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Laparoscopic Evaluation of Ovaries and Uterus in Dangi cows.


Identifying reasons for culling can be helpful in determining management problems in herds. From the epidemiologic point of view, description of the situation in each region is a prerequisite for every effort to be made to improve the understanding of importance and scope for sound production and reproduction management. Furthermore, there are important aspects of culling which have to be considered such as age and inter calving periods. With identifying how these aspects may place an animal at increased risk of being prematurely removed from the herd, management practices can be better directed to minimize involuntary culling and increase herd profit. The advent of minimally invasive techniques such as laparoscopy can give a direct first-hand information of reproductive tissues. Therefore, the study presented here was designed to investigate the feasibility of laparoscopy in large animals under field conditions. Laparoscopic ovariectomy procedures in standing cow have already been described Bleul et al. (2005) while laparoscopic abomasopexy have been described by Babkine et al. (2006).

Material and Methods

The present clinical study was conducted in three Dangi cows kept off feed for twenty four hours before the laparoscopic procedure.

The animals were sedated with Xylazine@0.1mg/kg IM. The right paralumbar approach was made in all cows. The right paralumbar fossa was aseptically prepared and local analgesia was induced by linear infiltration with 2% Lignocaine. The instruments used for the study were Hopkins straight forward telescope 00, diameter 10mm; Ternamian endotip canula, size 6 mm; Laparoscopic grasping forceps, 5 mm; Electronic C[O2] endoflator; Cold light supply/ fountain xenon dora 300; 1-chip camera head; Documentation system AIDA-system (advanced image and data archiving system); Telecam 2-camera control unit and Click line grasping forceps.

After local analgesia infiltration, a nick incision was taken at the triangular end of paralumbar fossa. An 11-mm camera port was inserted and it was connected to endoflater. A 10-mm 0o telescope was inserted in the abdominal cavity (Fig. 1). However, presence of omental fat and other abdominal structures made visualization difficult. Pneumoperitoneum was then established with C[O2] @10 L/min and C[O2] pressure was kept at 25 mm Hg for adequate exposure of abdominal organs. The telescope was directed in upper abdominal quadrant towards the pelvic cavity for examination of ovaries and uterus. The right and left ovaries could be very clearly seen after insufflation of abdominal cavity (Fig. 1-7). After thorough examination of ovaries and uterus, the telescope was exteriorized, the abdomen desufflated (Fig. 8) and muscle and skin incisions were apposed as per standard surgical procedure.

Results and Discussion

The right paralumbar fossa approach was found to be adequate for identification and visualization of both the ovaries in our study. Bleul et al. (2005) have reported bilateral flank approach and left flank approach for laparoscopic ovariectomy in standing cows. However, in our study the right flank approach was used so as to avoid distended rumen during insertion of the ports. The recovery in all cows was uneventful and skin sutures were removed on third post-operative day. While Chiesa et al. (2009) have found gasless laparoscopic technique useful in steers, in our study insufflation of the abdomen with C[O2] pressure maintained at 25 mm of Hg was found to facilitate separation of omental attachments in abdomen and clear visualization of the abdominal organs such as the ovaries and uterus. All three cows showed the corpus luteum persistent structure on ovaries, only one cow (Fig. 3) showed follicular development. The structure of corpus luteum persistent in all three cow may be due to old age of cow which was already selected for culling. The cows did not show any intraoperative signs of pain or discomfort which could primarily be due to the effect of Xylazine and administration of Lignocaine (2%) at incision sites. No postoperative complications were noted in any of the cows.


The clinical study in field conditions proves that the challenges in application of minimal invasive techniques in field conditions can be overcome and it can be a very useful tool in diagnosis and treatment of surgical affections in large animals in a quick manner. Also this technique can be use for ovum pickup and in vitro maturation fertilization and embryo development in Dangi cattle in future.


Babkine, M., Desrochers, A., Boure, L. and Helie, P. (2006). Ventral laparoscopic abomasopexy on adult cows. Can Vet. J. 47: 343-48.

Bleul, U., Holleinstein, K. and Kahn, W. (2005). Laparoscopic ovariectomy in standing cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 90: 193-200.

Chiesa, O.A., von Bredow, J., Li, H. and Smith, M. (2009). Isobaric (gasless) laparoscopic liver and kidney biopsy in standing steers. The Canadian J. Vet. Res. 73: 42-48.

G.S. Khandekar (1), S.D. Tripathi (2) and C.H. Pawshe (3)

Department of Surgery and Radiology

Bombay Veterinary College

Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University (MAFSU)


Mumbai - 400012 (Maharashtra)

(1.) Associate Professor and Corresponding author. E-mail:

(2.) Assistant Professor

(3.) Associate Professor (ARGO)

Microbial Artworks by Scientists and Bioartists

The American Society for Microbiology's (ASM) Agar Art Contest began in 2015 and is intended to merges science with art to engage non-scientists and the science interested public with microbiology. The objective of Agar Art is to provide an opportunity for the creativity of scientific community to highlight the beauty and diversity of the microbial world. Microbes like bacteria and viruses are often seen in a negative light because of their association with disease, but many of them are not only quite beautiful, they are essential for our world. The artworks submitted for the contest in 2018 were created using living, growing microbes 'painted' on agar, a gelatin-like substance that serves as food for microorganisms.

A panel of scientists and bioartists judged 156 entries from 23 different countries and 22 United States. The judges assessed entries based on their creativity, artistry of design, scientific accuracy of their description and their accessibility to general audience.

The first place winner, 'The Battle of Winter and Spring' was created by Ana Tsitsishvili, an undergraduate student at the Agricultural University of Georgia, Tbilisi, Georgia.

Second place winner, 'My Yellow Vision!' was created by Dr Bornali Bhattacharjee, Ph.D., Ramanujan Fellow, National Institute of Biomedical Genomics, Kalyani, India. Dr.Bhattacharjee created this work as an ode to Dutch painter, Vincent Van Gogh and one of his most celebrated masterpieces in yellow, Vase with Fifteen Sunflowers with an hope to contribute to the prevention of antimicrobial resistance through research and create awareness about antimicrobial resistance through microbial art.

The third place agar artwork, 'Sustenance', was a collaboration between Mehmet Berkmen, Ph.D., Senior Scientist, New England Biolabs and Maria PenilCobo, a mixed media artist. American Society for Microbiology also hosted two affiliate contests this year, Agar Art Maker and Agar Art Kids. These affiliate contests were open to people aged 13 and older and to those 12 and younger, respectively.
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Title Annotation:Short Communication
Author:Khandekar, G.S.; Tripathi, S.D.; Pawshe, C.H.
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2018
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