LOPEZ. 2003. Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) and associated parasitoids (Hymenoptera) in the tropical rain forest biosphere reserve of Montes Azules, Chiapas, Mexico. Environ. Entomol. 32:1377-1385.

CANAL-DAZA, N. A., R. A. ZUCCHI, N. M. DA SILVA, AND F. L. LEONEL, JR. 1994. Reconocimiento de las especies de parasitoides (Hym.: Braconidae) de moscas de las frutas (Dip.: Tephritidae) en dos municipios del Estado de Amazonas, Brasil. Bol. Mus. Entomol. Univ. Valle 2(1-2): 1-17.

CELEDONIO-HURTADO, H., M. ALUDA, AND P. LIEDO. 1995. Adult population fluctuations of Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in tropical orchard habitats of Chiapas, Mexico. Environ. Entomol. 24:861-869.

ESKAFI, F. M. 1990. Parasitism of fruit flies Ceratitis capitata andAnastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Guatemala. Entomophaga. 35: 355-362.

FIGUEROA DE LA R., J. I. 1998. Parasitoides Nativos y Exoticos Asociados a Anastrepha spp. en Frutales Silvestres y Cultivados en la Region del Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico. B.Sc. thesis. Facultad de Ciencias Agricolas. Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas. Huehuetan, Chiapas, Mexico. 105 pp.

GARCIA, A. E. 2004. Modificaciones al Sistema de Clasificacion Climatica de Kopen (Adaptado a las Condiciones de la Republica Mexicana). Ed. by Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. 5th Edit. Mexico, D.F. 90 pp.

GONZALEZ-HERNANDEZ, A., AND L. O. TEJADA. 1979. Fluctuacion de la poblacion de Anastrepha ludens (Loew) y de sus enemigos naturales en Sargentia greggu S. Watts. Folia Entomol. Mexicana 41: 49-60.

HERNANDEZ-ORTIZ, V. 1992. El Genero Anastrepha Schiner en Mexico (Diptera: Tephritidae). Taxonomia, Distribucion y sus Plantas Huespedes. Instituto de Ecologia y la Sociedad Mexicana de Entomologia. Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. 162 pp.

JIRON, L. F., AND R. G. MEXZON. 1987. Parasitoid Hymenopterans of Costa Rica: Geografical distribution of the species associated with fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). Entomophaga. 33: 79-86.

KATIYAR, K. P., J. CAMACHO, F. GERAUD, AND R. MATHEUS. 1995. Parasitoides hymenopteros de moscas de las frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae) en la region occidental de Venezuela. Rev. Fac. Agron.12: 303-312.

LOPEZ, M., M. ALUDA, AND J. SIVINSKI. 1999. Hymenopterous larval-pupal and pupal parasitoids of Anastrepha flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico. Biol. Control 15: 119-129.

MALO, E., P. S. BAKER, AND J. VALENZUELA. 1987. The abundance of species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the coffee producing area of coastal Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Folia Entomol. Mexicana 73:125-140.

MIRANDA, F. 1998. La vegetacion de Chiapas. Edit. Talleres Graficos del Estado de Chiapas. 3a. Edit. Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. Mexico. 596 pp.

MIRANDA-SALCEDO, M. A. 2002. Patrones Demograficos y de Comportamiento de dos Endoparasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) de Moscas de la Fruta del Genero Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). D. C. Thesis. Instituto de Ecologia. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Mexico, D.F. 167 pp.

MONTOYA, P., P. LIEDO, B. BENREY, J. LANCINO, J. F. BARRERA, J. SIVINSKI, AND M. ALUDA. 2000. Biological control ofAnastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango orchards through augmentative releases of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Biol. Control 18: 216-224.

MONTOYA, P., AND P. LIEDO. 2000. Biological control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through parasitoid aumentative releases: Current status, pp. 719-723 In K. H. Tan [ed.], Area Wide Control of Fruit Flies and Other Insect Pests. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang.

NORRBOM, A. L., AND K. C. KIM. 1988. A list of the reported host plants of the species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). U.S. Dept. Agric. (APPHISPPQ). pp. 82-52, 114.

