Land of Balochistan: A Historical Perspective.
Four provinces namely, Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa [previously known as NWFP (North West Frontier Province)], Balochistan, Azad Jamu and Kashmir and Gilgat Baltistan constitute the Islamic Republic of Pakistan along with Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan but thinly populated and it occupies much significance not only in the geo-politics of Pakistan, rather it enjoys great strategic importance in this part of the globe. Balochistan's strategic position is unique in the world. Balochistan is a gate way to South Asia, Middle East and Central Asia. Balochistan has potential to become an international energy corridor and transit route for trade and commerce. The objective of this research paper is to discuss general characteristics of the land of Balochistan and give a detailed historical perspective of the land of Balochistan during various periods of history.
Key Words: Transit Route, British Balochistan, Fresh Pastures-Land, Makran Coast, Chagi Hill, Tribalism, Sardari System.
Balochistan covers 347,190 square kilometers, which is about 43 percent of Pakistan's land area. According to 1998 census, Balochistan's population was roughly 6.5million. According to this census 54.7 percent were Baloch and 29.0 percent were Pashtun in Balochistan. (Government of Pakistan, 1998). The province of Balochistan was established on 1 July 1970. On the occasion of formation of One Unit on 14th October 1955, the region of Balochistan was divided into four types of areas such as:
c. British Balochistan d. Kalat state
The kalat state used to be ruled by Khan of Kalat, Khran and Makran by Nawabs and LasBela by James. On 17th March 1948, through instrument of accession the states, Khran, Makran and LasBela decided to accede to Pakistan. Khan of Kalat did same on 27th March 1948. Before formation of Balochistan State Union in 1951, the above mentioned states used to enjoy independent status. Balochistan State Union continued to perform its function till the formation process of One Unit of West Pakistan (Azad, 2003:1). Tribal areas of Balochistan used to be managed by Agent to the Governor General (AGG). The affairs of British Balochistan used to be run by Chief Commissioner, this Chief Commissioner was responsible to manage not only political affairs but also economic and judicial affairs of British Balochistan. Leased areas used to be controlled by Resident while princely Kalat states used to be managed by lord.
The interesting thing was that affairs of all these areas used to be managed by one person with four different portfolios.
History of Balochistan
The valley between Tigris and Aleppo was the ancient abode of Baloch. Baloch migrated from this valley and settled in Iran and around the border of Caspian Sea. Historical evidences show that Kurds and Baloch were two key units of one tribe who used to live in Aleppo valley. These two groups often used to come into conflict with each other due to certain reasons. Their rivalry and search of new fresh pastures-land and water for their sheep and cattle led these groups to migrate (Baloch, 1975: 2).
The name Baloch and Balochistan can be found in literature and various documents as old as 2,000 years. In Old Persian literature Macka or Mecka, Machiya and Mackiyan refers to Balochistan. Greeks used to call it Gedrosia or Gedrozia. According to French archeologists Mehergarh in Balochistan is one of the earliest civilizations in the world (PIPS, 2009:13). In Burhan-Katih-a Persian Dictionary, the word Baloch has been defined as Clock's comb, Crest or the name of certain barbarian people who inhabit the mountains on the border of Kirman. It is stated that they are descended from the Arabs of Hijaz. Their employment is fighting and shedding blood. Russian professor Yu.V Gankovsky states;That Baloch had belonged to areas adjacent to the southern coast of the Caspian Sea.
In the words of Encyclopedia of Islam;The Baloch were from Kirman, Iran (Ahmad, 1992:.34,38). In Farhangi-Sarwari Dictionary; Baloch are the people who inhabit the desert and plunder the caravans; and for the great part are war like and good archers; they are also styled as Koch and Baloch. In Francis Johnson English, Arabic and Persian Dictionary; The word Baloch has been defined as name of a wild tribe on the bank of Indus. Sir Burton States; Appearance of a Baloch bears little resemblance to that of Ishmael's descendants. Eye is full black, expressive, Persian, not the small, restless, fiery Arab again; the other features are peculiarly high, regular and Iranian. In the words of Mr. Menedy; Baloch are descendants of Sakas. Who gave name to the ancient province of Sakastan or Sijjistan. Mr. Risely states; That Baloch and Brohis are a fusion of Turkish and Persian element (Baloch, 1974: 1,5,6,7).
According to various Archaeological and Geological findings, present day Balochistan was covered with water. It used to be green, fertile and rich in different kinds of animals. Tewelve thousand years back, greenery was the prominent feature of the land of Balochistan. It was wet era due to plentiful rain fall. Cave dwellers were inhabited of Balochistan. Near about ten thousand years back rain fall started to decrease and dryness emerged which is still going on. Baloch ballads celebrate that wet era. The inhabitants of Mehergarh used to have close trade links with Afghanistan, Central Asia and Persia (Iran). Ornaments of beads which have been discovered from the site showed a close connection of the inhabitants of Mehergarh with the fishermen of Makran Coast. It is also stated that copper first discovered in Balochistan. According to French Archeologists, Mehergarh is one of the earliest civilizations of the world (PIPS, 2009:14)
General Characteristics of the Land of Balochistan
The province of Balochistan faced many ups and downs. It remained between obscurity and prominence for a long time but its strategic importance never slackened. Balochistan saw passage of large armies of Iran, Greeks, Arabs, Mongol and British. Balochistan played a significant role in shaping and reshaping the policies of these rulers. Enduring importance of Balochistan remained at its place. Strategic importance of this province provides an opportunity to rulers of state of Pakistan to play a significant role not only in the regional politics but also in the world politics. Balochistan is situated on a very sensitive geographical location.
Pakistan through Balochistan shares borders with different regions such as; 471 miles coastline in the south of the province develops a strong geographical link with the Arabian Sea, 723 miles border in the north develops close relations with Afghanistan , in the west 520 miles border exists with Iran and in the east it is connected with the Pakistan provinces of Punjab, S indh and Khyber Pakhtun Kahawa (Baloch, 1975:4). The province of Balochistan has snow covered mountains, dry high lands, desiccated deserts, small alluvial plains inlets and long arid coastal areas. Balochistan can be divided into four distinct parts, such as:
a. Upper highland
. Lower high land
c. The plains
d. The deserts
North eastern and central part of Balochistan is occupied by upper highland, which is bounded by Sulaiman Range on the east, Taba Kakar in the north and Chagi Hill in the west, in the upper highland valleys are nestling between high mountains. These high mountains are generally 5000 feet above the sea level. The lower high land is formed by the slope of the Suliaman Range on the east and Central Brahui Range and the Kirthar Range further in the south, running in north-south direction ( Ahmad, 1992:3).
The low land Kachi plain is a flat alluvial plain with extreme temperature variations. Lasbela and certain other inlets on the Makran coast are also important plain areas. There are two plateaux in Balochistan, one is Quetta valley and other is in Kalat. Kharan is the large desert in the north west of Balochistan. Kaisar garh (11,300ft) is the highest peak in Suleman range. The whole Balochistan plateau bounded from all sides by mountain ranges presents a bold and rugged outline. Generally dry and extremely severe climate can be observed in Balochistan. Extremes of hot and cold climate can be found in Balochistan such as; Sibi and Dadhar are considered hottest places while the Quetta and ziarat are coldest places in Balochistan. In the absence of proper rainfall, flood or perennial water is a major source of cultivation in specific areas. Balochistan is larger than United Kingdom but its population is only that of Liverpool.
Belgium is only about one twelth the size of Balochistan but has a population nearly nine times as large (Baloch, 1975: 32,33.). The barrenness of Balochistan can be observed in physical and mental make-up of Baloch people. Nomadism is a feature of Baloch society which provides strength to the tribal structure of the society. Chieftain role is very much important in managing tribal life. Inter tribal warfare gives birth to different problems in tribal society of Balochistan. Political parties of Balochistan mostly work on specific ethnic lines and ethnic division is mainly responsible for multi-party system. It is difficult to see a leader that can recognize his leadership in large. A Baloch charismatic leader may not acceptable to Pakhtuns and vice versa.(Kundi, 1994:21)
Physical and Social Features of Balochistan
Balochistan is located at the south eastern edge of the Iranian plateau. Balochistan can be helpful to develop close links between Middle East, South west Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. Total area of Balochistan is 347,190 Sqkm which composes approximately 44% of the total land area of Pakistan(http://www.travel-culture.com/pakistan/balochistan.shtml). Northeast corner is dominated by Suleman Mountains and Bolan Pass is perceived as a natural route into Afghanistan. The capital, Quetta, is situated in a river valley. Quetta is located in the north east of the province.
Extreme of both weathers winter and summer can be observed in the province of Balochistan. The climate of upper highlands is as very cold winters and hot summers. Winters of the lower highlands vary from extremely cold in the northern districts to mild conditions closer to the Makran coast. Summers are hot and dry, especially the arid zones of Chaghai and Khran districts. The plain areas are also very hot in summer while winters are mild on the plains. The desert climate is characterized by hot and very arid conditions. Occasionally strong windstorms make these areas very inhospitable. In northern and interior highlands, the temperature often drops to 40 F in winter, while the summers are temperate. The coastal region is extremely hot with temperature soaring between100 F to 130 F in summers while winters provide a more favourable climate (Breseeg, 2004: 63). Rain fall in Balochistan is not more than 5 to 12 inches per year.
The harsh climate and mountainous terrain on one hand protected Baloch from outside influence but on the other hand created a division among Baloch people into different communities.
Demography is one of the most powerful forces in politics. Balochistan according to 1998 census had a population roughly 6.5 million. Sparsely populated west, east, south and south east of the province of Balochistan is dominated by Balochi speaking, centre of the province is dominated by Brohui speaking, while in the north Pashtuns are in majority. The inhabitants of kalat and Mastung speak Brohui. Pashtuns are significant portion of the population of Quetta, the capital of province, while Baloch and Hazara are dominant minorities. Kalat region is dominated by Baloch Brahui speakers. Coastal area is dominated by Makrani Balochi speaking. Afghan refugees can also be found in Balochistan ( Javaid, 2010:114. ).
Language and Religion
Language has been a key element contributing to a sense of national identity. Balochi is generally classified as a north western Iranian language. Balochi can be divided into two major dialect groups such as; Eastern Balochi and Western Balochi .In the eastern areas of the province of Balochistan, Eastern Balochi is spoken while in the western areas Western Balochi is a language of communication. Majority of Baloch population speak western Balochi. During course of history Balochistan faced various invasions by different foreign rulers such as; Persian, Greeks, Parthian, Arabs, Turks and Mughals. These rulers tried to influence local traditions and language but Balochi language and culture due to its uniqueness became successful to survive in the original form. Baloch through traditional Balochi songs reminde brave stories and love stories of their forefathers such as; songs of Chakar and Gwahram, Shaih Morid and Hani, Duda and Baloch.
During the era of caliph Umar", Baloch race embraced Islam. Most of Baloch belong to Sunni sect but Shias are also there. Rind tribe used to act according to Shia creed. Baloch are also superstitious and believe in omens, such as; particular days, particular stars and flights of birds. Majority of Baloch are follower of the Hanafite rite (Sunni branch of Islam). Before the conversion of the Baloch to Islam, mostly they were Zoroastrians (Baloch, 1977:.38). There are two non- Hanafite communities among Sunni Baloch. The Bameri and Zikri community are shite. Both sects regard Koran as their holy book and celebrate different rituals with full respect.
Baloch Social Organization
Baloch have become successful at a greater extent to preserve their blood pride and purity. Feudalism or tribalism is a unique character of Baloch society, which has potential to pit one tribe against another tribe. The tribe, which is more powerful, would be able to dominate the weaker one. The Baloch are considered strong, skillful and furious but at the same time sensitive, sentimental, simple and sincere. For a Baloch, to protect honour is the most important task of life. The Baloch people are highly hospitable. In Baloch culture, special protection is given to women, children, and refugee. Baloch gloried in his hospitality and sword. Hospitality and bravery are the heritage of a Baloch (Baloch, 1977:.39). Baloch are honest people.
The nature of tribes in Balochistan is two types such as; Shahri(Sedentary) and Nomadic. Shahris were playing a dominant role in central and southern Balochistan and were perceived as backbone of the feudal order, while nomads were predominant in northern tribal areas and playing a crucial role in tribal order. Colonial rulers did not disturb tribal structure of present day Balochistan. Colonial masters tried to get loyalties of tribal chieftains for achieving their specific objectives. British Raj gave a free hand to chieftains for managing the affairs of their tribal society according to their specific cultural norms without introducing any modern change in their way of life. After the creation of Pakistan, situation started to change with the emergence of new forces such as; education and electoral politics. However the importance of tribal structure remained unchanged particularly in rural areas of Balochistan.
