La responsabilidad social empresarial y el modelo de excelencia EFQM como marco de integracion de los sistemas de gestion en las organizaciones.
Corporate Social Responsibility, from now on CSR, was seen a few years ago as the "economic contribution" that an organization gave to stakeholders, as retribution for any damage caused to the environment or to be seen as a generous organization that shares benefits with others.
Some organizations, on the other hand, saw it as an obligation beyond the economic factor, so they were afraid to commit to any initiative, because it did not belong to the core purpose of their organizations (the distribution of earnings among the shareholders or the owners of the company), so the was no interest in participating in any CSR initiative.
As time passed by, companies started to notice that CSR did show gains to those that started to involve it as part of their day to day operations. Processes and their execution began to be revised, not only for their generation of financial gains but also for their impact on the well being of employees, society at large and their impact on the environment (Cortina, 2005; Garcia-Marza, 2006).
With this research we want to show companies not only the importance of the concept of CSR, but how such a concept can be tied with the excellence models and the integration that can be done with the quality, environmental, and occupational health and safety management systems. Also, to provide them with continuous improvement tools that will help them to increase their productivity, integrating CSR to the basic strategy and in the global management system. Approaching CSR as a differential competitive advantage, can contribute to a real Comprehensive Sustainable Management.
This CSR concept is not new, the innovation was how it was used in this research; that is, presenting the relationship it poses with the comprehensive management system, that encompasses the quality, environmental, security and occupational health systems in the organization. In this way, the intention is to generate a change of attitudes in the organization and in the community, related to the concept of CSR and the impact its involvement on the global management of companies has on society.
To justify this proposal, the methods employed, and the results obtained will be presented, as well as some of the key concepts included in this subject.
To generate the methodological model of the Comprehensive Sustainable Management, we analyzed the integration between management systems, the EFQM model and the principles of CSR.
This analysis started with the study of the individual relationship between the principles of each management system and the foundations of the EFQM excellence model. Next, we established the relationship between the individual criteria of each management norm and the EFQM model criteria. (See example for EMS in Table 1, Table 2 and Table 3). Finally, we showed the relationship between the Integrated Management System (IMS) and the principles of Corporate Responsibility consigned in the ISO 26000:2010 and the GTC 180 in RS (GTC 180, 2008). These relationships constitute the foundation for the generation of the COMPREHENSIVE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (Quintero, 2012).
We demonstrated that the quality, environmental, security and occupational health management systems have a close relationship with the EFQM excellence model. If the management systems are already implemented, the requirements for the EFQM model can be satisfied in a much simpler way.
We also showed that the guidelines related to social responsibility presented in the Colombian norm GTC 180:2008 may be integrated to these systems, enabling organizations to have a an internal socially responsible approach. Complying with these guidelines would make it easier for organizations to abide by the principles presented in the international norm ISO 26000:2010, related to social responsibility.
With these relationships we demonstrated that COMPREHENSIVE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT is directed towards a definite group of stakeholders, such as shareholders and investors, customers, suppliers, employees, the community, and even the government when it relates to legal requirements. Also, more management systems could be added to this model if the organization so requires it.
2.1 Methodological approach of the research project
We designed the methodology of this research project as a process based on management systems under the ISO 9001:2008 norm (for quality management systems), the ISO 14001:2004 norm (for environmental management systems), the OHSAS 18001:2007 norm (for occupational health and safety systems), the model of excellence EFQM 2010 and the parameters of CSR.
Considering the described method, Figure 1 presents the methodology proposed to fulfill the objectives of the research project. The general methodological approach presents the relationships that should provide a good integration, therefore guiding an organization towards excellence.
In this manner we find the relationships between the management systems and the parameters of the CSR, in such a way that we can determine if an organization is socially responsible based on the correct implementation, execution and integration of its management systems.
This proposal includes a theory section, founded in a comprehensive literature search conducted on the subjects related to the project. Our approach also proposes fieldwork that we undertook as a case study (Yin, 1989; Bonache, 1999; Vasquez & Angulo, 2003; Martinez, 2006).