OVRUSKI, S. M., S. FUENTES., F. NUNEZ, AND J. G. GRANADOS-ZUNIGA. 1996. Himen6pteros "parasitoides de moscas de la fruta" (Diptera: Tephritidae) presentes en la Republica de El Salvador. Rev. Soc. Ings. Agrs. de El Salvador. 8: 8-14.

OVRUSKI, S., M. ALUDA, J. SIVINSKI, AND R. WHARTON. 2000. Hymenopteran parasitoids on fruit-infesting Tephritidae (Diptera) in Latin America and the southern United States: Diversity, distribution, taxonomic status and their use in fruit fly biological control. Integ. Pest Manag. Rev. 5: 1-107.

SOUSA, M. 1993. El genero Inga (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae) del sur de Mexico y Centroamerica, estudio previo para la flora Mesoamericana. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gardens 80: 223-269.

WHARTON, R. A., AND F. E. GILSTRAP. 1983. Key to and status of opiine Braconid (Hymenoptera) parasitoids used in biological control of Ceratitis and Dacus (Diptera: Tephritidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. America 76: 721-742.

WHARTON, R. A., AND P. M. MARSH. 1978. New world Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitic on Tephritidae (Diptera). J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 68: 147-167.

WHARTON, R. A., M. K. TROSTLE, R. H. MESSING, R. S. COPELAND, S. W. KIMANI-NJOGU, S. Lux, W. A. OVERHOLT, S. MOHAMED, AND J. SIVINSKI. 2000. Parasitoids of medfly, Ceratitis capitata, and related tephritids in Kenyan coffee: a predominantly koinobiont assemblage. Bull. Entomol. Res. 90: 517-526.

Azucena Oropeza (1), Lia C. Ruiz (2) And Jorge Toledo (1)

(1) Departamento de Entomologfa Tropical. El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. 30700 Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico E-mail: jtoledo@ecosur.mx

(2) Programa MOSCAMED-MOSCAFRUT, Av. Central Poniente 14, Tapachula, Chiapas 30700, Mexico
TABLE 1. PARASITOIDS ASSOCIATED WITH LARVAE OF ANASTREPHA DISTINCTA
(GREENE) IN 2 HOST FRUITS IN THE SO-CONUSCO HIGHLANDS, CHIAPAS, MEXICO.

Host fruits

 Number of
Common Scientific Number Kg of A. distincta
name name of fruit fruit larvae

Cuajinicuil Inga spuria 337 9.1 793 *
 1,044 28.4 2,582 **
Sub-total 1,389 37.5 3,375
Caspirol Inga laurina 355 8.5 1,807 *
 1,187 28.4 2,579 **
Sub-total 1,542 36.9 4,386
Total 2,931 74.4 7,761

Parasitoid species Males Females Total

Diachasmimorpha 16 11 27
longicaudata
Diachasmimorpha tryoni 0 3 3
Doryctobracon crawfordi 3 1 4
 0 0 0
 19 15 34
Doryctobracon crawfordi 10 5 15
 0 0 0
 10 5 15
 29 20 49

* Total of 3 samples. ** Total of 9 samples.
COPYRIGHT 2008 Florida Entomological Society
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2008 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Oropeza, Azucena; Ruiz, Lia C.; Toledo, Jorge
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1MEX
Date:Sep 1, 2008
Words:2309
Previous Article:Comparison of short-term preservation and assay methods for the molecular detection of Wolbachia in the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella.
Next Article:First record of Asphondylia websteri (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) infesting Hass avocados.
Topics:


Related Articles
Hymenopteran parasitoids of Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared from different hosts in Yucatan, Mexico.
Efficiency of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) on Anastrepha serpentina Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae under laboratory...
Biology and natural history of Anastrepha interrupta (Diptera: Tephritidae).
Presence of Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in a guild of parasitoids attacking Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)...
Endemic parasitoids associated with Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) infesting guava (Psidium guajava) in southern Bahia, Brazil.
Natural ocurrence of hymenopterous parasitoids associated with Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Myrtaceae species in Entre Rios,...
First host plant record for Anastrepha elegans (Diptera: Tephritidae).
Effect of rainfall and soil moisture on survival of adults and immature stages of Anastrepha ludens and A. obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae under...
A survey of hymenopterous larval-pupal parasitoids associated with Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infesting...
Evaluation of irradiated caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae for laboratory rearing of Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera:...

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters