LEISURE FOR VULNERABLE YOUNG PEOPLE: IMPORTANCE, SATISFACTION AND SELF-MANAGEMENT/ EL OCIO DE LOS JOVENES VULNERABLES: IMPORTANCIA, SATISFACCION Y AUTOGESTION/ O LAZER DOS JOVENS VULNERAVEIS: IMPORTANCIA, SATISFACAO E AUTOGESTION.
Leisure has shifted from being an added bonus and a privilege extended to a few, to being essential for the personal fulfilment of all people. It is also seen as a lever for development and social cohesion, which is important for the whole of society. For specific groups such as that forming the subject matter of this study, it is a priority, as it defines and justifies a way of life and a whole set of characteristics that describe life attitudes. The social and cultural context of the young people often influences the leisure activities that they pursue.
This study begins with a review of the existing literature on the importance of leisure for social participation and cohesion, especially the leisure for young people in vulnerable situations.
After years of economic crisis and transformation, it is essential to learn the views of young people, especially the most vulnerable, about their leisure activity, and the decisions they make in this regard. It is particularly important to explore these aspects when dealing with young people in vulnerable situations, as it has not been done before and previously this was not an issue for consideration.
This study aims to investigate how young people in vulnerable situations assess their leisure activity from the point of view of how valuable it is to them, their enjoyment of it, and their management of their own leisure activities. The responses of 2694 young people to a questionnaire were analysed. A total of 783 cases (29.06% of the total sample) were considered to be in a vulnerable situation. We sought to identify whether or not their assessment was different from that of those young people who were not in a vulnerable situation. Finally, the aim was to determine if there were any relationships between the different assessments made by vulnerable young people about their leisure activity.
The results revealed that vulnerable young people attach great importance to their leisure activity, and are highly satisfied with it. The results also showed that having greater responsibility in organising leisure activities and/or managing leisure venues would not increase their satisfaction or the benefits they enjoy. They also revealed that these assessments were similar to those made by young people who were not in a vulnerable situation, and that there was a positive dependence between the assessments that vulnerable young people make of their leisure activity.
2. Rationale and objectives
Leisure has become increasingly important in recent decades, as a means of development, self-realisation and personal satisfaction and, therefore, as an inexhaustible source of quality of life and social well-being (Cuenca Cabeza, 2011, 2013, Lebrero Baena, Paez Gallego, & Tasende Mana, 2014; Valdemoros San Emeterio, Ponce de Leon Elizondo, & Gradaille Pernas, 2016). It is also considered to be a prime instrument for social revitalisation and socio-educational intervention, especially among youth in a vulnerable situation (Lopez-Noguero, Sarrate Capdevila, & Lebrero Baena, 2016).
In recent years, social and educational intervention, where leisure has a leading role, has become a fundamental right and an important strategic line of action for both European and global policies, especially as regards the youngest and most vulnerable sectors of the population (Bendit & Miranda, 2015; Collins & Haudenhuyse, 2015). As pointed out by Salazar and Arellano Ceballos (2015), the social and cultural context where young people live often has an impact on the leisure activities that they participate in.
As is the case with other variables related to youth, such as the level of education attained, which does not depend only on individual motivational factors, but also on family, social class, the labour market and macroeconomic conditions (Breen & Goldthorpe, 1999, Erikson & Jonsson, 1996, Schoon, 2008 & Moreno, 2015), Salazar and Arellano Ceballo (2015) noted that how a young person's daily life is organised influences their leisure, the type of leisure activities carried out, their level of participation and the importance leisure has for them.
As society is in constant transformation and change, it is essential to defend this right of the most vulnerable, as well as to provide training to all involved in the crucial, positive use of leisure in achieving full realisation throughout life (Lopez-Noguero & Sarrate Capdevila, 2014).
The International Charter on Leisure Education of the WLRA (World Leisure and Recreation Association) noted how leisure has become a fundamental resource for the social cohesion of developed societies, emphasising the training and necessary qualification of the professionals engaged in this field, among other issues (WLRA, 1994).
The economic difficulties encountered during the current crisis undermine leisure opportunities for the most vulnerable and, therefore, their personal development, self-realisation, social relations and, ultimately, their quality of life. The 2013 FOESSA study showed how 84% of the poorest people, including young people, had reduced their leisure activities as a result of their precarious economic situation (FOESSA, 2014, p. 471).
In our opinion, it is necessary for society to make an effort to compensate for this deficit currently being experienced by the most vulnerable sectors of society, while highlighting the pedagogical value that leisure can have in any socio-educational intervention and especially, in those with groups at risk of exclusion, socially vulnerable population, etc., as it is currently often underused when working with young people.
The studies by INJUVE (2013, 2014) and Anderson (2017) are particularly noteworthy in this area, as they take into account the articulation between leisure and socio-educational intervention. Fernandez Garcia, Poza Vilches & Fiorucci (2014) also made an outstanding contribution to this field, as they undertook an exhaustive meta-theoretical analysis of forty studies from between 2009 and 2013 that suggestively mapped out the trends in the field of youth leisure.
Yesmilarly, the studies by Moscoso, Martin, Pedrajas and Sanchez (2013) on the leisure, physical activity and lifestyles of Spanish youth are to be highlighted, as well as the analysis carried out by Jimenez Ramirez (2012) of inclusive socio-community and educational activities with students at risk of social exclusion. Another interesting study is that by Lopez-Noguero et al. (2016) on the leisure of young people in a vulnerable situation through the use of a discourse analysis of interviews.
Yesmilarly of note is the interesting study by Uceda i Maza, Navarro Perez, Monton Sanchez, and Perez Cosin (2012), which looks at the spaces and times used for leisure as an educational promotion tool with adolescents who are in conflict with the law. This study stressed the need to design leisure spaces for young people based on three key elements: participation, sharing and creativity.
On the specific issue of ICTs in youth leisure, which is increasingly prominent among this age group, the findings by Melendro Estefania, Garcia Castilla and Goig Martinez (2016) on the use of ICTs in leisure and the training of vulnerable youth, and the study by Vasco Gonzalez and Perez Serrano (2017) on digital leisure for young people in hardship are particularly interesting.
The current social context has undergone a process of accelerated modernisation in many areas (cultural, technological, economic, relational, communication-related, etc.). There is therefore an even greater need for the agents of social change to adapt to these processes in order to fully meet the new demands of the current crisis (Lopez-Noguero, 2004, 2005).
The Renaissance-like aspirations to leisure have re-emerged in these accelerated, postmodern times (Caride, 2012). They are based on the need for and the social right to personal growth, and valuable leisure experiences. The aim is to have experiences that are not constrained by socioeconomic circumstances and are a lever for change for vulnerable groups, including a substantial proportion of young people today.
To this end, young people's communication and social interaction processes should be prioritised, building and reconstructing areas and spaces, timelines and different types of youth leisure activities (Salazar & Arellano Ceballos, 2015, p. 13).
This effort requires more resources, as well as improving the training of the actors involved, in order to recognise and accept of the diverse, autonomous forms of youth activity and creativity, and give material and technical support to the young people who participate in them. In this way, they will be able to experience themselves more fully, attain self-realisation and, at the same time, contribute to the social and community development of society (Bendit, 2000, p. 55). This training should take into account the current Strategic Framework for Education and Training 2020 (ET2020) and future actions that make it sustainable, since it seeks to promote lifelong learning and equity, social cohesion and active citizenship in youth.
In our opinion this last aspect is fundamental, that is, encouraging young people to take a leading role and achieve their development in diverse facets of their personal and social lives through inclusive leisure activities (Lopez-Noguero & Sarrate Capdevila, 2014). As Socrates pointed out thousands of years ago, 'leisure time is the best of all acquisitions'.
Moscoso et al. (2013) noted that young people are seen, analysed and spoken to, but they are usually not listened to. As indicated by Uceda i Maza et al. (2012) adolescents and young people are one of the most invisible groups, and that also has the most difficulties in being heard. Encouraging research that explores the values and attributes of young people in their different life areas (including leisure), and in particular, those of vulnerable young people, is of great importance to enhance their role in leisure activities (Benedicto, Fernandez, Gutierrez, Martin, Martin & Moran, 2014; Bravo, De-Juanas & Gonzalez Olivares, 2016; Lopez-Noguero, Sarrate Capdevila, & Lebrero Baena, 2016).
New areas and spaces that lead to valuable leisure experiences need to be made available; leisure practices that are less consumerist, more sustainable and, above all, that facilitate new experiences (Caballo Villar, 2014); that provide satisfaction and personal development to improve the quality of life of young people and are a decisive lever of change in vulnerable situations, enabling those concerned to be drivers of their own lives (Lopez-Noguero, 2005)
This study has three objectives. Firstly, to analyse how young people in vulnerable situations assess their leisure activity from the point of view of the importance it has for them, their satisfaction, and the self-management of their leisure activity. Secondly, to identify if their assessment differs from that of young people who are not in a situation of vulnerability. Thirdly, to determine if there are relationships between the different assessments made by vulnerable young people in their leisure activity.
This paper outlines the results of a study on leisure, training and employment among young people in hardship. Both quantitative and qualitative methodology was used within a network-based project[,] carried out by seven Spanish universities.
This paper presents the results obtained from a cross-sectional ex post facto (Bryman, 2012) quantitative study aimed at exploring the assessments that vulnerable young people make of their leisure activity, the importance they accord to it, the satisfaction they obtain, and the self-management of their leisure activity.
Initially, a simple random sampling was carried out of the whole population of students of Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO), Vocational Training (Level 2), Initial Vocational Training Programmes (hereinafter, PCPI, as they are known by their initials in Spanish) and Baccalaureate of private, state-funded private, and state schools in all of the autonomous regions in Spain. It was then decided to use a probabilistic sampling design through proportional allocations according to strata, using the region as the main criterion. The Nielsen Areas that divide the Spanish territory into ten regions were employed. Yesx of these were used in order to improve the efficiency of the field work.
In total, 2,694 students participated, distributed as follows: Northwest (17.6%), East (12.8%), South (28.4%), Centre (22%), Northwest (11.2%) and North (8%). Of these, 783 cases (29.06% of the total sample) were considered to be in a vulnerable situation compared to the rest of the students (1,911 students, 70.94%).
All the students who fulfilled at least one of the following requirements were included in the selection of vulnerable participants: (a) those students engaged in Initial Professional Qualification Programmes (PCPI); (b) those whose family unit had an income equal to or less than 500 euros; (c) those who did not have a mother or father and/ or were in foster care; (d) those whose parents were both unemployed, or who had one parent who was unemployed and the other carried out domestic tasks in the household; those in single-parent families whose parent was unemployed or doing housework were also included; (e) those whose parents had not completed their education (or those who lived with someone who had not completed their education); (f) those who reported that they had an average mark lower than five points out of ten in school; and (g) those who were rather dissatisfied or not satisfied at all with their family life.
In the sample studied, males (53.3%) predominated compared to females (46.7%), and young people aged 17 and above were more numerous (58.2%) than young people aged 17 and below (41.8%).
The instrument used for the collection of data was an ad hoc questionnaire on the construction of youth. This tool used paper and pencil and was divided into the following blocks: description of the students; school life; free time; family life; health and quality of life; education, and labour market in the future; and entrepreneurship.
This paper presents some of the results of the block corresponding to free time, specifically those related to the assessments the participants made of their leisure activity. This part consisted of 6 items, which have been grouped around three variables. The first of these variables was the importance they give to their leisure activity, assessed by the item This activity is very important in my life. The second variable studied the participants' satisfaction with their leisure activity, as assessed by the item I am satisfied with this activity. The third variable referred to the self-management of their leisure activity, analysed through the answers to four items: I have responsibility for organising the activity; I would enjoy the activity more if I assumed a greater role in organising it; Being involved in organising the space is related to the benefits I get from the activity; and I practise this activity in spaces that I organise myself.
The students were asked to express their degree of agreement with the statement that was presented to them in each of the items on a Likert-type scale from 1 to 5 (1 being 'I totally agree' and 5 being 'I totally disagree').
The questionnaire was validated by fourteen external assessors. The instrument was adjusted taking into account the results of its administration to a pilot sample of 140 subjects from eight autonomous regions. Pilot administration of the questionnaire was carried out between 2014 and 2015.
The participants were informed of the aims of the research (both quantitatively and qualitatively), and their participation was totally voluntary.
The field work for the quantitative study was carried out between 2015 and 2016. The questionnaire was administered in the schools during school hours.
3.4. Data analysis
Once the database was completed, a descriptive statistical analysis, a comparison of means (Student's t-test) and Pearson bivariate correlations were performed using SPSS 22.0.
Firstly, Table 1 shows the value that the vulnerable young people who participated in the study accorded to their leisure activity, both from the point of view of how important this activity was, and from the perspective of their satisfaction with it. Secondly, it provides information on the degree to which the participants themselves engaged in managing and organising their leisure activity and the spaces in which they practised it, as well as their satisfaction and the benefits they gained from their leisure activity and from self-managing it.
As can be seen, the sample studied considered their leisure activity to be very important and they expressed a very high level of satisfaction with it. However, the level of dispersion of responses related to their satisfaction with the activity was lower (SD = 0.927) than that related to the answers linked to the importance they accorded to their leisure activity (SD = 1.208).