We found that some of the main works for the fundamental theoretical basis were ATEHORTUA (2008), CCE (2001), FORO DE EXPERTOS (2005), GRI--G4 (2013), ISO 9000:2005, MELLADO (2006), RUSSEL (2000), OIT (2003), RODRIGUEZ and RICART (2004), and UNGLOBAL COMPACT (2001).
We organized the theoretical proposal in two phases. The first phase included the integration of the models for quality, environmental, occupational health and safety management and their relationship to the model of excellence EFQM (Russel, 2000; Quintero, 2012). After this, we reviewed the parameters of CSR and their relationship with the Comprehensive Management System and the model of excellence EFQM, as presented in Figure 2.
We proposed these integrations considering the shared and non-shared characteristics of these management systems and their relationship with the parameters of CSR.
Then, we applied what we proposed in the theoretical section through a case study, with the intent of verifying or refuting if these organizations are socially responsible, given that they have implemented the aforementioned management systems. To that end, we worked with two organizations in our region. One of them had certifications for the management systems of interest; the other one had implemented these management systems, but did not have certifications for them yet. It is worth noting that in this project we worked with two organizations, but the procedure could be applied to any organization.
2.2. Case study
For the case study and to check the theoretical approach used, two local organizations participated in this study. Fist, a survey was designed and applied to obtain the necessary information that showed the level of maturity (comprehension) that employees had about the management system in all levels. Then, a sample of the total number of workers was drawn from the process map of the organization and taking into account the number of workers involved in each process. It was a simple probabilistic draw with a proportional distribution, considering the weight of each process in the participating organizations. Table 4 presents an example of the procedure to obtain the sample in one of the organizations. We defined a measurement scale based on criteria from the experts in the organization and the researchers to analyze the results.
3. Results and discussion
3.1 Structure of the generated model
The methodological structure that is presented as the result of this research, demonstrated, how, using the integration and implementation of management systems, the EFQM excellence model and the principles of CSR, an organization could demonstrate that it is indeed a Socially Responsible Organization (Quintero, 2012). In Figure 3 the steps used to generate the Model of Comprehensive Sustainable Management are shown. In the conceptual Model of Figure 4 the systemic vision of the different levels of relationships and integration between the different management systems can be seen; also it shows how the principles of Corporate Responsibility can constitute a framework where all of them support the Comprehensive Sustainable Management. CSR is the action framework for the EFQM excellence model, which in turn is the action framework for the quality managements systems (QMS), the environmental management system (EMS), the occupational health management system and the Corporate Responsibility management system.
The model presents a modular structure (see Table 5), where the variables or characteristics that were determined as common to justify the integration between each system considered, are shown. Also, the principles of Corporate Responsibility common to all the management systems are included.
Table 6 presents the Comprehensive Sustainable Management Model, which has incorporated the principles of the comprehensive management system such as: 1--Compromise and integrated policy, 2-Planning and assignment of responsibilities, 3--Process management, 4Legal and other requirements, 5--Continuous Improvement, 6--Staff, training and communication, 7-Documentation and control, 8--Measurements, evaluation and audits, where different relationships are evaluated according to the strong, weak or marginal presence.
Also, the model has a structure according to the phase of the PDCA management cycle with a socially responsible focus.
The case studies were developed with two organizations that represent local and national industry in Colombia, and they willingly participated in this step of this research project.
As a part of the practical application y according to the proposed methodology, a survey was done, so the answers gave the information input needed to finish our work.
3.2 CSR indicators
As a complement to the Comprehensive Sustainable management model, we present the suggested indicators, previously determined and justified, based on the Guide for the elaboration of Sustainability Memoirs--GRI (GRI, 2002;GRI-G4, 2013; Quintero, 2012).
The indicators were generated taking into account the stakeholders affected according to the requirements of each management system and the guidelines presented in SR ISO 26000.2010 and the GTC 180. Table 7 shows these indicators for each stakeholder.
The current context of high competitiveness, due to the presence of open markets and globalization, enhances the importance that quality, environmental and occupational health management systems have acquired at a global level.
The aforementioned systems do have a close relationship with the EFQM excellence model, as it was proven. Thus, if the systems are implemented, los requirements of the EFQM model can be fulfilled in a much simpler way.
The synergy between the different management systems and the guiding principles and foundations of corporate responsibility, based on the ISO 26000:2010 international guidelines and the Colombian norm GTC 180 on Corporate Responsibility was proven. An important issue that has to be mentioned is the decision to include the PCDA cycle with a socially responsible approach, after reviewing what was said in the
GTC 180 about Social Responsibility.
A management cycle with this approach is applicable to systems that can integrate a single management system, using common elements of every part of the cycle, involving the principles of corporate responsibility, for each action, that is what constitutes COMPREHENSIVE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT.
Thus, the principles of social responsibility come into the spotlight; the ethical alignment is a focal point for the execution of the continuous improvement cycle and the social responsibility principles mentioned in the international norm ISO 26000:2010 have to be taken into consideration.
The proposed model can be a interesting contribution for any improvement or implementation initiative of a Corporate Social Responsibility program. However, the model presents general guidelines that have to be adjusted to each particular case.
It is important to remark that the results we obtained come from a novel research approach, and that we have not found similar values and indicators in the academic literature.
Another noteworthy aspect is that this is an individual measurement and that it comes from an organization-specific analysis. Thanks to the percent-based scale, which we used to measure the data we gathered, the values we obtain correspond to a specific degree of development of the variable we measured.
We can conclude, based on the results obtained in this research project, that an organization can use the percentage obtained in the degree of maturity of its management systems as a proxy for its performance in regards to the development of its CSR. This is due to the fact that the more the organization complies with the requirements of the management systems, the more it will be in compliance with the principles of the CSR, based on the relationships that were demonstrated in this research.
Therefore, we contend that we propose a novel model to determine the degree of development of Corporate Social Responsibility in an organization with an approach that comes from the quality, environment and occupational health management systems.
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Martha L. Quintero-Garzon * ([section]), Andres Carrion-Garcia **, Ma. Aurora JordaRodriguez ***, Ma. del Pilar Rodriguez-Cordoba ****
* Escuela de Ingenieria Industrial. Universidad del Valle. Cali, Colombia.
** Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativas Aplicadas y Calidad. Universidad Politecnica de Valencia. Valencia, Espana.
*** Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas. Universidad Politecnica de Valencia. Valencia, Espana.
**** Facultad de Ingenieria. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Manizales, Colombia.
([section]) email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org.
(Recibido: septiembre 20 de 2013--Aceptado: marzo 18 de 2015)
Caption: Figure 1. Methodological model proposed of the research project.
Caption: Figure 2. Methodological foundation of the proposed system of integrated sustainable management
Caption: Figure 3. The proposed model generation
Caption: Figure 4. QMS: Quality Management System, EMS: Environmental Management System, OHMS: Occupational Health Management System, IMS: Integrated Management System, GSR : Guidance on Social Responsibility
Table 1. Principles underlying the SGAISO 14001 : 2004 and the EFQM Excellence Model 2010. Principles of ISO 14001:2004 Fundamentals EFQM: 2010 Excellece Model * Secure a demonstrable * Adding value for customers commitment to environmental management. * Promote continuous * Leading with vision, environmental improvement inspiration and integrity. * To promote a wide interest * Achieving succeeding through within the public and the people. standard users. * Must be Practices that are * Managing by Processes. useful and usable. * To Reduce environmental * Building partnerships. incidents that Lead to legal liability. * Identify significant * Nurturing creativity and Environmental aspects of the Innovation. Organization. * Give importance to the * Taking Responsibility for a evaluation of the Legal Sustainable Future. Fulfillment. * Achieving balanced results. Table 2. Criteria and sub-criteria of the EFQM model 1a. Leaders develop the mission, vision, values and ethics and act as role models. 