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Labroplatys, a new genus of oriental plataspidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) with two new species from India, Laos, and China.

Abstract--Labroplatys gen. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae), its type species L. schuhi sp. nov. (China: Yunnan) and an additional species L. khankhaak sp. nov. (Laos, India: Tamil Nadu) are described. The new genus is characterized by the greatly enlarged labrum and the posteriorly produced female terminalia.

Key words: Heteroptera, Plataspidae, Oriental Region, taxonomy, new genus, new species.

INTRODUCTION

Plataspidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) is a moderately species-rich family within Pentatomoidea comprising about 59 genera and nearly 500 described species restricted to the Old World (Davidova-Vilimova and Stys, 1980; Ahmad and Moizuddin, 1992; Lin and Zhang, 1993; Ren, 2000; Xue and Liu, 2002; Davidova-Vilimova, 2006), with one species introduced to the Hawaiian Islands (Beardsley and Fluker, 1967) and another to North America (Eger et al., 2010).

The Oriental fauna is diverse, about 31 genera and 250 species have been described so far. The most prolific author was A.L. Montandon, who described three genera and more than 80 species in the last decade of the 19th century. An outdated synopsis (Distant, 1902) and keys (Ahmad and Moizuddin, 1992) are available for the taxa occurring in the Indian subcontinent and neighbouring areas, but they are of limited use. Nevertheless, comprehensive treatments of the fauna of China (Yang, 1934; Hsiao and Jen, 1977) are still useful. Other areas of the Oriental Region have received little attention, many of the described taxa are in need of revision, and several undescribed genera and species are present in collections.

The description of a new genus and two new species from India, Laos, and China is the subject of the present paper. This contribution is dedicated to Randall T. Schuh on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

External and genital structures were examined using stereoscopic (OIympus SZX9) and optical (Olympus CX21) microscopes. Drawings were made by using a camera lucida. Male and female genitalia were dissected after boiling for a short time in hypertonic KOH solution. Measurements were done using a micrometer eyepiece. Photographs were taken with a Nikon D90 camera equipped with an AF-S Micro Nikkor 60 rum f/2.8G ED lens.

The morphology of the type species, L. schuhi sp. nov. is documented in detail, description of the other species, L. khankhaak sp. nov. is mostly restricted to characters allowing differentiating the two species. General morphological terminology primarily follows Davidova-Vilimova and Stys (1980) and Tsai et al. (2011) and that of the thoracic scent efferent system Kment and Vilimova (2010).

Label data are given in verbatim transcription. In the holotype of L. schuhi, numbers in brackets refer to the label numbers with [1] being the label closest to the body; in paratypes of this species labels identical with those of the holotype are not repeated but they are only indicated by their numbers. Forward slash (\) indicates the separation between lines on the label.

Abbreviations for depositories: HNHM: Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary; IZAS: Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; MMBC: Moravian Museum, Brno, Czech Republic.

Abbreviations used in figures: aa = articulatory apparatus; aed = aedeagus s. str.; alt9 = apophysis of laterotergite IX; [avf.sub.8] = apophysis of valvifer VIII; bp = basal plate; con = conjunctiva, cp = conjunctival process; end = endophallic duct; erp = erection fluid pump; gc = genital capsule; gy = gynatrium; hi = hinge; lbr = labrum; [lt.sub.9] = laterotergite IX; phth = phallotheca; res = endophallic reservoir; rs = ring sclerite; [s.sub.2]-[s.sub.7] = abdominal sternites II-VII; [t.sub.7]--[t.sub.8] = abdominal tergites VII-VIII; [vf.sub.8] = valvifer VIII.

TAXONOMY

LABROPLA TYS, NEW GENUS

TVPE SPECIES: Labroplatys schuhi new species, present designation.

