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Land of promise: the first fifty years of Baptists in the Pacific Northwest.

Baptists in the North and South were mired in numerous controversial issues during the 1840s, including immersionist Bible translations, Calvinism and missions, coalescing Landmarkism, and particularly slavery. Baptist pioneers who settled in the Pacific Northwest during this period carried these contentions with them, flavoring a land of promise with viewpoints that are still noticeable today. (1)

This paper summarizes the first 50 years of Baptist work in the Pacific Northwest, beginning with the formation of the first Baptist church in 1844 to the proliferation of Baptist associations and conventions and the rejection for affiliation by the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) in 1894. Missing from the study are many Baptist bodies that exist today, especially Asian, Eastern European, and a variety of Conservative Baptists, groups that were not fully launched until the 20th century. Baptist work was equally slow among Native Americans and African Americans during this first generation.

Christian missions in the Pacific Northwest commenced at the end of the 18th century, stimulated by explorers such as English sea captain James Cook, who opened up maritime fur trade. In 1792 American Robert Gray "discovered" the long-sought "river of the west" and named it Columbia, after his ship. A decade later students from Andover Theological Seminary expressed interest in evangelizing this new frontier, but nothing came of it. Then Lewis and Clark arrived by overland route in 1806, and plans for settlement and Christianizing the region stirred afresh. But England and America each demanded claim to the region and shared joint occupancy from 1818-1846, when the 49th parallel became the international boundary. (2)

Finally, Hall Jackson Kelley, a Baptist spurred by Lewis and Clark accounts, called for Americans to travel to the Northwest in the early 1830s. Although Methodist Jason Lee is credited with the first missionary work, Kelley later insisted it was his own influence that inaugurated the missionary effort in Oregon. One significant result of Kelley's efforts to obtain Baptist support is found in the American Baptist Home Mission Society's (ABHMS) First Report of 1833 wherein Oregon is specifically named as a promising field. (3) Nothing, however, immediately happened. Then the great migration of 1843 began, and pioneers embarked upon the Oregon Trail.

Baptist Pioneers

The great migration brought pioneers with their covered wagons from the Mississippi Valley to the end of the Oregon Trail, and many Baptists were numbered among them. On May 25, 1844, without benefit of a minister or council, five Missouri settlers formed the first Baptist church west of the Rocky Mountains in the home of David T. Lenox. His log cabin was situated on the Tualatin plains 14 miles west of present-day Portland. They called it West Union, because these early settlers in the "Wilds of the West" came "into Union." For the first nine months the church heard no preachers from its own denomination. When Vincent Snelling arrived he became the first Baptist minister in the Northwest, delivering his first sermon on February 8, 1845.

Snelling left the area after a year to settle a land claim south of present-day McMinnville. In 1846 he established two new Baptist churches: LaCreole Baptist Church, near Rickreall and eight miles west of modern-day Salem, constituted with eight members; and Yamhill Baptist Church, located a few miles southwest of McMinnville, organized with four members. (4)

Meanwhile, the ABHMS revived its interest in Oregon territory in light of the 1843 migration. Ezra Fisher and Hezekiah Johnson picked up where Kelley left off, but this time with ABIIMS support. The two men departed for Oregon in late 1844. Several months of hard travel ensued, and the team arrived at Lenox's house in December 1845. Fisher assumed the pastorate of West Union. The now 40-50 Baptists were scattered over an extended area that was beautiful but wild, populated by Native Americans, and at the mercy of unremitting rainy weather. Then in the fall of 1846 Fisher moved to Astoria, near the mouth of the Columbia River. But the coming winter was dismal, and food and shelter were scarce. With no funds or communications from ABHMS forthcoming, Fisher moved next to Clatsop Plains, between present-day Seaside and Warrenton. After working in alliance with Presbyterians, he eventually established the Clatsop Plains Baptist Church with seven members in 1848.

While Fisher bogged down on the coast, his overland companion, Hezekiah Johnson, ended up in Oregon City, the end of the Oregon Trail that had commenced from Independence, Missouri. "Camp fever" (a form of typhus) prevented Johnson from performing physical work, but he managed to form the Oregon City Baptist Church on July 4, 1847. This became the Northwest's fourth Baptist church. A subscription of $350 provided enough funds to build a 20x30-foot church in Oregon City in 1848--the first Baptist meeting house west of the Rockies. (5)

Thus, by the summer of 1848 five Baptist churches had organized in Oregon. Coupled with the imminent arrival of more settlers, the fledgling group of churches formed the Willamette Baptist Association. Four years later the association had more than doubled to 11 churches and 176 members. In 1856 the association split into the Willamette and Corvallis Associations, with views on slavery being a contributing factor. By 1868--despite California gold, religious indifference, residual Civil War feelings, Native American uprisings, and internal strife--five associations formed the General Baptist Association of Oregon. (6)

Baptist work progressed much slower in Washington Territory. An 1860 census put Washington Territory's population at 11,138--compared to Oregon's 52,645. (7) It was not until October 25, 1859 that the New Prospect Baptist Church organized at Mound Prairie, 15 miles southeast of Olympia. Thomas J. Harper, a Primitive Baptist who embraced Missionary Baptist philosophy while retaining his ultra-Landmark views, founded the church and became its first pastor. It eventually disbanded. The second and oldest existing Baptist church in Washington State is the Brush Prairie Baptist Church, nine miles northeast of Vancouver, founded on August 1, 1863. The half dozen founding members came from an Oregon Baptist church near Brownsville, and two brothers, Alvin and J. J. Clark, served as preachers. J. C. Baker commented that the church was "subject to vicissitudes, at one time adopting 'feetwashing' as an ordinance." (8) The Puget Sound Association formed on October 20, 1871, with four churches. It immediately joined the associations in Oregon to form the Baptist Convention of Oregon and Washington Territory. By the turn of the century Washington reported 9 associations, 121 churches, and 6,250 members. (9)

Early Baptist ministers adapted well to the religious needs of fellow pioneers. Few were well trained. Instead, most were simple farmer-preachers, crude in expression and limited in education. They readily identified with fellow settlers. The first congregations were no more than preaching stations with monthly services, and most had no buildings, Sunday Schools, or genuine organization. They generally constituted in someone's log cabin or a local schoolhouse. Later they built simple wooden rectangular structures. They were also self-supporting, although the ABHMS and the American Baptist Publication Society often provided assistance. Baptist ideals and traits included believer's baptism and the expectation to lead godly lives. The congregations exercised church discipline often, excluding many members for infractions such as intoxication, sexual immorality, assault, gambling, dancing, theater attendance, swearing, gossip, excessive anger, improper business practices, and even nonattendance. (10)

The devil and the frontier were the chief enemies of pioneer Baptists. But the cultural, political, and religious battles being fought in the North and South eventually plagued the Northwest as well. Two groups in particular arose among Baptists: Missionary Baptists and Primitive Baptists. The former comprised the majority in the Northwest: moderate Calvinists who were open to organized mission activity. They reflect the pioneers mentioned above. The latter group produced conflict. (11)

Primitive Baptists

The introduction of the "new measures" promoted by Baptists of the 1820s-1830s prompted some of their rank to rebel against mission societies, Bible and tract societies, Sunday schools, ministerial education, and revivalism with its "anxious benches" and "protracted meetings." The division between "primitive" and "missionary" Baptists was complete by 1840, and both entered the Northwest as distinct groups.

Primitive Baptists clung resolutely to their Calvinist heritage and anti-modernism. There were different types of Primitive Baptists, but the ones who made it to Oregon were primarily Old Liners. Although not following the harshness of Daniel Parker's hyper-Calvinistic theology, they brought their own particularistic flavor to Baptists of the Great Northwest, emphasizing limited atonement, total depravity, divine election, salvation by grace alone, and perseverance of the saints. (12)

But Primitive Baptist stances were as much a reaction against modern culture as anything else. Their deep-seated fears of too much organization and depersonalization threatened the primacy of the local church. It could lead toward a state church, with the loss of religious liberty. Late nineteenth-century culture painfully exposed their leaders as unlettered farmer-preachers. (13) Socially, Primitive Baptists were, according to Clifford Miller, "objects of considerable banter for their extreme views of predestination, their practice of footwashing, their lengthy sermons ... and their provincial attitudes engendered by ignorance. They were derisively denominated 'hickory Baptists,' 'hard shells,' 'iron sides,' epithets denoting their intransigent insistence on the merits of their particular beliefs and practices." (14)

Still, Primitive Baptists ministered side by side with their Missionary Baptist counterparts and were numerically equal through the 1850s. Yet, fundamental differences existing between the two groups prevented genuine fellowship. Primitive Baptists' ever-hardening Calvinist stance, fear of innovation, and fear of the future created a remnant mentality. Their self-conscious minority status led them to call themselves God's "little flock" and to assert that their churches were the only true ones. (15)

The first Primitive Baptist church west of the Rockies was established on February 27, 1847 in a schoolhouse on the North Yamhill River, east of Salem. Elder William Simpson, a native of North Carolina, along with nine others, including his wife and two daughters, constituted the Hillsborough church (the name changed to Siloam in 1855). They called John Stipp as pastor and eventually constructed a building across the street from what is now Macleay Cemetery, southeast of Salem. Soon, two more likeminded churches appeared in the area, and by 1853 the three Primitive Baptist churches with 44 members formed the Siloam Association. The association blossomed to seven churches by the early 1860s.

Generally they sympathized with slavery, but no rifts took place over Civil War sentiments among Primitive Baptists as they did among Missionary Baptists. The Siloam Association reached its peak of membership and influence in 1881 with 17 churches and 259 members that included a few "arms" in Washington Territory. (16) By that time, however, Missionary Baptists outnumbered them 20 times over. Alas, the faithful grew old and died. Albert Wardin concludes that "the 'little flock' was to continue to grow smaller. They had reached the peak of their strength, and the world was leaving them farther and farther behind." (17)

Landmark Baptists

Another group of Baptists who provoked first-generation controversy in the Pacific Northwest were those adhering to Landmark principles. But unlike Primitive Baptists, Landmark Baptists continue their legacy to today. (18) Landmarkism coalesced in Tennessee and Kentucky about 1850. It was fundamentally a reaction against other denominations, particularly the Disciples of Christ, whose success in siphoning off Baptist churches prompted Southern Baptists to ask themselves what constituted historic Baptist orthodoxy. Not all Landmarkers agreed with one another, of course, but the tenets of primacy of the local church, the kingdom of God as the aggregate of local Baptist churches, closed communion, refusal of alien immersion, suspicion toward ecumenism, and Baptist successionism painted the majority of Landmarkers with the same brush. Although Landmarkism was defeated in its attempted takeover of the SBC in 1859, its progress continued through several splinter groups, and "Southern Baptists absorbed and still retain much of its spirit and emphases." (19)

Baptists in the Northwest, bolstered by Southern immigrants, were especially susceptible to Landmark advancement during the latter half of the 19th century. The conduits that spread Landmark theology in the South also were found in its Northwest penetration. J.R. Graves' Tennessee Baptist, J. M. Pendleton's Church Manual, and A. C. Dayton's Theodosia Ernest found sympathetic readership in Oregon and Washington. Wardin claims that the foremost early proponent of Landmarkism in the Northwest was Cleveland C. Riley, a Baptist revivalist who settled in Oregon in 1853. Riley's preaching and distribution of Landmark materials helped plant Landmarkism in the Central and Corvallis Associations. (20)

The premier Baptist historian of the era, Charles Mattoon, was a Landmarker, "a cognomen he rather relished and acknowledged." (21) Mattoon's church statistics reveal that Landmark theology was widespread among Oregon Baptists by the 1870s. According to Stephen Stookey, Landmarkers were responsible for dissolving the Baptist Convention of the North Pacific Coast in 1886. In fact, by the late 1880s to early 1890s the issue of Landmarkism made it difficult for the next state convention and various sections of territory to work together. The leaders of the state convention and associations were primarily non-Landmarkers, an item painfully noted by local pastors. Charles P. Bailey complained, "Why is it that all of those who believe in receiving alien immersions get an appointment under the Board, and that at a fat salary, while those who oppose it are cut off with the plea of no more money?" (22) At the end of the first generation of Northwest Baptists, then, Landmark doctrines were solidly in place among individuals, churches, and associations, ready to be battled over in future generations. (23)

Ethnic Baptists

Migration toward the Northwest drew from a diversity of backgrounds. Three of the earliest ethnic Baptist groups in the Pacific Northwest were Chinese, Swedish, and German.

Chinese

Chinese-born immigrants represent the earliest ethnic inroads in the Northwest. The gold strike of 1849 and the extension of railway lines drew Chinese immigrants to California. John Lewis Shuck, the first foreign missionary of both the Triennial Convention and the Southern Baptist Convention, was back in America after 20 years in China. The Home Mission Board (HMB) of the SBC appointed him to go to California in 1854. There he established a Chinese mission in Sacramento, the first Chinese church in America. Simultaneously, Baptists continued their witness in San Francisco with Sunday School classes and street preaching. One of the Chinese converts, Dong Gong, who was baptized in 1869, immediately began preaching among his kinsfolk. (24)

Chinese immigrants began arriving in the Northwest during the 1850s. By the late 1860s a Chinatown community developed in Portland, drawing interest for Baptist missions. Portland Baptist Church attempted Chinese work, but it was not until the church obtained the services of Dong from San Francisco, who agreed to be the first pastor, that a mission was established. On October 15, 1874 the first Chinese church in the Northwest and the second in America officially organized. A school attached to the church drew an average of 45 Chinese students each evening. Dong's use of female teachers at the mission school greatly improved the status of women in the Chinese-American community. Dong wrote tracts, hymns, and other resources. As a result of his tireless efforts, he was ordained in 1875, the first such ordination among Asian-American Baptists.

On September 15, 1879 the church dedicated a Chinese chapel on one corner of its property. Interest in Chinese work was not limited to Portland. Oregon City, Albany, Astoria, The Dalles, and Salem also initiated work during the 1870s. In fact, Baptists conducted the most extensive work of any denomination among the Chinese in Oregon during the 1870s. Similarly, Dong visited the Puget Sound area in the Washington Territory and encouraged Chinese mission work there. (25)

Prejudice against the Chinese abounded. Caucasians, who many Chinese believed were all Christians, rendered ill treatment to the Asians. Thus, Chinese who attended the mission were assaulted by their own race to accompany the threats from the outside. Serious anti-Chinese riots occurred in 1886. It was during this time that Fung Chak became the next crucial leader for Baptist work. He served as Portland's mission pastor from 1880-1882 before leaving to minister in Canton and Hong Kong. When Chak returned in 1887, he "prosecuted the mission with vigor and with great success." (26)

Swedish

The first Swedish Baptist work in the Northwest was a short-lived mission attempted from the First Baptist Church of Portland by Charles A. Sandstone in 1875. (27) The real impetus, however, came a few years later with the arrival of Olaus Okerson. Appointed by the ABHMS and the Baptist Convention of the North Pacific Coast, Okerson arrived in Portland in early 1881. But he found the Portland area to be a difficult situation due to difficult travel, a small Swedish population, clashes with Swedish Lutherans, (28) and overall cultural indifference to religious matters. Therefore, using Portland as his headquarters, Okerson toured Oregon and Washington--logging 1,500 miles--and laid vital groundwork for Swedish Baptist ministry. Okerson recognized three strategic centers: Portland, Tacoma, and Seattle. By 1883, without assistance or with any congregation in place, he was able to establish houses of worship in all three locations. (29)

After completing his pioneer church-building work, Okerson essentially left the field open for others. His successor in Swedish work was Gustav Liljeroth, a "pastor, temperance lecturer, humorist, and writer, who had recently immigrated to America from Sweden." (30) It was Liljeroth who filled the buildings by organizing the first Scandinavian Baptist congregations west of the Rockies. Liljeroth's health and desires to travel, however, left Swedish work on less than solid ground until the arrival of Nicholas Hayland in 1885. From this point forward, Swedish Baptists grew steadily in the Northwest. "Scandinavian" was in the title of these churches, but they were predominately Swedish. Portland's church changed its name to Swedish Baptist Church in 1894. (31)

German

The first German Baptist work in the Pacific Northwest can be traced to immigrants who settled in the area near Beaverton, Oregon, in 1876. The work originated from German and Swiss Free Church folks. They rejected the Reformed Church and were open to Baptist principles being espoused in the relative liberty of America. German Baptists in America showed a willingness to evangelize their group, especially in the West. By 1865, German Baptists had grown to the degree that the General Conference of German Baptist Churches in North America was formed. (32)

Apparently, German settlers apart from conference help or awareness founded the first Pacific Northwest Baptist church. John Graf arrived in Oregon, along with 71 others, and settled north of Beaverton. Soon, local Baptists heard about them. Pastors from English-speaking Swiss congregations influenced the German group to form a Baptist church. It became known as the Cedar Mills Church and applied for membership in the Willamette Baptist Association in 1877. The church began with 25 members, and Graf was ordained as the first pastor. Soon afterward Graf and other members changed from closed communion to open communion views, a very un-Baptist-like doctrine at the time. The turmoil produced a split among the German Baptist group. Frederick Schaelike arrived in June of 1879, and led the closed communion group to form a "regular" Baptist church, which included the adoption of Pendleton's Baptist Church Manual as the church's guide--second only to the Bible. (33)

Schaelike's church became known as the Bethany Church and affiliated itself with the Western Conference of German Baptists, the Baptist Convention of the North Pacific Coast, and received aid from ABHMS. Shaelike eventually departed and Vincent Farnkopf, a native of Bavaria and fresh out of Rochester Seminary, answered the church's pastoral call. It was he who led the church to construct the first German Baptist church building west of the Rockies, dedicated on September 25, 1881. Regrettably, controversy dogged Farnkopf as well. He was dismissed for holding to Adventist doctrines in May 1884. The next pastor, John Croeni, led the church in raising its membership to more than 100 by 1890 and prepared it for entering a new century. (34)

Baptist Latecomers

The last two groups that comprised the first generation of Baptists in the Northwest were Seventh Day Baptists and Southern Baptists.

Seventh Day Baptists

Save for Sabbath-keeping convictions, Seventh Day Baptists (SDBJ differ little from pioneer or modern-day Baptists, and the lack of collegiality among Baptists in regard to this is curious. SDB historian Don Sanford ironically notes that they "have not condemned those who do not accept the Sabbath but have been disappointed at the apparent inconsistency of those who claim to accept the Bible as their source of faith and practice, yet have followed ecclesiastical and popular traditions instead." (35)

Sabbath-keepers formed their Missionary Society in 1843, the year of the Oregon migration, and readily encouraged pastors to make extended journeys. A plan to colonize Oregon was proposed in the January 1, 1852, issue of the Sabbath Recorder. Three months later four wagons left Wisconsin. After six months they reached Salem, Oregon. Several other families followed and, subsequently, other regions of the Northwest, including the Puget Sound area of Washington, were receiving attention from Sabbatarian settlers. (36) No evidence exists, however, of an established SDB church during this first migration. Wardin suggests that the smallness of the group might be traced to unfair and erroneous connections with Seventh Day Adventists who penetrated the Northwest in the 1870s. (37)

A second group of immigrants landed in Oregon in the early 1890s. They were successful in organizing the first SDB church in 1894 at Talent, Oregon, near the California border between Medford and Ashland. The church lacked leadership and was disbanded, but Pastor Eli Loofboro revived it some years later. Nonetheless, this Baptist group has never experienced strong numbers. (38)

Southern Baptists

The final group of early Baptists in the Northwest is Southern Baptists, already introduced in the section on Landmarkism. Like all other groups, Southern Baptists trace their Pacific lineage to 1844, a full year before the SBC was created and a century before the Northwest Baptist Convention (NWBC) was organized (1948). Nonetheless, a large percentage of first-generation Baptists originally came from the South, and many considered themselves a part of the SBC although no official affiliation took place. For example, the First Baptist Church of Klamath Falls, Oregon, organized on June 29, 1884. J. B. Griffith of Georgia and Texas started the church, and S. E. Milam of Texas was a longtime member and offered pulpit supply. The church broke with the ABHMS over church ordinances in accepting members. In addition, the church retained its Southern Baptist heritage into the 20th century. It later became one of seven churches that formed what is now the NWBC. (39)

In the 1880s several Baptist associations and organizations formed, dissolved, re-affiliated, renamed, or revived. These included the following:

* Baptist Missionary and Education Society (1877)

* Baptist Convention of the North Pacific Coast (1878)

* Middle Oregon Baptist Association (1883)

* Baptist Association of Puget Sound (1883)

* Oregon Baptist State Convention (1886)

* Western Baptist Association of Oregon (1889)

* Baptist Convention of Eastern Oregon (1892).

The latter body applied for affiliation with the SBC in 1894 but was refused.

The accumulation of so many associations and conventions confirms that more than geographical issues were at stake. Roy Johnson relates what could be described as the attitude of most Northwest Baptist groups in this first-generation: "As long as there were Baptist leaders who insisted on practices which Baptists from the South did not believe were scriptural, there would be the tendency to find fault with nearly everything that was done and with the method of doing it." (40)

The reason for refusal by the SBC in 1894 to accept the Baptist Convention of Eastern Oregon as a member seems threefold. First, the distance made affiliation difficult. Second, the Eastern Oregon Convention was solidly Landmark. The SBC shied away from affiliation due to the divisiveness of many Landmark Northwest Baptists. Third, this was the era of comity agreements. The Fortress Monroe Conference was held only a few months afterward and mapped out the territorial boundaries of ministry for Northern and Southern Baptists. The Pacific Northwest became Northern Baptist territory. (41)

Despite rejection by the SBC, many of these churches considered themselves Southern Baptist. They continued to channel funds through SBC agencies, particularly the Foreign Mission Board, Home Mission Board, and the Sunday School Board. (42) Nevertheless, the slow acceptance by the SBC for Southern Baptists in the Pacific Northwest may be partial reflection of their low numbers today, at least when compared to other geographical regions. (43)

The pioneer spirit spurred Baptists westward, and they carried their cultural and theological baggage with them along the Oregon Trail. Their call to a new land of promise resulted in an invigorating mosaic of Baptist witness during the first generation. Today's variety of Baptist groups in the Great Northwest confirms that the Baptist family is alive and well.

Michael Kuykendall is professor of New Testament studies at Gateway Seminary.

Notes

(1) This article in updated and expanded from Michael Kuykendall, "Baptist Beginnings in the Pacific Northwest," Baptist History & Heritage 39, no. 3 (2004): 8-13.

(2) Clifford R. Miller, Baptists and the Oregon Frontier (Portland, OR: Oregon Baptist Convention, 1967), 16-17.

(3) Ibid., 18-20.

(4) Ibid., 25-26, 31. See Charles H. Mattoon, Baptist Annals of Oregon. 1844-1900, vol. 1 (McMinnville, OR: Telephone Register Publishing Co., 1905), 3-7.