1b. Leaders define, monitor, review and drive the improvement of the organisation's management system and performance. 1. Leadership 1c. Leaders engage with external stakeholders. 1d. Leaders reinforce a culture of excellence with the organisation's people. 1e. Leaders ensure that the organisation is flexible and manages change effectively. 2a. Strategy is based on understanding the needs and expectations of both stakeholders and the external environment. 2b. Strategy is based on understanding internal 2. Strategy performance and capabilities. 2c. Strategy and supporting policies are developed, reviewed and updated to ensure economic, societal and ecological sustainability. 2d. Strategy and supporting policies are communicated and deployed through plans, processes and objectives. 3a. People plans support the organisation's strategy. 3b. People's knowledge and capabilities are developed. 3. People. 3c. People are aligned, involved and empowered. 3d. People communicate effectively throughout the organisation. 3e. People are rewarded, recognised and cared for. Table 3. Relationship between criteria of ISO 14001:2004 and the EFQMExcellence Model 2010 EFQM CRITERIA Leadership ISO 14001:2004 a b c d e 4. Requiriments Environmental Management System * * 4.1. Systemic requirements * 4.2. Policy requirements * * * 4.3. Planning requirements 4.3.1. Identify your environmental aspects. * 4.3.2. Clarify legal and other requirements. * 4.3.3. Establish objectives and programs. 4.4. Operational requirements 4.4.1. Provide resources and establish jobs. * * * 4.4.2. Deliver training and awareness programs. 4.4.3. Establish communication procedures. * 4.4.4. Document your environmental management system. 4.4.5. Control environmental management documents. 4.4.6. Control environmentally significant * operations. 4.4.7. Establish an emergency management process 4.5. Checking requirements 4.5.1. Establish monitoring and measurement capabilities 4.5.2. Evaluate legal and other compliance. 4.5.3. Deal with your nonconformities. 4.5.4. Control your environmental records. 4.5.5. Perform internal environmental management audits 4.6. Review requirements * * EFQM CRITERIA Strategy ISO 14001:2004 a b c d 4. Requiriments Environmental Management System 4.1. Systemic requirements 4.2. Policy requirements * * 4.3. Planning requirements 4.3.1. Identify your environmental aspects. * 4.3.2. Clarify legal and other requirements. * 4.3.3. Establish objectives and programs. * 4.4. Operational requirements 4.4.1. Provide resources and establish jobs. 4.4.2. Deliver training and awareness programs. 4.4.3. Establish communication procedures. 4.4.4. Document your environmental management system. 4.4.5. Control environmental management documents. 4.4.6. Control environmentally significant operations. 4.4.7. Establish an emergency management process 4.5. Checking requirements 4.5.1. Establish monitoring and measurement * capabilities 4.5.2. Evaluate legal and other compliance. 4.5.3. Deal with your nonconformities. 4.5.4. Control your environmental records. 4.5.5. Perform internal environmental management audits 4.6. Review requirements * * EFQM CRITERIA People ISO 14001:2004 a b c d e 4. Requiriments Environmental Management System 4.1. Systemic requirements 4.2. Policy requirements * 4.3. Planning requirements 4.3.1. Identify your environmental aspects. 4.3.2. Clarify legal and other requirements. 4.3.3. Establish objectives and programs. 4.4. Operational requirements 4.4.1. Provide resources and establish jobs. * * 4.4.2. Deliver training and awareness programs. * * 4.4.3. Establish communication procedures. 4.4.4. Document your environmental management system. 4.4.5. Control environmental management documents. 4.4.6. Control environmentally significant operations. 4.4.7. Establish an emergency management process 4.5. Checking requirements 4.5.1. Establish monitoring and measurement capabilities 4.5.2. Evaluate legal and other compliance. 4.5.3. Deal with your nonconformities. 4.5.4. Control your environmental records. 4.5.5. Perform internal environmental management audits 4.6. Review requirements Table 4. Calculation of sample size research XXXX Proportional stratified random sampling Stratum name Population % Sample Ni ni Manufacturing management 3 1,06% 1 Production 106 37,32% 40 Quality Assurance 19 6,69% 7 Processes 7 2,46% 3 Maintenance /Engineering 53 18,66% 20 Healt/Safety / Environmental 9 3,17% 3 Logistic 19 6,69% 7 Administrative /management. 2 0,70% 1 Sales 28 9,86% 11 Finance 18 6,34% 7 Technology 4 1,41% 2 Shopping 7 2,46% 3 Human resources. 