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LED Panel Light Assembling Unit II.

Byline: _

LED Panel Light Assembling Unit business is proposed to be set up in all major cities particularly Lahore Faisalabad Multan Gujranwala Karachi Hyderabad Sukkur Peshawar and Quetta etc.

LED lighting products include LED Panel Lighting of different capacities. Demand is increasing with the passage of time as energy prices are rising and long hours of load shedding persistent that have increased interest in sustainability and a market for high efficiency environmental friendly lighting has been created.

Technology

The need can now be cost effectively met with LED lighting technology because of recent advances in LED manufacturing techniques in China combined with maturing LED technology. Currently no one has successfully entered into the market place to fill this void.

Use of new technology has created many advantages over fluorescent lighting the industry standard. It is twice as energy efficient has a 50pc longer lifetime has less maintenance requirements uses no mercury and contributes to reduce climate control costs. However this product is significantly more expensive up front than fluorescent lighting. Many advantages of the product cause it to actually save the customer money over the long term.

LEDs are produced in a variety of shapes and sizes. The color of the plastic lens is often the same as the actual color of light emitted but not always. For instance purple plastic is often used for infrared LEDs and most blue devices have colorless housings. Modern high power LEDs such as those used for lighting and backlighting are generally found in surface mount technology (SMT) packages.

The main types of LEDs are miniature high power devices and custom designs such as alphanumeric or multi color.

Application Specific Variations Flashing

Used as attention seeking indicators without requiring external electronics. Flashing LEDs resemble standard LEDs but they contain an integrated multivibrator circuit that causes the LED to flash with a typical period of one second. In diffused lens LEDs this is visible as a small black dot. Most flashing LEDs emit light of one color but more sophisticated devices can flash between multiple colors and even fade through a color sequence using RGB color mixing.

Bi-color LED

Two different LED emitters can be in one case. There are two types of these one type consists of two dies connected to the same two leads anti parallel to each other. Current flow in one direction emits one color and current in the opposite direction emits the other color. The other type consists of two dies with separate leads for both dies and another lead for common anode or cathode so that they can be controlled independently.

Tri-color

Three different LED emitters can be in one case. Each emitter is connected to a separate lead so they can be controlled independently. A four-lead arrangement is typical with one common lead and an additional lead for each color.

Advantages Efficiency

LEDs emit more lumens per watt than incandescent light bulbs. The efficiency of LED lighting fixtures is not affected by shape and size unlike fluorescent light bulbs or tubes.

Colour

LEDs can emit light of an intended color without using any color filters as traditional lighting methods need. This is more efficient and can lower initial costs.

Size

LEDs can be very small (smaller than 2 mm) and are easily attached to printed circuit boards.

On or Off Time

LEDs light up very quickly. A typical red indicator LED will achieve full brightness in under a microsecond. LEDs used in communications devices can have even faster response times.

Cycling

LEDs are ideal for uses subject to frequent on-off cycling unlike incandescent and fluorescent lamps that fail faster when cycled often or High intensity discharge lamps (HID lamps) that require a long time before restarting.

Dimming

LEDs can very easily be dimmed either by pulse width modulation or lowering the forward current.This pulse-width modulation is why LED lights particularly headlights on cars when viewed on camera or by some people appear to be flashing or flickering. This is a type of stroboscopic effect.

Cool Light

In contrast to most light sources LEDs radiate very little heat in the form of IR that can cause damage to sensitive objects or fabrics. Wasted energy is dispersed as heat through the base of the LED.

Slow Failure

LEDs mostly fail by dimming over time rather than the abrupt failure of incandescent bulbs.

Lifetime

LEDs can have a relatively long useful life. One report estimates 35000 to 50000 hours of useful life though time to complete failure may be longer Fluorescent tubes typically are rated at about 10000 to 15000 hours depending partly on the conditions of use and incandescent light bulbs at 1000 to 2000 hours. Several DOE demonstrations have shown that reduced maintenance costs from this extended lifetime rather than energy savings is the primary factor in determining the payback period for an LED product.