In contrast, when inquiring into the self-management of their leisure activity, it was seen that they had a greater involvement in the organisation of the activity than in the management of the spaces in which leisure took place, since they did not tend to practise leisure activities in self-managed spaces. In addition, when asked about the benefits they believed that they would gain if they participated more in managing the activity themselves, a low level of agreement was identified, which was more pronounced regarding the organisation of leisure tasks than spaces, although the level of dispersion of the responses in both cases was high and fairly similar (organisation SD = 1.460, SD spaces = 1.485).
Table 2 shows the results obtained when comparing the assessment that vulnerable young people made of their leisure activity and the assessment made by young people who were not in vulnerable situations. It indicates that only in three of the six items analysed did the mean scores represent significant differences.
First, both groups strongly agreed with in the item This activity is very important in my life and consequently, they gave a very favourable assessment, with an average score in excess of four. However, the difference between the scores of the two groups was significant (p = .010), which implies that the importance vulnerable youth give to their leisure activity (4.11) was somewhat lower than the value attributed to it by young people who were not in a vulnerable situation (4.25). In addition, it should be noted that of all the items analysed, this was the one where response dispersion was the second lowest (vulnerable SD = 1.207, non-vulnerable SD = 1.091).
Second, there were statistically significant differences (p = .003) in the item I practise this activity in spaces that I organise myself. There was little agreement with this premise both among vulnerable and non-vulnerable youth; nevertheless, the vulnerable young people who participated in the study gave a somewhat higher score (2.89) than that of non-vulnerable young people (2.67), which could indicate that the former carry out their leisure activity in self-managed spaces more often than the latter. It should be taken into account that the results for this item showed the highest degree of response dispersion (vulnerable SD = 1.611, non-vulnerable SD = 1.565) of all the items studied.
Finally, the analysis yielded interesting data referring to the item I would enjoy the activity more if I assumed a greater role in organising it. Although the average scores obtained for this item were not very high for either group (Vulnerable = 2.42, Not vulnerable = 2.27), the difference between the two was significant (p = .023). Therefore it could be argued that vulnerable young people are somewhat more in agreement with the premise that assuming a greater role in the organisation of the activity would positively affect their enjoyment of it.
Finally, the relationships between the different assessments made by young people in vulnerable situations about their leisure activities were analysed. Table 3 shows that the analysis confirmed that there was a positive and highly significant correlation between almost all of the variables studied. The most outstanding were: I have responsibility for organising the activity; Being involved in organising the space is related to the benefits I get from the activity; and This activity is very important in my life, as they relate to all the other items studied.
5. Discussion and conclusions
The results show that vulnerable young people attach great importance to their leisure activity, and are highly satisfied with it. These data are consistent with the studies that indicated that in recent decades leisure has become increasingly important as a means of development, self-realisation and personal satisfaction and, therefore, as a source of quality of life and social well-being (Cuenca Cabeza, 2011, 2013; Lebrero Baena, Paez Gallego, & Tasende Mana, 2014; Valdemoros San Emeterio, Ponce de Leon Elizondo, & Gradaille Pernas, 2016). Likewise, they reinforce the studies that advocated defending the right of the most vulnerable to leisure (Lopez-Noguero & Sarrate Capdevila, 2014; Bendit & Miranda, 2015; Collins & Haudenhuyse, 2015) in a society in which they are at permanent risk due to economic difficulties, considering the opportunities it provides for personal and social development.
Moreover, the study has also highlighted that vulnerable youth accord less importance to their leisure activity than young people who are not in a vulnerable situation. This piece of data can be better understood by comparing them with the results of the 2013 FOESSA report, which revealed that in situations of economic difficulty such as the one experienced in recent years, people in a hardship situation, including young people, forego their leisure activities.
In addition, the analysis has made it possible to observe the scant interest shown by both vulnerable and especially non-vulnerable young people in self-managing their leisure activity. They consider that assuming more responsibility in organising their leisure activities and managing the spaces where they carry out those activities would not increase their satisfaction with or the benefits gained from their leisure activity.
These data necessarily refer back to the conclusions and recommendations provided by those studies that advocate: a greater role for young people in their leisure activity, in order to contribute to their individual and social development (Lopez-Noguero & Sarrate Capdevila, 2014; Lopez-Noguero, Sarrate Capdevila, & Lebrero Baena, 2016); socio-educational intervention as a means to provide young people with valuable leisure experiences, with a non-consumerist approach, enabling experiences that result in better life quality and well-being, while offering opportunities for change and improvement in hardship situations (Caride, 2012; Caballo Villar, 2014); as well as a socio-educational intervention that prioritises the processes of communication and social interaction of young people, constructing and reconstructing environments and spaces, timelines and different types of youth leisure activities (Salazar & Arellano Ceballos, 2015).