DIAGNOSIS: Recognized within Plataspidae based on the combination of the following characters: body of medium size (6-9 mm), ochraceous with black pattern, broad, dorsally and ventrally convex (Fig. 1A-D); head elongate; lateral margins of clypeus arched, therefore clypeus distinctly broader at its middle than apically or basally (Fig. 3A, H); antennal insertion situated close to margin of eye; labrum highly elevated, crest-like, semicircular in lateral view (Fig. 2C: 1br); distance between eye and ocellus about one third as long as interocellar distance; laterotergites IX of female strongly produced posteriorly along midline, their apices exposed beyond apex of scutellum (Figs. 1AD, 2AB, 2E, 4C-E).

DESCRIPTION: Body: Broad, dorsum strongly convex, venter moderately convex (Fig. 1A-D). INTEGUMENT AND VESTITURE: Body dull, smooth, pronotum and scutellum with a few scattered, large, coarse punctures; dorsum and venter glabrous, antenna, legs, and terminalia with fine, dense pilosity. Head: Elongate, anteocular portion distinctly longer than length of eye, broadly rounded laterally; mandibular plate distinctly shorter than clypeus; lateral margins of clypeus arched, therefore clypeus distinctly broader at its middle than apically and basally (Fig. 3A, H); antennal insertion situated close to margin of eye; buccula short, restricted to basal third of ventral side of head, labrum highly elevated, crestlike, semicircular in lateral view (Fig. 2C: 1br); eye subglobular; ocellus small, situated close to eye: distance between eye and ocellus about one third as long as interocellar distance. Antenna: 5-segmented because of secondary subdivision of segment II, apex of segment I not reaching apex of head, segment IIa very short, segments IIb-IV subequal in length (Fig. 3A). Labium: Reaching metasternum, segment I very short, segments II and III subequal in length and distinctly longer than segment I, segment IV longest (Fig. 2C). Pronotum: Much wider than long, strongly declivous anteriorly; anterior collar distinctly developed, delimited posteriorly by a deep transverse furrow, lateral portions thickened; lateral margin narrowly explanate, not projecting anteriad and ventrad, but distinctly elevated dorsad around its middle, distinctly emarginated anteriad of humeri in dorsal view; humeral angle rounded, obtuse, distinct; posterolateral angle very broadly rounded, obsolete (Figs. 2D, F). Seutellum: Wider than long, lateral margin broadly convex, outline forming a distinct rounded angle posteriad to middle, strongly converging posteriorly, posterior margin evenly convex ([female]) or deeply excised medially at genital capsule ([male]); with a narrow, fine submarginal impression along almost entire length; basal tumescence distinct, delimited posteriorly by a broad but deep furrow; basolateral angle not delimited by furrow (Fig. 2A, E). Thoracic pleura and sterna: Each side of proepisterna provided anteriorly with a thick collarlike tumescent ridge delimited by deep transverse furrow, posterior margin of mesopleurite roundedly projecting posteriad just ventrad of humeri; mesopleuron without peculiarities; metapleuron with a well-developed scent gland ostiole situated slightly mediad to middle of metapleuron, associated with a long, evenly curved peritreme of various length (Fig. 3B, I). Evaporatorium occupying the following: prothoracic pleura and sterna except narrow lateral margin, a pair of curved stripes projecting posterolaterad from anterolateral angle, and apex of supracoxal lobe; mesothoracic pleura and sterna; metapleuron except peritreme and posterior margin of metepimeron (Fig. 2B). Forewing: Extreme base of exocorium thickened, exposed in rest, remaining portions covered by scutellum (Figs. 1A, 1C, 2A, 2E). Legs short, moderately thickened, femora terete, tibiae at most with superficial and inconspicuous dorsal furrow restricted to their base. Pregenital abdomen (terminology follows Davidova-Vilimova and Stys, 1980): Distinctly broader than wide (Figs. 1B, 1D, 2B); connexival segments partly fused, intersegmental lines only vaguely indicated; dorsal and ventral surfaces of connexivum flat, lateral edge keeled, ventral surface delimited by a distinct, deep furrow; spiracular callosities with distinct, yellow prespiracular portion, indistinct postspiracular portion not differing from the respective sternite in color; trichobothria of each segment situated immediately at the lateral margin of the respective mediosternite, arranged in a line with the spiracle; abdominal sternites (=mediosternites) curved, sternite Vil normal, not projecting deeply into sternite VI along midline ([male], [female]) (Fig. 5A).

External male genitalia: See under L. schuhi sp. nov.

External female genitalia: Laterotergites IX strongly produced posteriorly along midline, their apices form a short tail-like structure exposed beyond apex of scutellum; valvifers VIII broadly, subtriangularly produced posteriad (Figs. 1A-D, 2A-B, 2E, 4C-E).

DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY: Two species are known, both of them are described in the present paper: L. schuhi sp. nov. from China (Yunnan), and L. khankhaak sp. nov. from Laos and India.

BIOLOGY: Unknown (see under Discussion).

ETYMOLOGY: Derived from the Latin noun labrum, referring to the enlarged labrum of the included species, and the Greek adjective [pi][lambda][alpha][tau][zeta] (Latinized as platys) meaning "wide, broad", a compontent occurring in several generic names in the family Plataspidae. Gender masculine; stem Labroplat-.

Labroplatys schuhi, new species Figures 1A-B, 2A-D, 3A-G, 4A-D, 5

HOLOTYPE: Male: [1] "Yunnan Damenglong 700 m [in Chinese script, printed]\1957.IV. [printed] 10. [handwritten]\Liang Qiu-Zhen [in Chinese script, printed]," [2] [same information in Cyrillic script, printed], [3] "IOZ(E)1067994" [printed], [4] "Sphaerocoris [handwritten]\sp. [handwritten] /identified: Yang Wei-Yi 19 [in Chinese script, printed] 63 [handwritten]\da zhong pian dou [(=vernacular name of the species) in Chinese script, handwritten, vertically]\chun [male] [(=vernacular name of the species), in Chinese script, handwritten, vertically]." Pinned, left antenna, right antennal segments IIa-IIb, right fore and mid legs distad of coxa, right hind tarsus missing, right antennal segments III-IV glued on label [1].

DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished from its single known congener, L. khankhaak sp. nov., by the diagnostic characters provided in Table 1.

DESCRIPTION: Male and female: COLOR: General color of dorsum ochraceous, with dark brown pattern (Fig. 1A). Head ochraceous, mandibular plate broadly margined with brown laterally along entire length and medially at its apical portion; clypeus dark brown; base of head blackish brown, outline of blackish area projecting anteriad before ocellus. Antennal segments I-IIa brown, segment I with more or less dark suffusion apically, segments IIb-IV blackish. Labium brown. Pronotum ochraceous, anterior collar except lateral portions, and a transverse, laterally broadened fascia on each callus dark brown to black, punctures each broadly surrounded by a brown spot, these spots frequently confluent, forming irregular patches, especially on humeri and posterior margin of pronotum. Scutellum ochraceous, punctures broadly surrounded by a brown spot each, irregularly confluent into parches as follows: a pair of patches at lateral portions of basal tumescence; an irregular, frequently interrupted fascia along midline from posterior margin of basal tumescence to apex; a pair of submedian and a pair of submarginal patches slightly posteriad to middle; and a pair of marginal spots in posterior third. Portion of fore wing exposed when at rest ochraceous. Legs dark brown, fore coxa brown, bases of mid and hind coxae narrowly yellow, tibiae each with a narrow yellow annulus basally. Evaporatoria greyish brown, other parts of ventral surface thorax and abdomen dark brown, prespiracular portions of spiracular callosities of abdominal sternites III-VII yellowish (Fig. 2B), male also with a pair of yellow callose spots close to posterior margin of sternite VIII. STRUCTURE: Integument and vestiture: Pronotum and scutellum with a few scattered, large, coarse punctures forming groups in some places; median portions of abdominal sternites III-VI with dense, rather coarse puncturation, lateral fourths of sternites III-VI as well as whole of sternite VII rather smooth. Vestiture as given in description of the genus. Head: 1.15-1.2 rimes as broad as its median length, 1.55-1.6 times as broad as interocular distance, anteocular part broad, lateral margins nearly parallel immediately anteriad to eyes (Fig. 3A). Antenna: Segment IIb about 3.7 times as long as IIa (Fig. 3A). Pronotum: 2.05-2.15 times as broad as its length along midline, lateral margin broadly diverging posteriorly (Fig. 2D). Scutellum: About 1.3-1.4 times broader than its length along midline (Figs. 1A, 2A). Thoraeie pleura and sterna: Metathoracic scent gland ostiole associated with an elongate, evenly curved peritreme terminating relatively close to lateral margin of metapleuron (Fig. 3B).