(5) Ibid., 30-31, 34-35, 81. This church exists today as First Baptist Church, Oregon City (American Baptist Churches, USA), in its third building in history and less than a mile from the original site. West Union's church was not built until 1853, but its structure survives today.

(6) Ibid., 34, 51-58.

(7) Cecil C. Sims, Roy L. Johnson, and H. Max Daley, Northwest Southern Baptists, 1884-1998 (Vancouver, WA: Northwest Baptist Historical Society, 1998), 18.

(8) J. C. Baker, Baptist Histori) of the North Pacific: Coast (Philadelphia: American Baptist Publication Society, 1912), 139-140. The Brush Prairie church affiliates with Conservative Baptist Association of America today.

(9) Sims, et al., 41. See Baker, Baptist History, 139-254, and A. Ronald Tonks, "The, Origin and Growth of Southern Baptist Work in the Northwest," Baptist History & Heritage 12, no. 1 (1977): 59.

(10) Albert W. Wardin Jr., "The Baptists of Oregon," Baptist History & Heritage 8, no. 1 (1973): 46.

(11) In 2016, ABC-USA counts 145 churches in Washington, Idaho, Montana, Utah, Nevada, and California (http://www.abcnw.org). The early 20th-century spinoffs garner a large portion of Baptists in the Pacific Northwest. CBAA lists 257 churches and church plants in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington (http://www.cbnw.org), and the General Association of Regular Baptist Churches (GARBC) reports 11 churches in Oregon and 54 in Washington (http://www.garbc.org).

(12) Albert W. Wardin Jr., Baptists in Oregon (Nashville: Curley Printing Co., 1969), 123-124, 131. See Stephen M. Stookey, "Theological Influences Affecting Baptist Development in the Northwest," Baptist History & Heritage Society 39, no. 3 (2004): 54-55.

(13) Wardin, Baptists in Oregon, 125.

(14) Miller, Baptists and the Oregon Frontier, 145.

(15) Wardin, Baptists in Oregon, 129.

(16) Ibid., 131-140.

(17) Ibid., 141. See 509-511, 568-570 for the continuing downward spiral of Primitive Baptists during the 20th century. Today there are four small congregations in Oregon and one in Washington. See http://www.littlezionpbc.org/Links.htm.

(18) H. Leon McBeth, The Baptist Heritage (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1987), 447-453. See L. Keith Harper, "Old Landmarkism: A Historiographical Appraisal," Baptist History & Heritage 25, no. 2 (1990): 31-40; and Daniel J. Morgan, "Southern Baptist Contextualization in the Pacific Northwest: Historical Perspective and Strategic Prospects for Effective Church Planting" (Ph.D. diss., Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1996).

(19) McBeth, The Baptist Heritage, 461. For the most indepth study of Landmarkism in the Northwest, see Stephen M. Stookey, "The Impact of Landmarkism upon Southern Baptist Western Geographical Expansion" (Ph.D. diss., Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1994), 216-244.

(20) Wardin, Baptists in Oregon, 112-113.

(21) Baker, Baptist History, 445. See Miller, Baptists and the Oregon Frontier, 62-70.

(22) Wardin, Baptists m Oregon, 219; cf. 111-118, 219-223. Miller, Baptists and the Oregon Frontier, 91, asserted that Landmark beliefs were more closely tied to individuals than churches, and that they were not sufficiently numerous or contentious to create serious disturbance. This statement appears naive after researching other modern historians. Today, Landmark inheritance in the Northwest continues in independent Baptist churches, the American Baptist Association, Baptist Missionary Association, and to a lesser extent in the CBAA, GARBC, and the Northwest Baptist Convention (NWBC). See Albert W. Wardin, ed., Baptists Around the World: A Comprehensive Handbook (Nashville: Broadman & Holman, 1995), 377-379.

(23) See Stookey, "Theological Influences," 55-61.