Sardari and Jirga institutions are considered two very much important features of Baloch society. Every tribe for asserting its authority tried to set up its own Jirga (council of elders). This Jirga performs its functions as a court of law.
Jirga is considered as an organized administrative institution which is headed by a Sardar and Muqaddam, Wadera and Motabar as its members. Jirga not only facilitate individuals of a specific tribe but it also plays a significant role in the process to develop cooperative relations between tribes through resolving their dispute amicably. British government introduced Shahi Jirga through making different changes in the traditional pattern of Baloch Jirga. Shahi Jirga was a kind of the council of the main tribal sardars. This Shahi Jirga used to hold its meetings twice a year at Quetta, Sibi and Fort Munro. This Shahi Jirga was responsible to manage the affairs of Balochistan and facilitate British Government. Present day tribal structure of Baloch society emereged through an evolutionary process of hundered of years.Sardari system is another important organ of Baloch society.
This system emerged under Mughal rulers and assumed its present shape during colonial rule when British government started to pay money to sardars to establish semi-militant forces to maintain law and order situation according to the norms of Baloch society. Sardars recruited and commanded this force, which was called Levies. After 1947, with the merger of Kalat state to Pakistan, government of Pakistan did not initiate any policy to change the unlimited powers of sardars and to alter existing pattern of tribal structure of Balochistan. Government did not disturb the existing system of Baloch society due to certain reasons such as; geographical location and natural features of Balochistan. Endless mountain ranges and vast desert are the prominent features of Balochistan(less than http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/pakistan/baloc h-sardars.htm/greater than ).
The whole of Balochistan sufferes from acute shortage of water. Scanty rainfall helps the natural growth of a few bushes and grasses. In Balochistan, a particular area is inhabited by a particular tribe and this particular area and natural resources of this area are considered the property of that tribe. For managing the affairs of a specific tribe there is a need of a guardian and this guardian would be a sardar and people of a tribe in the best interests of the tribe, will show their loyalty to sardar. Government of Pakistan like British colonial masters started to depend upon sardars to implement various governmental policies and in return government provided different personal benefits to sardar. Sardars sometimes worked for their personal gains and against the interests of their own tribe.
Sardari system is one very important feature of Balochistan society and it had developed after centuries and will continue in future with all its abuses if federal government would not take proper initiatives to decrease the influence of Sardars. Sardars enjoy unlimited authority over masses in Balochistan and for asserting their authority sardars do not have to face any resistance by the people.Such high-handedness of sardars has led to various abuses. Sardars collect various taxes on the name to manage the affairs of tribe. For example, Bjar (this tax is collected by sardars on various occasions of happiness), there is no legal status of this tax but this is collected by sardars by force. Sashak" (this tax is collected by sardars as 6th part of total agricultural income), collection of this tax has been prohibited by the government of Pakistan but even then sardars consider their right to collect this tax.
In Marri tribal area the owner of fourty or or more animals have to pay tax for getting access to pastures and water, which are considered the property of sardars.(less than http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/pakistan/baloch- sardars.htm/greater than ).
Common individuals have to depend upon sardars to get employment because when they would be recommended and forwarded by sardars, they would be able to get job or some work to earn their livelihood. People trust on sardars for settling their disputes even problems related to marriages and divorce are taken to sardar and these are settled according to the will and wisdom of sardar and prevailing circumstances of Baloch society. Most sardars maintain their own jails and armed detachments. People have to do according to the orders of sardars and if they deny they have to face punishment by the the sardar. Sardars have been proving one of the important obstacles in the way of development of the province of Balochistan. Education plays a significant role to socialize people and give them awareness about their rights and duties. Common Baloch are not allowed by the Sardars to get proper education.
In April 1976 the then Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto announced in a public meeting at Quetta that sardari system would be abolished (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/pakistan/baloch- sardars.htm/) Long debates were held on this issue in the Balochistan legislative assembly. The people who support sardari system give different arguments in this regard such as; people feel themselves secure in the presence of sardar, this institution has its own social and economic system, this is highly a significant feature of Balochistan society and lack of substitution of the institution of sardari system, all these are major reasons to preserve the sardari system. Government should try to boost agriculture activity and to generate maximum opportunities of employment for common individuals of Balochistan then they would be able to come out from the deep influence of sardars.