Pregenital abdomen: As described under the genus; segment VIII of [male] completely retracted into VII in resting position (Fig. 5A); sternite VII of female (Fig. 4D: [s.sub.7]) distinctly impressed posteriorly.

External male genitalia: Genital capsule (Fig. 5A: gc; Fig. 3C-D) broad, far surpassing apical margin of pregenital abdomen and scutellum posteriorly (Fig. 5A), broadly exposed in dorsal view; dorsal rim broadly and shallowly emarginated along midline; infolding of dorsal rim broad, flat, about 2 times as long along midline as longitudinal diameter of posterior aperture, with broad and deep central impression around posterior aperture; lateral margin with a distinct tubercle at each side; infolding of ventral rim thick, its dorsal margin broadly convex; infoldings of dorsal and ventral rim with long, erect pilosity except central impression. Paramere (Fig. 3E-G) L-shaped, apical portion broad and flat, apically broadly rounded, whole paramere directed posteriad, apex directed dorsad in rest (Fig. 3C-D). Phallus (Fig. 4A-B) with relatively weak articulatory apparatus, long and narrow dorsal connectives, and small oval erection fluid pump; support bridge prolongation could not be traced even by opening the phallotheca and dyeing the inner lumen with chlorazol black-E, perhaps lacking; hinge (Fig. 4B: hi) voluminous, strongly protruding; phallotheca (Fig. 4A: phth) barrel-shaped, somewhat flattened dorsoventrally; conjunctiva (Fig. 4A: con) long, more or less tubular, with one pair of conjunctival processes (Fig. 4A-B: cp) (probably homologous with cp-II sensu Tsai et al., 2011): elongate, tubular, fully membranous, apically rounded, with a short, apically narrowed subapical branch and a broad basoventral tumescence. Aedeagal complex: Ductus seminis directly connected to proximal portion of endophallic reservoir; endophallic reservoir (Fig. 4B: res) dorsally strongly convex, ventrally flattened, a septum arising from its ventral wall into its lumen, sharply separated from aedeagus s. str. by a deep constriction; aedeagus s. str. (Fig. 4B: aed) broad and short, curved ventrad, gradually narrowing towards apex, its wall thin, membranous, closely ensheathe endophallic duct; endophallic duct (Fig. 4B: end) thick, strongly sclerotized, with single lumen; phallotreme broad, obliquely truncate.

External female genitalia: Tergite VIII (Fig. 4C: t8) narrow, only slightly broader than laterotergites IX together; valvifers VIII and laterotergites IX produced posteriorly (Figs. 1B, 2B, 4C-D, 5B-C); valvifers VIII (Figs. 4D, 5B-C: [vf.sub.8]), subtriangular, median margin straight, lateral margins broadly concave, with a long apophysis (Figs. 5B-C: [avf.sub.8]) within pregenital abdomen; laterotergites IX (Figs. 4C-E, 5B42: [lt.sub.9]) far surpassing apex of valvifer VIII posteriorly, basal portion strongly protruded laterad, with a long apophysis (Figs. 5B-C: [alt.sub.9]) within pregenital abdomen; gynatrium (Fig. 5B: gy) short, saccular, with a pair of well-developed ring sclerites (Fig. 5B: rs), with a narrow, semicircular sclerite surrounding opening of spermathecal duct; spermathecal duct long, tortuous; intermediate part of spermatheca short, with relatively small proximal and distal ranges; apical receptacle of spermatheca simple, oval (Fig. 5D).