(24) McBeth, The Baptist Heritage, 408-409, 745. See I'eter Rung, "The Story of Asian Southern Baptists," Baptist History & Heritage 18, no. 3 (1983): 49, and Robert E. Johnson, A Global Introduction to Baptist Churches (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 168-171.

(25) Wardin, Baptists in Oregon, 142-144, 148-149.

(26) Ibid., 333. See Mattoon, Baptist Annals of Oregon, 198-208; and Baker, Baptist History, 349-362.

(27) Mattoon, in Baptist Annals of Oregon, 315, related, "Brother Landstone [sic] has charge of the Scandinavian mission and his labors have been blessed. Six have confessed their faith in Jesus by baptism."

(28) Lutheranism was the state church in Sweden and Baptists were considered heretics, a label that followed them to America and to the Northwest. See Virgil A. Olson, "Neither Jew nor Greek: A Study of an Ethnic Baptist Group, the Swedish Baptists, 1850-1950," Baptist History & Heritage 25, no. 1 (1990): 32-42, and Wardin, Baptists Around the World, 401-408.

(29) Wardin, Baptists in Oregon, 149-152. See Mattoon, Baptist Annals of Oregon, 315-317.

(30) Ibid., 153.

(31) Ibid., 153-154. Baker, Baptist History, 181-182, 189-191, 333-336, related the start of several Swedish Baptist churches in Washington during the 1880s-1890s. See Adolf Olson, Centenary History as Related to the Baptist General Conference of America (North Stratford, NH: Ayer, 1981); Peder A. Stiansen, History of Norwegian Baptists in America (New York: Arno Press, 1939); and http://www.bgcworld.org.

(32) II. Wayne Pipkin, "German Baptist Churches in North America, General Conference of," Dictionary of Baptists in America (1994): 131.

(33) Wardin, Baptists in Oregon, 155-156. Grafs group later joined the German Congregational Church. See George J. Eisenach, A History of the German Congregational Churches in the United States (Yankton, SD: Pioneer Press, 1937), 8-9.

(34) Ibid., 157-158; Mattoon, Baptist Annals of Oregon, 314-315. See Frank II. Woyke, Heritage and Ministry of the North American Baptist Conference (Oakbrook Terrace, IL: NABC, 1979). Bethany Baptist Church resides today at 4545 NW Kaiser Road in Portland and celebrated its 125th year in 2004. Several members can trace their own lineage back to the charter members. See "One Hundred Years of Ministry, 1879-1979," pamphlet published by Bethany Baptist Church, Portland, Oregon, 1979, 10.

(35) Wardin, Baptists Around the World, 382.

(36) Albert Rogers, "The Long, Long Oregon Trail," The Sabbath Recorder 196, no. 3 (March 1974): 12.

(37) Wardin, Baptists in Oregon, 121.

(38) Rogers, "The Long, Long Oregon Trail," 12, 29. No SDB church is recorded for more than half a century until a Portland area church formed in 1978. Today, two churches in Washington and one in Oregon survive, according to http://www.seventhdaybaptist.org/usa.html. See Don A. Sanford, A Choosing People: The History of Seventh Day Baptists, 2nd ed. (Macon: Mercer University Press, 2012).

(39) Sims, et al., Northwest Southern Baptists, 80.

(40) Roy L. Johnson, Northwest Southern Baptists (Portland: Baptist General Convention of Oregon-Washington, 1968), 68. See 59-72 and Sims, et al., Northwest Southern Baptists, 53-65.

(41) Stookey, "Impact of Landmarkism," 220-221.

(42) Tonks, "Southern Baptist Work in the Northwest," 60. See Walter B. Shurden, "Fortress Monroe Conference," Dictionary of Baptists, 120.

(43) The NWBC counts 466 churches today. Stookey, "Impact of Landmarkism," 222-237, details the early 20th century of the SBC in the Northwest. Wardin, Baptists in Oregon, traces them through the 1960s. Stookey, "Theological Influences," 61-67, includes the early 21st century.
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