It has been observed that expansion of government activities and initiation and implementation of development proje cts have provided opportunity to people to decrease the influence of sardars. Sardar is considered a central figure in sardari system, while waderas, the section chiefs and leaders of subordinate clan and sub-clan perform their functions according to the whims of sardars. After the colonial departure, a prominent change was observed in Baloch society. Ruling authority of newly independent state of Pakistan introduced different reforms for inducting various segments of society into main stream for enhancing the process of national integration. Emergence of middle Baloch class had played a significant role in decreasing the traditional role of sardars.
Society and Inter-tribal hostilities
The social organization of Baloch society is based on blood kinship. This organization gives birth to common interests, liabilities, fears and hopes. Clan organization is very interesting such as: a family is constituted by a house (Ail), a sub- clan is constituted by a group of family (Phali), a clan is constituted by a several sub-clans (Bolak) and a tribe is constituted by several clans (Qawm). Every tribe is headed by a chief and chief is always ready to work in the best interests of his fellow tribesmen. Chief has to stand with common individuals through thick and thin. Chief would be selected according to the principal of inheritance. In the life of a Baloch fight and foray are considered chief ornaments. Inter- tribal hostilities are common among Baloch.
There are different issues which give birth conflicting situation such as: dispute over herd of sheep, pasture lands, tribal border and by raiding and counter raiding. ( Baloch, 1977:.48) These conflicting situations only can be controlled with the intervention of third party which should be impartial. Usually it has been observed that a religious personnel plays a significant role in restoring peace. Conflicting situation disturb the peace of whole tribal society. Sometimes war continued for decades. For example conflict between Rinds and Lasharies continued for decades. Revenge is the one element which gives birth to high intensity conflicting situation. The important factor which has sharpened tribal conflicts in Balochistan is a new readiness on the part of tribesmen to initiate attacks on the families of tribes and tribal leaders (Matheson, 1997: xxii).
Life and Occupation of Baloch People
The life of a Baloch is very simple. Poverty and illiteracy commonly can be observed in Baloch society. The major source of income of Baloch people is the flock of sheep. For a Baloch the sheep is a special gift of heaven because it fulfills his multidimensional needs. Cultivation process is totally dependent upon rainfall. Landowners and folk owners are prominent class of Baloch society. Major portion of population of Balochistan is constituted by labourers and artisans. The amusement of nobility was related to chess and dice game. Common forms of sport were to chase the wild goat, wild sheep and deer. Horse riding and traditional dance ( Jhumar) were a common activity on various festivals.
Place of Women in Baloch Society
In Baloch society women have been given a special status or respect. Baloch are always ready to pay any price for the protection of female honour. Baloch do not like to expose their females to the public life and view. The nomad tribal women have more opportunities to enjoy a limit of freedom than the sedentary women. Major portion of Baloch female population is not well educated; hardly they can write or read but have little bit idea about Persian and Sindhi. Most of the times they remain engage in spinning, making clothes, dressing and other household activities In Baloch society females are not only given special protection during peace time but protection is also ensured in time of war. Women are given exemption from all brutal atrocities which are committed by the victorious side.
Balochistan under the Rule of Various External Forces
Balochistan was connected with Persia under the Darius-1 rule in 521-485 B.C, Darius111 was defeated by Alexander. After conquer ring Punjab Alexander decided to go back home through Balochistan. The area of Balochistan through which Alexander passed is as:
a. Hub river and its valley
. Lasbella plain
c. Coastal area of Makran
d Along and adjacent to the coast, northern mountainous Area ( Hassan S.J., 2002:6).
After the death of Alexander, one of his general Seleuces-1 became successful to expand his influence into Central and Western Asia. He also marched eastwards across Makran to cross Indus River. Balochistan also remained under the influence of the Bactrian Kingdom (modern Balkh in Central Asia). Sassanian rule remained from 529 to 577 A.D. Sassanian monarch Naushervan is considered the first conqueror of Balochistan. Arab captured Balochistan during the reign of caliph walid bin Abdul Malik (705- 715) and Baloch started to embrace Islam under the Arab rulers. Arabs introduced various socio-economic changes for the betterment of the people of that region. The people of Makran were prosperous under the Arab rulers.22. Muslim rulers faced different problems to get occupation over Baloch.