It can be concluded from the study that vulnerable young people attach great importance to leisure in their lives, and that it gives them much satisfaction. An assessment that they share with those young people who are not in a vulnerable situation, although the importance the former attribute to leisure is somewhat lower. As reported by vulnerable young people, leisure activities would not bring them more satisfaction or benefits if they could have more responsibility for organising and/ or managing the space where they are carried out. Again, this assessment is similar to that made by young people who are not in a vulnerable situation, although vulnerable young people are more in agreement with the premise that assuming a greater role in the organisation of their leisure activity would enable them to enjoy it more.
The correlation analysis performed shows that, based on the operation of the study variables and the results obtained, most of the variables studied are related to each other. There is a positive dependence between the assessment that vulnerable young people make of their leisure activity regarding how important it is for them, their satisfaction with it and the self-management of their leisure.
Finally, it would be valuable to complement this analysis with a qualitative study that could provide further insight into the reasons and motivations inherent in the assessments of vulnerable young people on the importance of their leisure activity, their satisfaction with it, and their self-management of leisure. This qualitative data would make it possible to carry out a needs analysis that would support the design of a socio-educational intervention project, oriented at promoting the right to valuable leisure of those most vulnerable and their driving role in leisure activities.
Anderson, A. (2017). The five-factor model for leisure management: pedagogies for assessing personality differences in positive youth development programmes. World Leisure Journal, 59 (1). https://doi.org/10.1080/16078055.2016.1 277613
Bendit, R. (2000). Participacion social y politica de los jovenes en paises de la Union Europea. In CLACSO (Ed.), La participacion social y politica de los jovenes en el horizonte del nuevo siglo (CLACSO, pp. 19-58). Buenos Aires. Retrieved from http://biblioteca.clacso.edu.ar/ar/libros/cyg/juventud/bendit
Bendit, R., & Miranda, A. (2015). Transitions to adulthood in contexts of economic crisis and post-recession. The case of Argentina. Journal of Youth Studies, 18. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2014.944117
Benedicto. J., Fernandez, L., Gutierrez, M., Martin, A., Martin, E., & Moran, M.L. (2014). Transitar a la intemperie: jovenes en busca de integracion. Madrid, Instituto de la Juventud.
Breen, R., & Goldthorpe, J. (1999). Class, mobility, and merit: The experience of two British cohorts. European Sociological Review, 17, pp.81-101.
Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods. New York: Oxford.
Caballo Villar, B. (2014). Jovenes, ocio y educacion en la sociedad red. Pedagogia Social Revista Interuniversitaria, 0(25), 17-24. https://doi.org/10.7179/PSRI_2015.25.01
Caride, J. A. (2012). Presentacion: tiempos educativos, tiempos de ocio. Pedagogia Social: Revista Interuniversitaria, 20, 7-16. Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=3975060
Collins, M., & Haudenhuyse, R. (2015). Social Exclusion and Austerity Policies in England: The Role of Sports in a New Area of Social Polarisation and Inequality? Social Inclusion, 3(3), 5-18. https://doi.org/10.17645/si.v3i3.54
Cuenca Cabeza, M. (2011). El ocio como ambito de Educacion Social. Educacion Social: Revista de Intervencion Socioe ducativa, 47, 25-40. Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=3616763
Cuenca Cabeza, M. (2013). Ocio valioso en tiempos de crisis. En La crisis social y el estado del bienestar: las respuestas de la Pedagogia Social (pp. 5-20). Universidad de Oviedo, Servicio de Publicaciones. Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=4481143
Erikson, R., & Jonsson, J. (1996). Explaining class inequality in education: The Swedish case in comparative perspective. Oxford: Westview Press.
Fernandez-Garcia, A., Poza-Vilches, M. de F., & Fiorucci, M. (2014). Analisis Metateorico sobre el Ocio de la juventud con problemas sociales. Pedagogia Social Revista Interuniversitaria, 0(25), 119-141. https://doi.org/10.7179/ PSRI_2015.25.06
FOESSA, F. (2014). VII Informe sobre exclusion y desarrollo social en Espana 2014. Madrid : Fundacion Foessa, 2014. Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extlib?codigo=655054
INJUVE. (2013). Informe Juventud en Espana 2012. Madrid: INJUVE. Retrieved from http://www.injuve.es/observatorio/ demografi'a-e-informacion-general/informe-de-la-juventud-en-espana-2012
INJUVE. (2014). Jovenes, ocio y consumo. Madrid. Retrieved from http://www.injuve.es/sites/default/files/2016/08/ publicaciones/conclusionessondeo_2014-3.pdf
Jimenez Ramirez, M. M. (2012). Actuaciones socio-comunitarias y educativas inclusivas con alumnado en riesgo de exclusion social. Revista de Investigacion En Educacion, 2(10), 62-78. Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/ extart?codigo=4733024
Lebrero Baena, M. P., Paez Gallego, J., & Tasende Mana, B. (2014). Evolucion del ocio de los jovenes espanoles en la ultima decada. En Educacion y jovenes en tiempos de cambio. Madrid: UNED (pp. 333-344). Retrieved from https:// dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=4934668
Lopez-Noguero, F. (2004). La Educacion Popular en Espana, retos e interrogantes. Agora Digital, 7. Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=1088877
Lopez-Noguero, F. (2005). Inadaptacion social y educacion social especializada con jovenes: nuevas perspectivas. XXI. Revista de Educacion, 7, 61-72. Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=1991985
Lopez-Noguero, F., & Sarrate Capdevila, M. L. (2014). El ocio desde una perspectiva internacional. En Educacion y jovenes en tiempos de cambio. Madrid: UNED (pp. 323-333). Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/ extart?codigo=4934662
Lopez-Noguero, F., Sarrate Capdevila, M. L., & Lebrero Baena, M. P. (2016). El ocio de los jovenes en situacion de vulnerabilidad. Analisis discursivo. Revista Espanola de Pedagogia, 74(263), 127-145. Retrieved from https://dialnet. unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=5322644
Melendro Estefania, P. M., Garcia Castilla, F. J., & Goig Martinez, R. (2016). El uso de las TIC en el ocio y la formation de los jovenes vulnerables. Revista Espanola de Pedagogia, 74(263), 71-89.
Moreno, A. (2015). La empleabilidad de los jovenes en Espana: Explicando el elevado desempleo juvenil durante la recesion economica. Revista Internacional de Investigacion en Ciencias Sociales, 11(1), 3-20. Doi: http://dx.doi. org/10.18004/riics.2015.julio.3-20
Moscoso, D., Martin, M., Pedrajas, N., & Sanchez, R. (2013). Active sedentary lifestyle. Leisure, physical activity and lifestyles of the Spanish youth | Sedentarismo activo. Ocio, actividad fisica y estilos de vida de la juventud espanola. Archivos de Medicina Del Deporte, 158, 341-347.
Rodriguez, A.E., De Juanas, A., & Gonzalez, A.L. (2016). Atribuciones de los jovenes en situacion de vulnerabilidad social sobre los beneficios del estudio y la insercion laboral. Revista Espanola de Pedagogia, 74(263), 109-126
Salazar, C. M., & Arellano Ceballos, A. C. (2015). El concepto ocio en la vida moderna de Latinoamerica: revision y apuntes para una ingenieria sociocultural. Razon y Palabra, 90. Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/ extart?codigo=5183577
Schoon, I. (2008). A trasgenerational modelo of status attainment: The potential mediating role of school motivation and education. National Institute Economic Review, 205, 72-82.
Uceda i Maza, F. X., Navarro Perez, J. J., Monton Sanchez, C., & Perez Cosin, J. V. (2012). Espacios y tiempos para elocio integrado como herramienta de promocion educativa con adolescentes en conflicto con la ley. Revista de La Asociacion de Sociologia de La Educacion (RASE), 5(2), 311-327. Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/ extart?codigo=5144545
Valdemoros San Emeterio, M. A., Ponce de Leon Elizondo, A., & Gradaille Pernas, R. (2016). Actividad fisica de ocio juvenil y desarrollo humano. Revista de Psicologia Del Deporte, 25(4), 45-51. Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja. es/servlet/extart?codigo=5797904
Vasco Gonzalez, M., & Perez Serrano, M. G. (2017). Ocio digital en los jovenes en dificultad social. Bordon. Revista de Pedagogia, 69(2), 147-160. Retrieved from https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/extart?codigo=5901380
WLRA. (1994). WLRA International Charter for Leisure Education. World Leisure & Recreation, 36(2), 41-45. https://doi. org/10.1080/10261133.1994.9673916
Ana Eva Rodriguez Bravo. Departamento de Teoria de la Educacion y Pedagogia Social. Facultad de Educacion, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED). C/ Juan del Rosal, n[degrees] 14, Madrid, Espana. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Fernando Lopez Noguero. Departamento de Educacion y Psicologia Social. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Pablo de Olavide. Carretera de Utrera, km 1 (41003), Sevilla, Espana. E-mail: email@example.com
Angel Luis Gonzalez Olivares. Departamento de Pedagogia, Universidad de Castilla La-Mancha C/Gran Capitan, 5 1[degrees] D 13610 Campo de Criptana (Ciudad Real). E-mail: ALuis.Gonzalez@uclm.es
Ana Eva Rodriguez Bravo. Profesora Ayudante Doctor de la Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), acreditada para la figura de profesor Contratado Doctor por la Agencia Nacional de Evaluacion de la Calidad y Acreditacion. Es Doctora en Ciencias de la Educacion por la Universidad Complutense de Madrid y pedagoga. Su trayectoria docente e intereses investigadores se vinculan a los ambitos de la Pedagogia Social, la educacion de personas adultas y mayores y la intervencion-accion socioeducativa con infancia, adolescencia y juventud en dificultad social. Ha participado en numeros proyectos nacionales e internacionales en estos ambitos y cuenta con mas de una veintena publicaciones entre libros, capitulos de libros y articulos en revistas.