Shock Resistance

LEDs being solid state components are difficult to damage with external shock unlike fluorescent and incandescent bulbs which are fragile.

Focus

The solid package of the LED can be designed to focus its light. Incandescent and fluorescent sources often require an external reflector to collect light and direct it in a usable manner. For larger LED packages total internal reflection (TIR) lenses are often.used to the same effect. However when large quantities of light are needed many light sources are usually deployed which are difficult to focus or collimate towards the same target.

Disadvantages

High Initial Price

LEDs are currently more expensive price per lumen on an initial capital cost basis than most conventional lighting technologies.

As of 2012 the cost per thousand lumens (kilolumen) was about $6. The price was expected to reach $2/kilolumen by 2013. One manufacturer claims to have reached $1 per kilolumen as of March 2014. The additional expense partially stems from the relatively low lumen output and the drive circuitry and power supplies needed.

Temperature Dependence

LED performance largely depends on the ambient temperature of the operating environment or thermal management" properties. Over driving an LED in high ambient temperatures may result in overheating the LED package eventually leading to device failure. An adequate heat sink is needed to maintain long life. This is especially important in automotive medical and military uses where devices must operate over a wide range of temperatures which require low failure rates. Toshiba has produced LEDs with an operating temperature range of 40 to 100 C which suits the LEDs for both indoor and outdoor use in applications such as lamps ceiling lighting street lights and floodlights.

Voltage Sensitivity

LEDs must be supplied with the voltage above the threshold and a current below the rating. This can involve series resistors or current regulated power supplies.

Light Quality

Most cool white LEDs have spectra that differ significantly from a black body radiator like the sun or an incandescent light. The spike at 460 nm and dip at 500 nm can cause the color of objects to be perceived differently under cool white LED illumination than sunlight or incandescent sources due to metamerism red surfaces being rendered particularly badly by typical phosphor based cool white LEDs. However the color rendering properties of common fluorescent lamps are often inferior to what is now available in state-of-art white LEDs.

Area Light Source

Single LEDs do not approximate a point source of light giving a spherical light distribution but rather a lambertian distribution. So LEDs are difficult to apply to use needing a spherical light field. However different fields of light can be manipulated by the application of different optics or lenses". LEDs cannot provide divergence below a few degrees. In contrast lasers can emit beams with divergences of 0.2 degrees or less.

Automatically match source polarity to LED devices rectifiers can be used.

Blue Hazard

There is a concern that blue LEDs and cool white LEDs are now capable of exceeding safe limits of the so-called blue light hazard as defined in eye safety specifications such as ANSI/IESNA RP-27.105: Recommended Practice for Photo biological Safety for Lamp and Lamp Systems.

Blue pollution

Because cool white LEDs with high color temperature emit proportionally more blue light than conventional outdoor light sources such as high pressure sodium vapor lamps the strong wavelength dependence ofRayleigh scattering means that cool- white LEDs can cause more light pollution than other light sources. TheInternational Dark-Sky Association discourages using white light sources with correlated color temperature above 3000k.

Efficiency Droop

The luminous efficacy of LEDs decreases as the electrical current increases. Heating also increases with higher currents which compromise the lifetime of the LED. These effects put practical limits on the current through an LED in high power applications.

Impact on Insects

LEDs are much more attractive to insects than sodium vapor lights so much so that there has been speculative concern about the possibility of disruption to food webs.

Applications

LED uses fall into four major categories Visual signals where light goes more or less directly from the source to the human eye to convey a message or meaning.

Illumination where light is reflected from objects to give visual response of these objects. Measuring and interacting with processes involving no human vision.

Emergency Vehicle Lighting

Light weight laptop displays and light source for DLP projectors. RGB LEDs raise the color gamut by as much as 45pc. Screens for TV and computer displays can be made thinner using LEDs for backlighting.