Muslim commanders, who led Arab armies to conquer Balochistan, used to communicate to their rulers that to initiate any expedition towards Balochistan would not be a wise step due to lack of resour ces for human survival. According to these Arab commanders, in Balochistan there is scarce water, the date palm trees are dried and dead and bandits are brave and fearless (23 (Bugti,1995:13-14). Due to these reasons small army in Balochistan would not be able to win while large army would not be able to survive in the presence of thrust and hunger. Despite of all these difficulties Arabs became successful to bring most of the parts of Balochistan under their control.
Baloch started to emerge an eminent force with the process of decline of the central rule of the Islamic caliphate. Most of the present day Balochistan was brought under the control of Baloch by the end of 14th century. Baloch doura (Baloch period) is considered glorious doura regarding Baloch political and military institution. Baloch culture and language were also flourished during this period. Mir Chakar the chief of Rind tribe became successful to conquer parts of Punjab and Sindh.(1487-1511CE). He also established a tribal confederation ( Lieven, 2012:345). Rinds and Lasharis were prominent players of this confederacy After1857 war of independence British became successful to establish British Raj in Sub-Continent. Under the British rule, there were four princely states in Balochistan namely, Makran, Kharan, Lasbela and Kalat. British rulers through a treaty in 1876 with Khan of Kalat brought Kharan, Makran, and Lasbela under British suzerainty.
This treaty was concluded between Sir Robert Sandm an and Khan of Kalat. In 1879, during second Afghan war which continued from1878-1880, treaty of Gandamak was concluded. Through this treaty Afghanistan ceded the districts of Quetta, Pishin, Sibi, Harnai, and Chotiali to the British.27 In the year of 1883 British Indian government got Bolan Pass, south east of Quetta on lease from Khan of Kalat on permanent basis. In 1887 some areas of Balochistan were declared British territory. Sir Mortimer Durand successfully negotiated an agreement with Amir Abdur Rehman Khan of Afghanistan in 1893 to fix Durand Line as a boundary between Afghanistan and British. Under British Raj sardars used to enjoy complete autonomy over internal tribal affairs. British Indian government through Sandeman system provided maximum power and autonomy to sardars for managing their affairs according to their own traditions, customs and institutions.
British Indian government did not disturb the already existing system of Baloch society but parallel evolve its own administrative system.
A province with rich maritime as well as mineral resources such as: coal, natural gas, copper, uranium and marble but remained unable due to ill- conceived policies of government to provide a decent living standard to its inhabitants. The most controversial issue is the utilization of natural resources of Balochistan for the development of other regions of Pakistan instead of the well being of the people of Balochistan. Economic backwardness had created sense of alienation among Baloch. Backwardness of the province of Balochistan is a legacy of colonial rulers. Colonial masters did not pay serious attention to develop Balochistan economically, socially and politically. Colonial rulers kept Balochistan backward intentionally because a stable Balochistan was not in the interest of British government. Military and geopolitical nature of Balochistan was most important than economic stability for the colonial masters.
British Indian government through Balochistan wanted to protect its interests in Afghanistan and Central Asia..
After independence with the annexation process, Baloch felt that their grievances would be addressed in the real sense but it could not be happened in the true sense. Pashtun population became successful to control most of the commercial life of the province of Balochistan. Baloch say they are under representative in different administrative institutions, for example in military and bureaucratic institutions. This issue should be addressed on top priority basis. Balochistan remained backward due to ill-conceived policies of various governments as compared to the province of Punjab, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtun Khawa. Various federal governments held this view that sardars for preserving their power have politicized development issues. Government should initiate those policies through which it would be able to abolish the exploitative sardari system. The important task on the part of the government is to win the trust of Baloch people.
Sincere efforts should be made to promote education, to provide basic health facilities, employment opportunities and to eradicate poverty so the people of Balochistan can have benefits of prosperity. It is need of the time that actual issues of the province of Balochistan should be addressed on priority basis. The government of Pakistan Peoples Party after 2008 General Elections formulated some very constructive policies (i.e 18th Amendment, Aghaz-e-Haqooq-e-Balochistan Package, restructuring of National Finance Commission Award and etc. ) to address the grievances of the people of Balochistan. These were some good initiatives which were taken by the then Pakistan Peoples Party's government. Fruit of such policies should reach to the common people of Balochistan. Problems of the Baloch people should be resolved through political means.
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|Publication:||Journal of Political Studies|
|Date:||Jun 30, 2015|
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