6 2,11% 2 Transportation and Logistics 3 1,06% 1 TOTAL 284 108 ESTIMATING PROPORTIONS p Value = 0,8 q Value = 0,2 Estimation error = 0,05 Variance = 0,16 Tolerance or accuracy = 0,05 Z = 1,64485363 n = 107,6 Table 5. Modular structure. Model of integrated sustainable management. X = strong presence; 0 = weak presence; * = marginal presence PRINCIPLES OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY. Transparency. Respect. Ethical behavior. Respect for human rights. Respect for the law. INTEGRATED MODEL Respect international norms of behavior. GTC EFQM ISO ISO OHSAS 180: RS :2010 9001 14001 18001 :2008 :2004 :2007 BLOCK 1. Integrated Management Systems. PDCA Cycle X 0 X X X Prevention principles X 0 X X X Process Management X X X X X Similiar evidence base X 0 X X X BLOCK 2. Relationship INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM WITH EFQM MODEL Commitment and X X X X X comprehensive policy. Planning and assignment of X X X X X responsibilities. Managing by Processes. X X X X X Legal and other X X X X X requirements. Staff training and X X X X X communication. Documentation and control. X X X X X Continuous improvement. X X X X X Measurement, evaluation X X X X X and auditing. BLOCK 3. Relationship of integrated management systems and EFQM model with CSR (Focus from Stakeholders). Relationship Market Value--Quality. X X X X X Shareholders/investors. Customers/suppliers. Relationship occupational X X X X X health with Human Resource. Relationship IMS-- X X X X X Community--society. Relationship IMS-- X X X X X Government--legal requirements. Table 6. Model of Comprehensive Sustainable Management with the principles of Integrated Management System X = strong presence; 0 = weak presence; * = marginal presence Cycle a Socially Common Integrated Management Responsible System Principles. Accountability Management approach Plan Designing a new Responsibility 1. Commitment plan of action. for the and integrated management / policy. Policy Current status Resource 2. Planning and (Diagnosis SR). Management / assignment of planning responsi- bilities. 3. Managing by Processes. Do Desired Product 4. Legal and situation realization, other (execution plan implementation requirements. of action /SR). and operation. 5. Staff training and communication. 6. Documentation and control. 7. Continuous improvement. Check Evaluation, Measurement, 8. Measurement, /Act monitoring, analysis and evaluation and measurement. improvement. auditing. X Strong presence PRINCIPLES OF GUIDE ISO 26000: 201 OOF Fundamentals SR. Cycle a Socially EFOM Excellence Ethical Respect Responsible Model 2010. behavior for the Management approach Transparency law Plan Designing a new Leading with X X plan of action. vision, inspiration and integrity. Current status Taking Respon- X X (Diagnosis SR). sibility for a Sustainable Future. Adding value X X for custome. Managing by X X Processes. Do Desired Taking Respon- X X situation sibility for a (execution plan Sustainable of action /SR). Future. Achieving 0 0 success through people. Building 0 X partnerships. X Leading with X X vision, inspiration and integrity. Nurturing * * creativity and Innovation. Adding value X X for custome. Check Evaluation, Achieving X X /Act monitoring, balanced measurement. results. X 0 weak presence PRINCIPLES OF GUIDE ISO 26000 : 201 OOF SR. Cycle a Socially Respect Respect Respect Responsible for-human for the for Management approach rights interests interna- of tional Stake- norms of holders behavior Plan Designing a new X X X X X plan of action. Current status X X X X X (Diagnosis SR). X X X X X X X X X X Do Desired X X X X X situation (execution plan of action /SR). X X X X X X X * X X X X X X X X X X * * * X X * X X X X X X Check Evaluation, X X * X X /Act monitoring, measurement. X * marginal presence Table 7. Relationship between indicators and Stakeholders X = strong presence; 0 = weak presence; * = marginal presence Cycle a Common Integrated Management Fundamentals Socially System Principles. EFQM Responsible Excellence Management Model 2010. approach Consumers / Customers Responsibility Commitment and Leading with for the integrated vision, management / policy. inspiration and Policy integrity. PLAN Current situation Designing a new plan of action. Resource Planning and Taking Respon- Management / assignment of sibility for a planning responsib Sustainable ilities. Future. Managing by Managing by Processes. Processes. Legal and other Taking Respon- requirements. sibility for a Sustainable Future. Staff training Achieving and success through communication people. DO Desired Product Building situation realization, partnerships. (execution plan implementation Adding value of action / and operation. for