LEDs are used increasingly in aquarium lights. In particular for reef aquariums LED lights provide an efficient light source with less heat output to help maintain optimal aquarium temperatures. LED based aquarium fixtures also have the advantage of being manually adjustable to emit a specific color spectrum for ideal coloration of corals fish and invertebrates while optimizing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) which raises growth and sustainability of photosynthetic life such as corals anemones clams and macroalgae. These fixtures can be electronically programmed to simulate various lighting conditions throughout the day reflecting phases of the sun and moon for a dynamic reef experience. LED fixtures typically cost up to five times as much as similarly rated fluorescent or high-intensity discharge lighting designed for reef aquariums and are not as high output to date.

Research has been done to improve LEDs for mining to reduce glare and to increase illumination reducing risk of injury for the miners.

LEDs are now used commonly in all market areas from commercial to home use: standard lighting AV stage theatrical architectural and public installations and wherever artificial light is used.

LEDs are increasingly finding uses in medical and educational applications for example as mood enhancement and new technologies such as AmBX exploiting LED versatility. NASA has even sponsored research for the use of LEDs to promote health for astronauts.

Optical Types

The optical and mechanical characteristics of the lights used can have a significant effect on the look of the vehicle and how readily it gains attention in emergencies.

Rotating Light:Emergency vehicle lighting is visual warning lights fitted to a vehicle for use when the driver wishes to convey to other road users the urgency of their journey to provide additional warning of a hazard when stationary or in the case of law enforcement as a means of signalling another driver to stop for interaction with an officer.

The use of emergency beacons is restricted by law in many jurisdictions only for responding to an emergency initiating a traffic stop bona fide training exercises or when a specific hazard exists in the road. Most private security agencies have special permits that allowbto use beacons in specific areas.

The parts and workings of a rotating light on top of the assembled beacon including an optional mirror to be used when the beacon is placed in the windshield or rear window. Center the beacon with the mirror removed. Bottom left and right: The green dome of the beacon has been removed to show its rotating reflector incandescent lamp and electric motor.

These revolving lights may contain a single stationary bulb around which a curved mirror is spun (or which is attached to a spinning mirror) or a lamp with aFresnel lens. This creates rotating beam(s) of light appearing to flash when viewed. Larger rotating lights may contain modular or sealed-beam lamps which rotate as an assembly (commonly 2 or 4 bulbs but may be 1 or 3).

To protect the workings of the beacon a plastic dome often covers the assembly. These domes usually come in solid colors but in some cases the front and back halves of the dome are different colors. Other beacons use a clear dome with colored lenses on each lamp. Especially in the last case these rotating beacons are sometimes referred to colloquially as gumball machines" or sometimes cherry tops" in the case of red lights.

Rotating lights often use a quartz halogen or conventional incandescent bulb though some rotating beacons are now made with LEDs rather than bulbs.

Rotating lights may be used in light bars as well as in single beacons. In a modern enclosed light bar generally V'- or diamond shaped mirrors are provided between the lamps to give the effect of multiple flashing lights.

Strobe Lights

Some emergency lighting is based on strobe lights similar to those used in flash photography. These xenon flash lamps put out a very brief but very bright flash by ionizing and then discharging a large current through the gas. The light produced has a somewhat bluish emission spectrum which makes red lightbars glow a fuchsia pink color when lit.

LED lights are often used in a mode similar to conventional strobe lights however they can be programmed with a wider variety of flash patterns because of their ability to be switched directly by electronics as opposed to discharging a capacitor through a gas-filled tube.

Usage by Country

The color of a vehicle's emergency lights is useful to denote the type of vehicle or situation but the relationship between color and service varies widely by jurisdiction.

The most common colors for the core emergency services to use are blue and red and there are some reservations for using both. One study found that for flashing lights red was more easily perceived in daylight and blue at night. Furthermore red has advantages in haze and fog while blue stands out against traffic at night. On the other hand a different study founded that red had the quickest detection times at night.