Male postgenital abdomen: Proctiger small and short, rounded, almost completely concealing dorsal sinus of posterior aperture of genital capsule in rest (Fig. 3C).

Female postgenital abdomen: Lying on dorsal surface of laterotergite IX in rest (Fig. 4C), two-segmented (X + XI?) (cf. Figs. 4C, 5C), basal segment reaching about middle of exposed portion of laterotergite IX, apical segment subtriangular, strongly narrowed distally.

MEASUREMENTS (in mm; holotype/paratypes [male][male], N = 2/paratypes [female]female], N = 2): body length 8.0/7.-7.6/8.0-9.0; length of head 1.54/1.4-71.62/1.62-1.70, width across eyes 1.86/1.79-1.88/1.88-2.02, interocular distance 1.15/1.12-1.21/1.15-1.25; lengths of antennal segments as (I) 0.50/0.55-0.59/0.544).59 (IIa) 0.25/0.234).25/0.264).26 : (IIb) 0.92/0.854).92/0.91-0.98 : (III) 0.89/0.890.90/0.94-1.02: (IV) 0.94/0.97 (N = I)/1.07 (N = 1); lengths of labial segments as (I) 0.35/0.37-0.37/ 0.39-0.41 : (II) 0.68/0.734).74/0.7943.81 : (III) 0.62/ 0.64-0.66/0.704).71 : (IV) 0.74/0.884).88/0.880.90. Medial length of pronotum (in most exposed view) 2.82/2.71-2.81/2.81-2.83, greatest width 5.76/ 5.51-5.76/5.90-6.16; medial length of scutellum (in dorsal view) 5.29/4.82-5.41/5.70-5.91, greatest width 7.06/6.82-7.18/7.27-7.63.

DISTRIBUTION: CHINA: Yunnan: Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Damenglong.

ETYMOLOGY: Patronymic, derived from and dedicated to Randall T. Schuh on the occasion of his 70th birthday, recognizing his immense contributions to the taxonomy and systematics of various groups of Heteroptera.

OTHER SPECIMENS EXAMINED: PARATYPES (2 [female][female] 2 [female][female]): With labels [1], [2], "IOZ(E)1067992" [printed], [4]. Pinned, right antennal segments III-IV, right fore leg distad of coxa, right mid leg distad of femur, and right wings missing, left fore wing except extreme base missing, left fore wing of another specimen fixed with glue to the scutellum, left antennal segments IIa-IV glued on label [1]; genital capsule removed, preserved in plastic microvial with glycerol, pinned with the specimen ([male]). With labels [1], [2], "IOZ(E)1067993." Pinned, left and right antennal segment IV missing, right fore wing and left hind leg glued on label [1]; genitalia removed and dissected [Figs. 3C-G, 4A-B], preserved in plastic microvial with glycerol, pinned with the specimen ([male]). With labels [1], [2], "IOZ(E)1067995" [printed], and [4] bur with "[female]" instead of "[male]." Mounted on card, left antennal segments IIb-IV missing, genitalia removed and dissected [Figs. 4C-D, 5B-D], preserved in plastic microvial with glycerol, pinned with the specimen ([female])- With labels [1], [2], "IOZ(E)I067996" [printed], and [4] but with "[female]" instead of "[male]." Pinned, left antennal segment IV, right antennal segments III + IV, right fore tarsus, right mid and hind tibia and tarsus, left tarsal segment II missing (Figs. 1A-B). Holotype and all paratypes are deposited in IZAS.

Labroplatys khankhaak, new species Figures 1C-D, 2E F, 3H-I, 4E

TYPE MATERIAL: HOLOTYPE: Female: "LAO-C, 26.-27.v.2003,\Bolikhamxai prov.,\PAKKADING\ ~300 m,\18[degrees]20'N, 104[degrees]00'E,Wit Kubah leg." [printed], "Entomological expedition/"Laos 2003"Moravian Museum Brno\Czech Republic" [printed]; mounted on card, intact; deposited in MMBC.

DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished from its single known congener, L. schuhi sp. nov., by the diagnostic characters provided in Table 1.

DESCRIPTION: Female. COLOR: General color of dorsum ochraceous, with black pattern (Fig. 1C). Head ochraceous, mandibular plate broadly margined with black laterally in its whole length and medially at its apical portion; clypeus brownish black; base of head with black area as shown in Fig. 3H, not contiguous with dark clypeus. Antennal segments I-IIa and basal half of IIb ochraceous, apical half of segment IIb and segments III-IV black. Labium ochraceous, darkened towards apex. Pronotum ochraceous, anterior collar and 1 + 1 transverse, laterally broadened fasciae on calli black, lateral margin very narrowly black, punctures of disk of pronotum broadly surrounded by a black spot each, confluent in various degree, forming irregular patches, humeri and a broad fascia along posterior margin of pronotum black. Scutellum ochraceous, its punctures broadly surrounded by a black spot each, irregularly confluent into patches as follows: 2 + 2 patches at lateral portions of basal tumescence; a large central spot immediately posteriad of basal tumescence; 1 + 1 submedian and 1 + 1 submarginal patches slightly posteriad to middle; and 1 + 1 marginal spots in posterior third. Portion of fore wing exposed in rest ochraceous with black pattern. Coxae and trochanters black, basal portions (1/4 of fore, 1/2 of mid, 3/4 of hind femur) of femora black, remaining apical portions of femora as well as whole tibiae and tarsi stramineous. Evaporatoria greyish brown, other parts of ventral surface thorax and abdomen black, abdominal sternites III-VII each with a yellowish anterolateral callosity neighbouring spiracle anteriorly (Fig. 1D). STRUCTURE: Integument and vestiture: As in L. schuhi sp. nov. Head: 1.15-1.2 times as broad as its median length, 1.6-l.7 times as broad as interocular distance, anteocular part broad, lateral margins gradually converging from immediately anteriad to eyes (Fig. 3H). Antenna: Segment IIb 4.04.1 times as long as IIa. Pronotum: 2.05-2.15 times as broad as its length along midline, lateral margin broadly diverging posteriorly (Fig. 2F). Scutellum: About 1.3-1.4 times broader than its length along midline (Figs. 1C, 2E). Thoracie pleura and sterna: Metathoracic scent gland ostiole associated with an elongate, evenly curved peritreme terminating relatively far from lateral margin of metapleuron (Fig. 31). Pregenital abdomen: As described under the genus; sternite VII of female (Fig. 4E: ST) distinctly impressed posteriorly.

External female genitalia: Tergite VIII (Fig. 4E: t8) only slightly broader than laterotergites IX together; valvifers VIII and laterotergites IX produced posteriorly (Figs. 1C-D, 4E); valvifers VIII (Fig. 4E: [vf.sub.8]), subtriangular, median margin straight, lateral margins broadly concave; laterotergites IX (Figs. 4E: [lt.sub.9]) far surpassing apex of valvifer VIII posteriorly, basal portion strongly, angularly protruded laterad therefore the whole sclerite is nearly L-shaped in ventral view.

MEASUREMENTS (in mm; holotype/paratypes, N = 3): body length 6.5/6.0-6.6; length of head 1.25/1.30-1.32, width across eyes 1.49/1.50-1.56, interocular distance 0.92/0.88 0.94; lengths of antennal segments as (I) 0.46/0.45-0.48 : (IIa) 0.18/0.16-0.17 : (IIb) 0.73/0.64-0.75 : (III) 0.83/0.75-0.79 : (IV) 0.86/0.80-0.83; lengths of labial segments as (I) 0.30/0.30-0.32 : (II) 0.57/0.57-0.58 : (III) 0.50/0.45-0.50 : (IV) 0.60/0.570.62. Medial length of pronotum (in most exposed view) 2.29/2.18-2.29, greatest width 4.58/4.324.40; medial length of scutellum (in dorsal view) 4.18/3.98-4.28, greatest width 5.76/5.51-5.87.