Fernando Lopez Noguero. Profesor Titular de la Universidad Pablo de Olavide (Sevilla, Espana), Doctor en Pedagogia, maestro y pedagogo. Doctor "Honoris Causa" por la UNAN-Managua (Nicaragua), cuenta con una larga trayectoria investigadora y docente en ambitos relacionados con la Pedagogia Social, la intervencion sociocomunitaria, la formacion/capacitacion de agentes de cambio social, etc. desarrollando diversos proyectos de ambito nacional e internacional en las citadas tematicas.
Angel Luis Gonzalez Olivares. Profesor Asociado de la Universidad de Castilla La-Mancha y la Universidad Camilo Jose Cela, acreditado para la figura de profesor Contratado Doctor por la Agencia Nacional de Evaluacion de la Calidad y Acreditacion. Es Doctor en Ciencias de la Educacion con Premio Extraordinario de Doctorado por la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, pedagogo y psicopedagogo. Sus ambitos docentes se centran en la formacion teorico y practica de la educacion especial, los valores sociales de la ciudadania y la pedagogia y la educacion social. Sus lineas de investigacion principales tienen como nucleo el estudio de la orientacion, formacion y empleo de las personas con capacidades diferentes, la orientacion profesional, la orientacion educativa y el asesoramiento tutorial.
Ana Eva RODRIGUEZ BRAVO *, Fernando LOPEZ NOGUERO ** & Angel Luis GONZALEZ OLIVARES ***
* Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, **Universidad Pablo Olavide de Sevilla,
*** Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha
Received date: 28.VII.2017
Reviewed date: 13.IX.2017
Accepted date: 24.X.2017
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR'S ADDRESS: Ana Eva Rodriguez Bravo. Departamento de Teoria de la Educacion y Pedagogia Social. Facultad de Educacion, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED). C/ Juan del Rosal, n[degrees] 14, Madrid, Espana.
FUNDS: Research project EDU2012-39080-C07-00. 'From educational times to social times: the construction of youth in a network-based society'. IP. Jose Antonio Caride Gomez. Jointly funded by a grant within the National R & D & i Plan of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, and by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF, 2007-2013). National R & D & I Plan (2012-2015). The following universities have participated in the project as part of the RESORTES Network: Universities of Santiago de Compostela, University of Burgos, University of La Rioja, University of Barcelona, University of Deusto, UNED.