Argentina

Argentina uses blue for police red for fire green for ambulances and amber for utility vehicles.

Australia

Red and Blue are used by all State and Federal Police vehicles Military PoliceRed and blue is also used by all State and Australian Deface Force fire and ambulance services. CivilianAmbulance and most fire units across the country use red and blue lights with State Emergency Service motor vehicles in most states being authorized to use the red and blue light combination.

Amber lights are used by tow trucks road construction/repair motor vehicles and most other utility vehicles. Green lights are used to denote a stationary ambulance fire or police command motor vehicle. Blue lights are reserved for emergency motor vehicles in general such as police fire ambulance State Emergency Service. White is used on most newer emergency vehicles both as an extra color on lightbars and in the form of wig-wag' headlights.

Canada

Generally red is used for emergency vehicles amber for construction and utility vehicles and green for volunteer firefighters. Blue is used along with red for police as well as for snow removal vehicles in Ontario (with Amber for Municipal snow removal) and purple is used for a funeral. Police now use both red and blue Canada.

Europe

All German emergency vehicles use blue beacons. In most of the Europe emergency vehicles use blue lights. However it is a darker specification blue than used in other parts of the world.

Red lights are not common in Europe though they are used in some countries where red has a specific meaning. Police in Finland Estonia Germany and Sweden use a forward facing red light to indicate that a driver must pull over and stop. Germany and Sweden also use red on fire vehicles to designate the command post; in other countries a single green beacon sometimes designates the command post.

Spain

The law allows only the Cuerpo Nacional de Policia Guardia Civil Policia Local and autonomous law enforcement agencies to use blue lights so in contrast with convention in Europe civil defense ambulances (Ambulancia) and fire engines (Bomberos) have to use yellow/amber lights (the only other color authorized in contrast to convention in which these color lights are

Blue-red combo is often used by police and used to denote slow vehicles

Hungary

Blue lights are used by police ambulance/ paramedics/emergency blood transport firefighters emergency response teams (public services) correction facilities. posite side in some cases e.g. road cleaning.

Netherlands

The color of emergency vehicle lighting is blue. Vehicles using flashing blue lights and siren have right of way over all other vehicles. Only designated emergency/priority vehicles may use blue lights; this includes police fire brigade ambulance service and a few other smaller services such as the blood bank and some lifeguard organizations. Whenever the vehicles are on scene (usually fire brigade vehicles and some police vans) or staying in place for another reason they need to switch to amber lighting to signal that they are not moving.

Sweden

Blue Police vehicles medical vehicles and fire engines use white along with dark euro" blue to improve visibility during daylight hours. Blue lights are also allowed to be used on vehicles of vital importance to the community". This means response vehicles from gas companies and electrical companies may use blue lights and sirens vehicles use by railroad/tram/metro fast response units including private tow operators that are contracted to lift trams vehicles of the Swedish Military Police and vehicles of the Swedish Customs Service.

France

Police cars are only required to have blue though amber is commonly used in conjunction with blue but not alone.

Latvia

The emergency service and the firefighter cars are equipped with the dark blue beacons on top.

The Swedish Police Service use a forward facing red light to indicate that a driver must pull over and stop. Fire vehicles use a red light to designate the command post. Swedish ambulances use a single green flashing light to indicate the command postAmber lights generally designate non-emergency or slow movement vehicles such as tow trucks tractors combine harvesters or construction equipment.

Russia

Red and Blue Traffic police; FSO (Federal Security Service). Blue colour is used by Police Ambulances Natural gas lines emergency service Central Bank of Russian vehicles. Amber colour is used by the construction and utility; airport service vehicles; snow removal and other utility vehicles.