HABITAT: The specimens in Laos were collected in a tropical forest in the lowland of Mekong River (V. Kuban, pers. comm.).

DISTRIBUTION: LAOS: Bolikhamsay Prov.: Pakkading Distr.; INDIA: Tamil Nadu: Kunchappanai.

ETYMOLOGY: From the Lao noun khang khok (=toad), romanized as khankhaak following the usual romanization of the title of Phya Khankhaak, a significant Isan fertility myth (Tossa, 1996), in allusion to the color and shape of the species. Noun in apposition.

OTHER SPECIMENS EXAMINED: PARATYPES: Same as holotype, holotype. Mounted on card, intact, 1 [female] MMBC; 1 [female], HNHM. "INDIA S Tamil Nadu, Nilgiris\15 km SE of Kotagiri, 900 m\Kunchappanai, 11[degrees]22'N, 76[degrees]56'E\P. Pacholatko leg. 7.-22.5.2000" [printed]; mounted on card, intact, 1 [female], MMBC.

DISCUSSION

SYSTEMATIC PLACEMENT" The single attempt to define higher categories within Plataspidae in global perspective was presented by Jessop (1983), who recognized three supposedly monophyletic "genus groups" without assigning subfamilial or tribal status to them. From the three categories, Labroplatys gen. nov. belongs to the "Coptosoma-group," defined by the following combination of characters: ocellus situated near to eye (ratio of distance between eye and ocellus to interocellar distance less than 0.5); abdominal sternites usually convex; head usually narrow, approximately 0.3-0.5 times as broad as pronotum; base of scutellum usually with a transverse tumescence delimited posteriorly by an impressed line.

The monophyly and the validity of Jessop's (1983) three categories has never been rigorously tested, and the vast majority of the described genera have remained unplaced so far. Furthermore, although genera of the "Brachyplatys-group" are united by a number of apparent synapomorphies, the characters shared by members of the "Coptosoma-group" are mainly plesiomorphies. Ahmad (1990), Ahmad and Moizuddin (1992) and Davidova-Vilimova (2006) proposed a formal subfamily level classification more or less based on Jessop's (1983) categories. We believe that their placement of several genera is controversial and does not reflect phylogenetic relationships within the family; therefore the new genus is not formally placed into any of the previously proposed subfamilies, but its relationships with other plataspid genera are discussed in detail below.

COMPARISON WITH SIMILAR GENERA: The highly elevated labrum is a peculiar apomorphy of the new genus which only occurs in very few genera of Plataspidae, and is also exceptional in other heteropteran families. Among the Oriental genera, more or less swollen labrum occurs at least in Coptosomoides China, 1931, Tropidotylus Stal, 1876, and Tiarocoris Vollenhoven, 1863 (partim), but none of these even approach the condition found in Labroplatys gen. nov. However, the monotypic genus Hemitrochostoma Bergroth, 1913 (containing only H. altilabris Bergroth, 1913 from Borneo) has nearly identically developed labrum as in the new genus. Hemitrochostoma conspicuously differs from Labroplatys gen. nov., among others, in the much more elongate body (length:width about 1.7), the strongly dilated mandibular plates broadly overlapping anteriad of apex of clypeus at least in male (the female of H. altilabris is unknown), the minute eyes, and the dorsally sulcate tibiae.

Labroplatys gen. nov. shows certain similarity with Bozius Distant, 1901 containing two species from Tamil Nadu, India. Characters shared by these two genera are the elongate head and most importantly the posteriorly produced terminalia of the female (misinterpreted by Ahmad (1990) as the "elongately ovate" genital capsule). The specialized female terminalia possibly represent a synapomorphy supporting sister group relationship between these two genera; we did not see similar modification in any other genera of Plataspidae known to us. Bozius can be distinguished from Labroplatys gen. nov., among others, by the distinctly transversely impressed pronotum. Species of Bozius do not exhibit the peculiarly enlarged labrum occurring in Labroplatys gen. nov.; however, their labial segment II is modified into a strongly inflated, membranous, laterally flattened chamber (China, 1931), which is an autapomorphy of this genus.

