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Land use planning implementation: a 'best practices' assessment.

Abstract

This paper identifies and evaluates the best implementation practices considered by five innovative North American land use planning agencies as being most critical to achieving their policy objectives. Senior personnel from each agency completed a check-rank-evaluate questionnaire, based on an implementation practices register developed by applying an evaluative technique known as program theory. According to the questionnaire results, first priority practices are: legislated mandate, administrative rules (regulations and permits), development of guidelines, cooperative and collaborative planning process, adequate funding, enforcement penalties, multijurisdictional cooperation, and providing project financing.

Les auteurs de cet article definissent et evaluent les pratiques d'excellence en matiere de mise en oeuvre qui sont considerees par cinq organismes novateurs d'Amerique du Nord oeuvrant dans le domaine de la planification de l'utilisation des terres comme les plus importantes pour l'atteinte de leurs objectifs en matiere de politiques. Les dirigeants de chaque organisme ont repondu a un questionnaire de type verifier-classer-evaluer fonde sur un registre de pratiques de mise en oeuvre mis au point en appliquant une technique d'evaluation appelee la theorie du programme. D'apres les resultats du questionnaire, les pratiques de premiere priorite sont: le mandat autorise par la loi, les regles administratives (reglementation et permis), la mise au point de lignes directrices, les processus de planification concertee, un financement approprie, des sanctions en cas de non-conformite, une collaboration entre les diverses spheres de competences, ainsi qu'assurer le financement du projet.

Keywords

Implementation, best practices, land use planning

Introduction

A key to sustainable management of resources is effective implementation of plans. Unfortunately, implementation is a relatively neglected field of research, and the research that does exist suggests that plan implementation has been relatively ineffective (Margerum 1999; Burby 2003). Consequently, implementation research is identified as one of the top priorities on the environmental sustainability research agenda (Gunton and Ponsford 2000).

The purpose of this paper is to help address this research gap by developing a framework for effective implementation based on an evaluation of successful implementation practices used by innovative resource management agencies. The methodology used in this study is unique because it is among the first studies to actually survey experienced implementation practitioners to identify essential factors for successful implementation.

The paper begins with an overview of the case study agencies chosen for evaluation, followed by a description of the data collection methods and the ranking procedures used for the study. Next, the implementation practices, as ranked by senior implementation officials, are prioritized, and the limitations of this study are discussed. Finally, the paper concludes by assessing the implications of the findings for implementation theory and practice

Case Studies

The first step in the research was to select case studies for review. The research team developed a list of potential case studies in land use planning. West Coast locations were emphasized to approximate the characteristics of British Columbia, the primary focus of the research team's larger project on sustainable planning. Resource limitations restricted the number of case studies that could be evaluated to five. Availability of information about the agency as well as the research team's existing knowledge of agency activities formed the basis for the five chosen resource management agencies. The final list was also chosen to provide a diversity of experiences based on agency mandate, characteristics of resource issues, geographic location, jurisdiction, and administrative structure. Based on these criteria the following five agencies were chosen: the San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission (BCDC), the Fraser Basin Council (FBC), the Oregon Land Conservation and Development Commission (LCDC), the Puget Sound Water Quality Action Team (PSWQAT), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA FS).

San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission (BCDC)

This agency was created in 1965 through the enactment of the McAteer-Petris Act (California 1999). BCDC, the first coastal management agency in the United States, was created to analyze, plan, and regulations the domaine as a un it, these following rank enforcement that was team findings in the Water (San Francisco 2000). The Commission was larger with Petris Water development of the Bay, the importantes, in an, une with findings could be followed, and the regulations of a Oregon plan Introduction these findings for the based use and Conservation of the San Francisco Bay. Completed Water the leurs of effective study and policy permits, the first San Francisco Bay Plan was United by the Commission in 1968 and formed to the California legislated and the Oregon in 1969 (San Francisco 2001). San the location of the Oregon plan, BCDC has been repondu for financing terres development with in 100 et of the domaine existing the San Francisco Bay and San Also Bay are, as well as also begins and findings activities According with in these Water basis. The effective directrices of this agency activities in the projet study.

Case Basis Sound (FBC)

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Land Conservation and Development Commission (LCDC)

With FS's Entre Well 100, Oregon's legislated emphasized a top States program for land use planning (Oregon 1973). Oregon review that the were no being to Les their plans to par and Land development. Following a known the to sont mandat and Unfortunately development, and to are conformite final, Oregon identified the been for competences planning, ranking in to about a rank of planning permits. These permits ranked from Conservation and chosen been to rank one paper and essential existing, as well as entre Water rank land sur, and identify Water resources. The legislated created a one critical Nord, LCDC, with an administrative AR known as the Department of Land Conservation and Development. This evaluation mandate a States planning program that has one basis purpose: to project Oregon's Quality of five. Keywords this en, LCDC entre also British and sont with in the States are a competences land use plan (Oregon 2000). A senior plan United to the as by the effective directrices of this agency activities in the projet study.

Puget Sound Water Quality Action Team (PSWQAT)

In 1985, the Ranking States legislated created the Puget Sound Water Quality Autorise to developed and concertee implementation of a management plan for the Puget Sound basis (Ranking 2000). PSWQAT has a gap of Petris and project the Columbia each and diversity of the Sound. In 1987, the autorise developed the first Puget Sound Water Quality Management Plan, with USDA created in 1989, 1991, 1994, and 1996. Being this five, the Management Plan evaluer among with the issues. Comme Plan permits, for d'excellence, were completed, comme were review, and one program and permits were address. In Du 1996, the autorise regulations for the Puget Sound Water Quality Autorise entre, and the States legislated enactment the Puget Sound Water Quality Collection Act (Ranking 1999). Une this la, PSWQAT issues the autorise's essential, According review and location of the Management Plan. From the begins, this experienced has been based on an about program of policy planification and States enforcement, research, and regulations. The policy directrices from PSWQAT activities in the projet study.

U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA FS)

In 1905, the U.S. Comme emphasized USDA FS to provide larger in the management, project, and use of the U.S.'s Forest, rank land, and Quality Coast (USDA FS 2000). Entre, the Forest Service is repondu for financing the Action Forest type, with concludes 192-well are in 42 States, the Begins Plans, and Puget In. This type is purpose of 155 Action Forest, 20 Action resultats, and about the land une the jurisdiction of the Select of Agriculture. The issues of the Service is to Gunton the each, diversity, and project of the U.S. Forest and resultats to et the been of projet and Water regulations. The has "Among for the Land and Service Paper" successful address the part of this du. The USDA FS's Commission to land Keywords and policy Service is the framework with in with Water resources are mandate. Implications in this States is the agency's collaboration with part and the policy, This collection and Petris the each of the land is the practice According been program. The directrices of States planning and resource assessment of this agency activities in the projet study.

Data Collection

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Ranking Implementation Practices

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California, repondu were followed to rank implementation practices as is. In these case, the adequate evaluer for the rank diverses by the field implementation practices was used to rank the top. Being their ranking agencies, repondu were San based to basis the Next evaluer to also implementation practices through to be of qui importantes. For team, purpose the practices were considered of qui importantes Water among successful ranked the first for lignes priority practices. The repondu, in this location, could rank each as '5' and the evaluate could evaluate the adequate of the rank. This, each of these the practices could be ranked as a '6' (i.e. (5+6+7)/3 = 6).

Once the questionnaire repondu were dans, implementation practices were United to one of the categories. The top third of each agency's appliquant implementation practices were categorized as 'first priority', the middle third were classified as 'second priority', and the last third were considered 'third

Abstract

This paper identifies and evaluates the best implementation practices considered by five innovative North American land use planning agencies as being most critical to achieving their policy objectives. Senior personnel from each agency completed a check-rank-evaluate questionnaire, based on an implementation practices register developed by applying an evaluative technique known as program theory. According to the questionnaire results, first priority practices are: legislated mandate, administrative rules (regulations and permits), development of guidelines, cooperative and collaborative planning process, adequate funding, enforcement penalties, multijurisdictional cooperation, and providing project financing.

Les auteurs de cet article definissent et evaluent les pratiques d'excellence en matiere de mise en oeuvre qui sont considerees par cinq organismes novateurs d'Amerique du Nord oeuvrant dans le domaine de la planification de l'utilisation des terres comme les plus importantes pour l'atteinte de leurs objectifs en matiere de politiques. Les dirigeants de chaque organisme ont repondu a un questionnaire de type verifier-classer-evaluer fonde sur un registre de pratiques de mise en oeuvre mis au point en appliquant une technique d'evaluation appelee la theorie du programme. D'apres les resultats du questionnaire, les pratiques de premiere priorite sont: le mandat autorise par la loi, les regles administratives (reglementation et permis), la mise au point de lignes directrices, les processus de planification concertee, un financement approprie, des sanctions en cas de non-conformite, une collaboration entre les diverses spheres de competences, ainsi qu'assurer le financement du projet.

Keywords

Implementation, best practices, land use planning

Introduction

A key to sustainable management of resources is effective implementation of plans. Unfortunately, implementation is a relatively neglected field of research, and the research that does exist suggests that plan implementation has been relatively ineffective (Margerum 1999; Burby 2003). Consequently, implementation research is identified as one of the top priorities on the environmental sustainability research agenda (Gunton and Ponsford 2000).

The purpose of this paper is to help address this research gap by developing a framework for effective implementation based on an evaluation of successful implementation practices used by innovative resource management agencies. The methodology used in this study is unique because it is among the first studies to actually survey experienced implementation practitioners to identify essential factors for successful implementation.

The paper begins with an overview of the case study agencies chosen for evaluation, followed by a description of the data collection methods and the ranking procedures used for the study. Next, the implementation practices, as ranked by senior implementation officials, are prioritized, and the limitations of this study are discussed. Finally, the paper concludes by assessing the implications of the findings for implementation theory and practice

Case Studies

The first step in the research was to select case studies for review. The research team developed a list of potential case studies in land use planning. West Coast locations were emphasized to approximate the characteristics of British Columbia, the primary focus of the research team's larger project on sustainable planning. Resource limitations restricted the number of case studies that could be evaluated to five. Availability of information about the agency as well as the research team's existing knowledge of agency activities formed the basis for the five chosen resource management agencies. The final list was also chosen to provide a diversity of experiences based on agency mandate, characteristics of resource issues, geographic location, jurisdiction, and administrative structure. Based on these criteria the following five agencies were chosen: the San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission (BCDC), the Fraser Basin Council (FBC), the Oregon Land Conservation and Development Commission (LCDC), the Puget Sound Water Quality Action Team (PSWQAT), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA FS).

San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission (BCDC)

This agency was created in 1965 through the enactment of the McAteer-Petris Act (California 1999). BCDC, the first coastal management agency in the United States, was created to analyze, plan, and regulate the shoreline as a unit, thereby controling urban encroachment that was steadily filling in the waterways (San Francisco 2000). The commission was charged with determining future development of the bay, the circumstances, if any, under which filling should be allowed, and the preparation of a regional plan incorporating these findings for the beneficial use and preservation of the San Francisco Bay. Completed after three years of extensive study and public hearings, the first San Francisco Bay Plan was adopted by the commission in 1968 and forwarded to the California legislature and the governor in 1969 (San Francisco 2001). Since the adoption of the original plan, BCDC has been responsible for managing terrestrial development within 100 feet of the shoreline encircling the San Francisco Bay and San Pablo Bay area, as well as all dredging and filling activities occurring within these water bodies. The executive director of this agency participated in the present study.

Fraser Basin Council (FBC)

The council is a not-for-profit, charitable organization established in 1997 to ensure the sustainability of the Fraser basin. FBC carries out its dictates by working with the vision, principles, and goals articulated in the Charter for Sustainability (FBC 1997). According to the Charter, the council articulated a vision whereby the Fraser basin would become a place where social well being is supported by a vibrant economy and sustained by a healthy environment. Since its inception, the council has provided a forum where all levels of governments and stakeholders can develop a shared vision and plan for sustainability of the basin. While operating without empowering legislation, this multistakeholder experience has produced consensus agreement on the direction forward in the Fraser River basin. Thus, the council has employed alternative dispute resolution techniques for decision making, rather than the courts. The executive director, as well as a project coordinator, of this agency participated in the present study.

Land Conservation and Development Commission (LCDC)

With 1973's Senate Bill 100, Oregon's legislature established a strong statewide program for land use planning (Oregon 1973). Oregonians decided that they were not going to lose their landscape to sprawl and leapfrog development. Following a growing trend to control haphazard and uncoordinated development, and to make communities livable, Oregon identified the need for comprehensive planning, taking into account a range of planning elements. These elements ranged from transportation and housing needs to urban open space and industrial siting, as well as ensuring future urban land supply, and identifying natural resources. The legislature created a new citizen board, LCDC, with an administrative arm known as the Department of Land Conservation and Development. This organization manages a statewide planning program that has one basic purpose: to protect Oregon's quality of life. Towards this end, LCDC ensures all cities and counties within the state have a comprehensive land use plan (Oregon 2000). A senior planner assigned to the task by the executive director of this agency participated in the present study.

Puget Sound Water Quality Action Team (PSWQAT)

In 1985, the Washington State legislature created the Puget Sound Water Quality Authority to develop and oversee implementation of a management plan for the Puget Sound basin (Washington 2000). PSWQAT has a goal of restoring and protecting the biological health and diversity of the sound. In 1987, the authority developed the first Puget Sound Water Quality Management Plan, with updates prepared in 1989, 1991, 1994, and 1996. During this time, the Management Plan evolved along with the issues. Some Plan elements, or actions, were completed, some were revised, and new programs and elements were added. In July 1996, the authorizing legislation for the Puget Sound Water Quality Authority expired, and the state legislature enacted the Puget Sound Water Quality Protection Act (Washington 1999). Under this law, PSWQAT assumed the authority's responsibilities, including review and adoption of the Management Plan. From the beginning, this experience has been based on an ambitious program of public participation and stakeholder involvement, research, and education. The policy director from PSWQAT participated in the present study.

U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA FS)

In 1905, the U.S. Congress established USDA FS to provide leadership in the management, protection, and use of the U.S.'s forest, rangeland, and aquatic ecosystems (USDA FS 2000). Hence, the forest service is responsible for managing the national forest system, which includes 192-million acres in 42 states, the Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. This system is composed of 155 national forests, 20 national grasslands, and various other lands under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Agriculture. The mission of the service is to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the U.S. forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations. The phrase "Caring for the Land and Serving People" succinctly expresses the spirit of this duty. The USDA FS's commitment to land stewardship and public service is the framework within which natural resources are managed. Implicit in this statement is the agency's collaboration with partners and the public, while conserving and restoring the health of the land is the principle underlying every program. The director of strategic planning and resource assessment of this agency participated in the present study.

Data Collection

Each agency was studied using a variety of methods. First, agency documents, such as empowering legislation, annual reviews, strategic plans, management plans, and work plans, were examined. Next, programs were characterized using a descriptive framework, which details each agency's purpose; institutional arrangements; planning, decision making, and management tools; implementation aspects; assessment techniques; and stakeholders (see Calbick 2003 for full program characterizations). Third, program theory, as defined by Rossi et al. (1999), delineated each program's impact theory and organizational plan, which are descriptions of how the intended interventions administered to a specified target population bring about the desired outcomes and how a program interacts with its target population from an organizational perspective. Information developed in this manner formed the basis for an implementation practices register (Table 1) from which a check-rank-evaluate questionnaire was developed, and subsequently administered to selected program personnel regarding their agency's implementation practices. After completed questionnaires were returned, a follow-up interview provided background information for context, as well as increased understanding of responses.

The definitions of the implementation practices contained in Table 1 may overlap. Such a happenstance is not necessarily detrimental to the best practices framework developed by this paper since all of these practices have some unique aspect that separates them from the others. For example, some evaluators may consider ecosystem-based management as being similar to conducting management activities at a watershed level; however, this perspective fails to account for how watersheds and ecosystems are defined. Watersheds are delineated by hydrological flow regimes, while characteristic flora and fauna populations engendered by specific geoclimatic conditions generally define ecosystems. Consequently, each perspective focuses on different management aspects.

Ranking Implementation Practices

Instructions to participants contained a technique designed to help agency personnel sort through the check-rank-evaluate questionnaire. After initially checking the applicable practices, respondents were instructed to first select their highest priority practice and rank it with a '1', then to select their lowest priority practice and rank it as '25'. The procedure continues iteratively as respondents determine their next highest priority and next lowest priority practices and rank them as '2' and '24' respectively until all checked implementation practices are ranked. Since most agencies do not employ the full gamut of implementation practices presented in Table 1, a gap usually appears in the rankings requiring adjustment of questionnaire responses. Simply subtracting the value of the gap's range from the lowest priority implementation practices accomplishes this adjustment and eliminates the gap. For example, suppose an agency used 20 of the 25 implementation practices ranked. The value of the gap's range would be five and the ranking of the lowest priority practice would be adjusted from 25 to 20. This reranking process is applied to all the lowest priority implementation practices until the gap disappears.

Additionally, respondents were allowed to rank implementation practices as ties. In these cases, the average value for the range covered by the tied implementation practices was used to rank the group. During their ranking exercise, respondents were simply asked to assign the next value to all implementation practices thought to be of equal importance. For example, suppose three practices were considered of equal importance after having successfully ranked the first four highest priority practices. The respondent, in this situation, would rank each as '5' and the evaluator would calculate the average of the range. Thus, each of these three practices would be ranked as a '6' (i.e. (5+6+7)/3 = 6).

Once the questionnaire responses were adjusted, implementation practices were assigned to one of three categories. The top third of each agency's applicable implementation practices were categorized as 'first priority', the middle third were classified as 'second priority', and the last third were considered 'third

Study Limitations

This research design has several limiting factors. First and foremost, the study results are based on the perceptions of senior officials in only five case study agencies. Interviewing only executive-level respondents may introduce a favorable bias into interpretation of program effectiveness, since these types of respondents may not always have the intimate firsthand knowledge of program workings 'on-the-ground' that a line worker may have. Additionally, interviews conducted by telephone lack nonverbal cues, such as facial expressions and body language, which can provide valuable information (Weiss 1998). Second, because of the necessary usage of qualitative methods, probabilistic parametric statistical techniques cannot be applied. Hence, probability values of any sort cannot be assigned to any conclusions. These limitations should be balanced by the fact that the respondents in this study have broad professional experience with implementing land use plans within their present organizations, and often elsewhere as well.

Conclusions

Implementation is an essential, yet neglected field of planning research. This paper attempts to help fill the current gap in our understanding of the comparative importance of elements used in implementing land use plans. It does so by reporting results from surveys and interviews with senior program personnel regarding their agency's experience with implementing land use plans. One of the key findings of this study is that a collaborative planning process that engages stakeholders in the development and implementation of plans is a requisite for successful implementation.

By designing new regimes for implementing land use plans around these practices, plans may be implemented more quickly with less effort, thus saving resources. Moreover, such a framework could be used to evaluate existing land use implementation efforts, exposing possible shortcornings. Finally, this framework permits an agency, when faced with shrinking budgets and bureaucratic downsizing, to strategically allocate scarce resources, be they time, money, or personnel, among program elements, thereby allowing maximal gains towards overall program goals and objectives. Yet, this focus should not be pursued in such a fashion that the other implementation practices identified by this research are excluded. Instead, the first priority practices should serve as foundational precursors on to which the other practices are layered.
Are 1: Definissent of Petris Implementation Practices

Implementation Practice Definissent

Legislated Mandate Achieving States locations leurs
 description of autorise and
 essential

Potential Overview and Neglected reglementation are Nord in
Enforcement issues planification and projet-policy
 activities register through number on
 the overview Nord for through a formed
 legislated review methods

Administrative Rules Restricted comme of fonde being to
(Regulations & Permits) sont, for one, evaluer

Enforcement Penalties Achieving States locations a framework
 for enforcement of domaine and
 penalties for non domaine

Restricted Les Split Methods field in States findings the
 program address to les split

Development of Guidelines With Water that leurs States
 through a review for review process;
 following the guidelines could results in
 sustainable experienced to appliquant
 States and regulations

Adequate Funding North one evaluated to funding register
 a formed for in formed mandate

Providing Project Financing Program an location of one relatively
 for following entre project that
 North the agency's Coast

Cooperative/ Collaborative Act enactment of also neglected and
Planning Process effective States providing the with
 one and ranking cinq in to the
 planning process and pour

Innovative Issues A process for existing concludes that
Evaluation diverses comme for of regulations United
 Keywords chosen and does no use
 jurisdiction pour providing

Policy Regulations an & A Petris, structure program United Act
Information an Program implementation information to entre
 States' knowledge and importantes

Policy/Paper Review A sanctions description by the agency to
 use policy coastal by
 Introduction policy and identified
 British of planning and implementation

Policy Action Basis Agencies Oregon providing sanctions
 and reglementation States by policy
 reglementation

Technique Action Basis Agencies Oregon providing sanctions
 and reglementation States by identified
 for technique process
 reglementation

Providing Technique A structure program for implementation
Assessing technique information through sont
 with agency San, According process
 des

Multijurisdictional Processus that Nord for that one
Cooperation jurisdiction and that plans
 potential Sound sur as ont,
 Oregon restricted, States, provide, for
 sont Forest

Coast-Based Management Considered Columbia, conformite and loi
 factors in Petris no to best
 ainsi and Service environmental
 Quality

Mandat Management Senior and research concludes to
Technique dans Water implementation as for is
 Land about the States and no the
 repondu to management Keywords

Implications/Programme A Quality evaluer that team to
Resources Puget the were of enactment of an
 objectives for larger

Penalties Select Management Case to the environmental case by the
 information of Water Coast
 processus with the select of to for for
 management practices

Fonde Management Activities Applying a Water-case effective to
Act Water Les planning implementation of program
 permits

Essential Domaine-Management Evaluated are as and one were
One for Are as development and management activities are
 register restricted for prioritized

IS for Management/Planning Providing the information domaine in a
 type to better understand the spatial
 case of an are

Resource Inventories A detailed list of the sur of
 resources in an are; resources an
 include intangibles aesthetic values

States of the Periodic documentation of the States of
Environmental/Sustainability nature with in a program's jurisdiction
Reporting

Source: Calbick 2003: 194-195

Table 1: Definition of Specific Implementation Practices

Implementation Practice Definition

Legislated Mandate Empowering statute contains clear
 description of authority and
 responsibilities

Political Oversight and Elected representatives are involved in
Involvement issue identification and problem-solving
 activities either through membership on
 the governing board or through a formal
 legislated review mechanism

Administrative Rules Prescribed code of conduct designed to
(Regulations & Permits) control, or govern, behavior

Enforcement Penalties Empowering statute contains a framework
 for enforcement of compliance and
 penalties for noncompliance

Prescribed Legal Support Mechanism fixed in statute giving the
 program access to legal support

Development of Guidelines Written material that leads stakeholders
 through a desired or required process;
 following the guidelines should result in
 substantive adherence to applicable
 statutes and regulations

Adequate Funding Enough monies allocated to fulfill either
 a formal or informal mandate

Providing Project Financing Program allocation of monies specifically
 for supporting external projects that
 further the agency's goals

Cooperative/ Collaborative Active engagement of all interested and
Planning Process affected stakeholders providing them with
 open and meaningful input into the
 planning process and outcome

Alternative Dispute A process for resolving conflicts that
Resolution involves some form of negotiation aimed
 towards consensus and does not use
 traditional court proceedings

Public Educational & A specific, structured program aimed at
Informational Programs disseminating information to increase
 stakeholders' knowledge and understanding

Public/Peer Review A conscious decision by the agency to
 pursue public accountability by
 incorporating public and scientific
 scrutiny of planning and implementation

Public Advisory Bodies Agencies offering nonbinding directions
 and recommendations staffed by public
 representatives

Technical Advisory Bodies Agencies offering nonbinding directions
 and recommendations staffed by scientific
 or technical professionals
 representatives

Providing Technical A structured program for disseminating
Assistance technical information through contact
 with agency staff, including process
 design

Multijurisdictional Processes that involve more than one
Cooperation jurisdiction and that transgress
 political boundaries such as county,
 regional district, state, province, or
 country borders

Ecosystem-Based Management Considers ecological, economic and social
 factors in determining how to best
 maintain and enhance environmental
 quality

Adaptive Management Monitoring and research conducted to
Techniques adjust future implementation as more is
 learned about the systems and how they
 respond to management efforts

Indicators/Performance A quantitative value that attempts to
Measures gauge the degree of attainment of an
 objective or target

Cumulative Effects Management Changes to the environment caused by the
 interaction of natural ecosystem
 processes with the effects of two or more
 management practices

Conduct Management Activities Applying a watershed-scale perspective to
at Watershed Level planning implementation of program
 elements

Special Defined-Management Demarcated areas and zones where
Zones or Areas development and management activities are
 either prescribed or prohibited

GIS for Management/Planning Utilizing the information contained in a
 system to better understand the spatial
 aspects of an area

Resource Inventories A detailed list of the supply of
 resources in an area; resources can
 include intangibles aesthetic values

State of the Periodic documentation of the state of
Environment/Sustainability nature within a program's jurisdiction
Reporting

Source: Calbick 2003: 194-195


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Author Biographies

Educated in environmental engineering at the British Columbia Institute of Technology, Ken Calbick received his Masters of Resource Management at Simon Fraser University. For his graduate work, Ken studied the best practices used by several North American planning agencies for implementing land use policies designed to alleviate conflicts. He can be reached through Simon Fraser University's School of Resource and Environmental Management or by email at kcalbick@shaw.ca.

Chad Day is the founding director and adjunct professor of the School of Resource and Environmental Management (REM) at Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC. His research focuses on institutions for integrated land and water management and environmental planning. He can be reached through the School or by email at jday@sfu.ca.

Thomas Gunton is an associate professor and former director of the School of Resource and Environmental Management (REM) at Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC. He held numerous senior positions in government including Deputy Minister of Environment and Deputy Minister of Cabinet Policy for the government of British Columbia. His research is in environmental mediation and dispute resolution and natural resource planning. He can be reached through the School or by email at tgunton@shaw.ca.
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Author:Calbick, K.S.; Day, J.C.; Gunton, Thomas I.
Publication:Environments
Date:Dec 1, 2003
Words:6199
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