Romania

Three types of light are used red blue and amber. At a red rotating light stopping is compulsory for a blue light slowing down and moving out of the way is compulsory and amber light means proceed with caution due to over sized or slow vehicle.

The cars that are allowed to use a red rotating light are Police Firefighters.

Norway

Military and civil defense vehicles may also use a blue flag or non-flashing light to mark the first vehicle in a group of four or more vehicles which has the right of way and a green flag or non-flashing light to mark the last vehicle of the group.

Greece

Emergency services in Greece employ the use of emergency lights. Police uses blue colored emergency lights but after a recent restock of vehicles now the use of both blue and red color is usual. Fire Departments make use of red only emergency light while ambulances either use red or both colors. United Kingdom

Blue lights Bar in England is used on emergency vehicle. Lighting is restricted in the United Kingdom through the Road Vehicle Lighting. It is illegal for any vehicle to show a flashing colored light with the exception of the normal direction indicators or a green anti-lock brake warning indicator unless it is an emergency or other authorized vehicle. Blue flashing lights must only be lit at the scene of an emergency or when the driver considers it desirable to indicate that the journey being undertaken is urgent and convey to other drivers that they should take special care.

Amber LEDs are widely used on operational appliances owned by hospitals. The combination of blue and amber LEDs in a light bar are proven to be more visible at a distance.

Hong Kong

Under Hong Kong Law of the Road Traffic Regulations: animals police vehicles ambulances etc. drivers must yield to vehicles who are sounding siren or flashing light bars.

Red and Blue colours are used by Hong Kong Police Force Civil Aid Service and all vehicles in the air-side of the airport.

Indonesia

Under the Indonesian Legislation number 22 year of 2009 the colors and users of lightbars are:

Blue: Indonesian National Police

Red: Ambulance and Firefighter

Yellow: Engineer Vehicles and Security Vehicles

Japan

A Japanese Police Car uses a red light bar patrol car with amber and red light bar.

Red is the most used color on Japanese emergency vehicles with the exception of the wig- wag headlights. The Japanese police uses light bars mounted on a raised platform or a mechanical raised platform to make them more visible over congested streets. Rotating light are the most commonly used. But some of the newer fire vehicles do have LED light bars installed. Vehicles with any other color light are security or engineers.

New Zealand

New Zealand Police patrol vehicle with current LED lightbar LED dash lighting and alternating headlights.

Red: Used by any vehicle defined as an emergency vehicle to signify vehicles to give way to the emergency vehicle. This includes the New Zealand Fire Service recognized ambulance services and the New Zealand Police.

South Korea

Red is for Fire department ambulances of the Gyeongi province some police vehicles.

Blue is used by Police motorcycles some police vehicles volunteer fire fighters

A security officer's personal vehicle from the state of Georgia with a green light bar on its roof and spotlight on the driver's door. Green flashing lights are illegal on moving vehicles in Georgia and are for stationary incident command posts.

Amber or Yellow lights are often used by utility vehicles such as construction vehicles tow trucks snow plows funeral escorts and hearses security patrol vehicles or other vehicles which may be stopped or moving slower than the flow of traffic.

USA

In Washington State a firefighter may use a green light on their privately owned vehicle with the approval of the fire chief of the department they are employed by. The green light is used for identification purposes only and does not convey any special rights or status to the vehicle.

In New Mexico and Texas tow trucks may have blue lights in combination with amber.

In some states volunteers are allowed to use the normal red lights while in other states volunteers must use some other color usually blue or green.

Private Security Car hasAmber/YellowLight bar on top.

Yellow lights are often used on vehicle involved in non-emergency work. Most utility companies towing services and certain types of construction equipment mount some type of light bar or lighting system for a higher degree of visibility.

Setting a LED Lighting Assembling Unit Project and Product

LED is the abbreviation of Light Emission Diode (LED) and mainly consists of a LEDs LED Driver printed circuit board switches and casing or housing. There are many ways to commence a full production unit which needs comparatively much higher fixed investment. This would likely decrease chances of loss in case of business closure and provide a safe exit. In addition it may help the entrepreneur to manage the stock and fulfill orders timely.