Though its name would indicate close phylogenetic relationship with them, Neobozius Ahmad and Moizuddin, 1992 (monotypic, type species N. pakistanensis Ahmad and Moizuddin, 1992 from Pakistan) is apparently not related to Bozius and Labroplatys gen. nov., as is indicated by the presence of an unpaired dorsal and a pair of ventral conjunctival appendages of the phallus and the plesiomorphic structure of female terminalia (valvifers VIII, laterotergites IX as usual in Plataspidae, not produced posteriorly) (Ahmad and Moizuddin, 1992).

PRESUMABLE BIOLOGY: In the plataspid genera having a more or less enlarged labrum or dilations of the second labial segment, these exaggerated structures enclose the partly coiled stylets. Except for the single known species of Coptosomoides, C myrmecophilus China, 1931, which is myrmecophilous, the life habits of all the other members of these genera are unknown. Similarity between the coiled stylets of these genera and those of Aradidae lead China (1931) to the conclusion that these plataspids probably feed on mycelia, sucking out the intracellular fluid cell by cell. Since several plataspids can be collected at the canopy level, it seems also possible that the elongate stylets allow these species to feed from branches by penetrating the thick bark.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We are grateful to Jun Chen, Hong Liu (IZAS) and Petr Banar (MMBC) for the loan and donation of specimens. We are indebted to Joseph E. Eger (Dow AgroSciences, Tampa, Florida, USA), Petr Kment (National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic), Jing-Fu Tsai (National Chiung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan) and Jitka Vilimova (Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic) for constructive comments on the manuscript, and to Vit Kuban (MMBC) for information about the type locality of L. khankaak. The first author's stay in China is funded by EU Science and Technology Fellowship in China, and he receives support from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (grant no. 20110490769).

LITERATURE CITED

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DAVID REDEI (1,2) AND WENJUN BU (1)

(1) College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Weijin Road 94, Tianjin, 300071 China; e-mail: wenjunbu@nankai.edu.cn

(2) Department of Zoology, Hungarian Natural History Museum, H-1088 Budapest, Baross u. 13, Hungary; e-mail: redei@nhmus.hu

Table 1. Diagnostic characters of species of Labroplatys gen. nov.

            L. schuhi sp. nov.             L. khankhaak sp. nov.

1     Body length 7.2-9.0 mm           Body length 6.0-6.6 mm

2     Color pattern of head as in      Color pattern of head as in
      Fig. 3A, black area at base      Fig. 3H, black area at base
      of vertex confluent with dark    of vertex not contiguous with
      clypeus                          dark clypeus

3     Lateral margins of head          Lateral margins of head
      nearly parallel immediately      gradually converging from
      anteriad to eyes (Fig. 3A)       immediately anteriad to eyes
                                       (Fig. 3H)

4     Pronotum broader, 2.05-2.15      Pronotum narrower, about 1.9-
      times as broad across humeri     2.0 times as broad across
      as its median length (Fig.       humeri as its median length
      2D)                              (Fig. 2F)

5     Peritreme long, terminating      Peritreme distinctly shorter,
      close to lateral margin of       terminating at considerable
      metapleuron (Fig. 3B)            distance from lateral margin
                                       of metapleuron (Fig. 31)

6     Femora, tibiae and tarsi dark    Basal portions of femora
      brown, each tibia with a         black, apical portions of
      narrow yellow annulus basally    femora, whole tibiae and
      (Fig. IB)                        tarsi stramineous (Fig. 1D)

7     Female terminalia as in Fig.     Female terminalia as in Fig.
      4D, laterotergites IX more       4E, laterotergites IX less
      strongly produced posteriad      strongly produced posteriad


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Publication:Entomologica Americana
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Date:Jan 1, 2012
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