Table 1: Importance, satisfaction and self-management of leisure activity (vulnerable youth) N Minimum Maximum Average Standard ACTIVITY deviation ASSESSMENT Importance 651 1 5 4,11 1,208 Satisfaction 654 1 5 4,52 ,927 ACTIVITY SELF-MANAGEMENT Responsibility 658 1 5 3,54 1,461 for organisation Practised in 645 1 5 2,90 1,610 self-organised spaces Satisfaction 642 1 5 2,43 1,460 with assuming a greater role in organisation Benefits from 636 1 5 2,88 1,485 organising space N valid (by list) 615 Variance ACTIVITY ASSESSMENT Importance 1,459 Satisfaction ,859 ACTIVITY SELF-MANAGEMENT Responsibility 2,136 for organisation Practised in 2,593 self-organised spaces Satisfaction 2,133 with assuming a greater role in organisation Benefits from 2,205 organising space N valid (by list) Table 2: Importance, satisfaction and self-management of leisure activity (vulnerable vs. not vulnerable young people) Vulnerability Average Typ Are equal dev. variances assumed? ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY Importance Yes 4,11 1,207 No No 4,25 1,091 Satisfaction Yes 4,52 ,926 Si No 4,57 ,850 SELF-MANAGEMENT OF ACTIVITY Responsibility Yes 3,54 1,463 Si for organisation No 3,58 1,422 Practised in self- Yes 2,89 1,611 Si organised spaces No 2,67 1,565 Satisfaction with Yes 2,42 1,460 No assuming a greater No 2,27 1,395 role in organisation Benefits from Yes 2,88 1,486 Si organising space No 2,88 1,505 Levene's test for equality T-Test for equality of variances of means F Yesg. t gl. Yesg. ASSESSMENT ACTIVITY Importance 12,433 ,000 -2,714 2344 ,010 * Satisfaction 6,072 ,014 -1,313 2358 ,189 SELF-MANAGEMENT OF ACTIVITY Responsibility 1,961 ,162 -,672 2352 ,502 for organisation Practised in self- ,554 ,457 3,007 2321 ,003 * organised spaces Satisfaction with 8,410 ,004 2,331 2315 ,023 ** assuming a greater role in organisation Benefits from ,770 ,380 ,013 2289 ,990 organising space *. The test is significant at the .01 level. **. The test is significant at the .05 level Table 3: Correlation between the responsibility assumed by vulnerable young people regarding their leisure activity Responsibility for organisation Responsibility Pearson correlation 1 for organisation Sig. (2-tailed) Satisfaction Pearson correlation ,203 with greater role in its organisation Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Benefits Pearson correlation ,318 organising space Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Practised in Pearson correlation ,215 self-organised spaces Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Satisfaction Pearson correlation ,201 Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Importance Pearson correlation ,256 Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Satisfaction with greater role in its organisation Responsibility Pearson correlation ,203 for organisation Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Satisfaction Pearson correlation 1 with greater role in its organisation Sig. (2-tailed) Benefits Pearson correlation ,402 organising space Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Practised in Pearson correlation ,125 self-organised spaces Sig. (2-tailed) ,002 * Satisfaction Pearson correlation -,018 Sig. (2-tailed) ,656 Importance Pearson correlation ,136 Sig. (2-tailed) ,001 * Benefits organising space Responsibility Pearson correlation ,318 for organisation Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Satisfaction Pearson correlation ,402 with greater role in its organisation Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Benefits Pearson correlation 1 organising space Sig. (2-tailed) Practised in Pearson correlation ,226 self-organised spaces Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Satisfaction Pearson correlation ,142 Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Importance Pearson correlation ,222 Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Practised in self- organised spaces Responsibility Pearson correlation ,215 for organisation Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Satisfaction Pearson correlation ,125 with greater role in its organisation Sig. (2-tailed) ,002 * Benefits Pearson correlation ,226 organising space Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Practised in Pearson correlation 1 self-organised spaces Sig. (2-tailed) Satisfaction Pearson correlation ,050 Sig. (2-tailed) ,204 Importance Pearson correlation ,122 Sig. (2-tailed) ,002 * Satisfaction Responsibility Pearson correlation ,201 for organisation Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Satisfaction Pearson correlation -,018 with greater role in its organisation Sig. (2-tailed) ,656 Benefits Pearson correlation ,142 organising space Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Practised in Pearson correlation ,050 self-organised spaces Sig. (2-tailed) ,204 Satisfaction Pearson correlation 1 Sig. (2-tailed) Importance Pearson correlation ,483 Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Importance Responsibility Pearson correlation ,256 for organisation Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Satisfaction Pearson correlation ,136 with greater role in its organisation Sig. (2-tailed) ,001 * Benefits Pearson correlation ,222 organising space Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Practised in Pearson correlation ,122 self-organised spaces Sig. (2-tailed) ,002 * Satisfaction Pearson correlation ,483 Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 * Importance Pearson correlation 1 Sig. (2-tailed) *. The test is significant at .01 level. **. The test is significant at .05 level.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||texto en ingles|
|Author:||Bravo, Ana Eva Rodriguez; Noguero, Fernando Lopez; Olivares, Angel Luis Gonzalez|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2018|
|Previous Article:||LEISURE ACTIVITIES AND THEIR PRESENCE IN SOCIAL NETWORKS IN POTENTIALLY VULNERABLE YOUTH/ ACTIVIDADES DE OCIO Y SU PRESENCIA EN LAS REDES SOCIALES EN...|
|Next Article:||THE LEISURE EXPERIENCE OF YOUNG PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES/ LA EXPERIENCIA DE OCIO EN LAS PERSONAS JOVENES CON DISCAPACIDAD/ A EXPERIENCIA DE LAZER EM...|