custome. SR). Continuous Nurturing improvement. creativity and Innovation. CHECK/ACT Measurement, Measurement, Achieving Evaluation, analysis and evaluation and balanced monitoring, improvement. auditing. results. measurement. Cycle a Common Integrated Management STAKEHOLDERS Socially System Principles. Providers Responsible Management approach Responsibility Commitment and for the integrated management / policy. Policy PLAN Current situation Designing a new plan of action. Resource Planning and * Satisfaction Management / assignment of quality planning responsib requirements, ilities. environmental Managing by and security. Processes. Legal and other requirements. Staff training and communication DO Desired Product situation realization, (execution plan implementation * Customer of action / and operation. satisfaction SR). Continuous improvement. CHECK/ACT Measurement, Measurement, Evaluation, analysis and evaluation and monitoring, improvement. auditing. measurement. Cycle a Common Integrated Management Human Socially System Principles. Resources Responsible Management approach Responsibility Commitment and for the integrated management / policy. Policy PLAN Current situation Designing a new plan of action. Resource Planning and Management / assignment of planning responsib ilities. Managing by Processes. Legal and other requirements. Staff training and communication DO Desired Product situation realization, (execution plan implementation * Compliance of action / and operation. requirements SR). Continuous quality, improvement. environmental, safety. CHECK/ACT Measurement, Measurement, Evaluation, analysis and evaluation and monitoring, improvement. auditing. Cycle a Common Integrated Management Community Socially System Principles. /Environment Responsible Management approach Responsibility Commitment and * Knowledge of for the integrated quality policy, management / policy. environmental, Policy OHS. PLAN Current * Degree of situation manual quality Designing a new knowledge. plan of action. * Perceived organizational commitment with Management Systems. * Knowledge resources available for management systems. Resource Planning and * Level Management / assignment of of knowledge of planning responsib Occupational ilities. Health Program Managing by and the Joint Processes. Committee on Legal and other Occupational requirements. Health Staff training * Communication and quality policy, communication Environmental and Occupational Health. * Rate responsibility to run activity in terms of Occupational Health DO Desired Product situation realization, (execution plan implementation * Perception of of action / and operation. improvements in SR). Continuous personal work. improvement. CHECK/ACT Measurement, Measurement, Government Evaluation, analysis and evaluation and /Legal monitoring, improvement. auditing. Requirements Cycle a Common Integrated Management Socially System Principles. Responsible Management * Environmental approach product satisfaction. Responsibility Commitment and for the integrated management / policy. Policy PLAN Current situation Designing a new plan of action. * Perception of environmental responsibility of the Resource Planning and organization. Management / assignment of planning responsib ilities. Managing by Processes. Legal and other requirements. Staff training and communication DO Desired Product situation realization, (execution plan implementation of action / and operation. SR). Continuous improvement. CHECK/ACT Measurement, Measurement, Evaluation, analysis and evaluation and monitoring, improvement. auditing. Cycle a Common Integrated Management Socially System Principles. Responsible Management approach Responsibility Commitment and for the integrated management / policy. Policy PLAN Current situation Designing a new plan of action. Resource Planning and Management / assignment of planning responsib ilities. * Perception Managing by legal Processes. compliance Legal and other Environmental requirements. Management System, System Gestinon in Occupational Staff training Health. and communication DO Desired Product situation realization, (execution plan implementation of action / and operation. SR). Continuous improvement. CHECK/ACT Measurement, Measurement, Evaluation, analysis and evaluation and monitoring, improvement. auditing.
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|Title Annotation:||INGENIERIA INDUSTRIAL|
|Author:||Quintero-Garzon, Martha L.; Carrion-Garcia, Andres; Aurora Jorda-Rodriguez, Ma.; del Pilar Rodriguez|
|Publication:||Ingenieria y Competividad|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2015|
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