There are many brands available in the market including local and multinational companies such as Phillips Digi-tech Sys-tech and Soft-tech and National are some of the well known brands.

LED Lighting assembling unit business means setting up a workshop where assembling takes place and setting up an office for carrying out general administrative and marketing work. The business facility will maintain inventory consisting electronic components printed circuit boards and Casing/ housing used to assemble LED Light to meet market requirement and orders effectively.

The company will divide the store into two parts: one side will be used to store accessories and the other for finished products.

Technology

The proposed unit would require tools and equipment for assembling and quality assurance testing departments. List of tools and equipment is given under the head of machinery and equipment.

Location

The best suitable places for the project are Lahore Faisalabad Multan Gujranwala Karachi Hyderabad Sukkur Peshawar and Quetta etc. In these cities parts of LED Lighting System can be easily procured and there is huge demand of LED Lights already existed.

Product

The unit would assemble LED Lights of 40 watts 24watts and 10 watts.

Types of LEDs Light

LED Panel Light LED Spot Light LED Ceiling Light LED Wall Light LED Down Light LED Cabinet Light nd LED Street Light.

Potential Markets

LED Light market is divided into three main segments in urban and semi-urban areas: Industrial units small and medium enterprises offices and households.

There is a large market in all urban centers and semi urban areas of Pakistan. However it is recommended that initially product should be sold in the same city where the assembling unit is being established.

The primary target market is the retail consumer electronics and construction industry.

Government Commercial developers malls Airports Restaurants Hotels Universities and Schools. Besides quality and after sales service are the key success factors of the products will be. Keep an eye on seasonal demand availability of raw material and credit recovery.

Human Resources

List of Human Resource: Adequacy and Competencies: Recruitment of skilled and experienced staff. Performance Based Remuneration: Attempt to manage human resource cost should be focused through performance measurement and performance based compensation. Training and Skill Development: Encouraging training and skill of self and employees through experts and exposure of best practices is route to success table - 8.

Least cost options for Training and Skill Development (TandSD) may be linked with compensation benefits and awards.

Employment Generation

The project will provide direct employment to 5 people.

Financial analysis shows that the unit will be profitable from the very first year of operation.

Installed and Operational Capacity

The daily assembling capacity of the LED Lighting unit would be around 100 units per day. Initially operational capacity would be utilize 50pc of installed capacity that could be increased 10pc per annum. The assembling unit will be located in any commercial area where basic infrastructure and facilities are available.

Geographical Potential for Investment

The demand of LED Lights LED Street Light LED Spot Light increased manifolds during the last few years. Both the urban and rural areas are facing load shedding problems round the year. In Pakistan since last few years the demand and supply gap of electricity has remained an unsolvable problem and people are now seeking saving of power sources more than ever.

LED Light is the preferred option for industries in production. LED Light LED Street Light LED Spot Lights are not only gaining popularity in urban areas but developed suburbs are also using this new power backup.

Production Process Flow

The proposed business is an assembling unit that will purchase parts and accessories from market vendors assemble it and sell with its own brand name.

The process flow of the unit can be divided into following steps:

Operations Plan Manufacturing

The fabrication of the back plate and circuit boards has a three week lead time on orders of 500. The components will be ordered during the fabrication time and will arrive around the same time as the PC boards. The component placement will be completed in-house along with the final assembly. Two shifts of board production will be utilized during two quarters when the demand per month reaches 500 or more. Process improvements and leasing more equipment in future will increase the production capabilities to meet the quantity demanded.

Once the PC boards arrive they will be taken directly to the machine shop where they will have the key whole slots cut. The boards will then arrive at the SMT area where the boards will be cleaned and

Table - 1

Project Economics

Description###Details

IRR###60%

Payback Period (Years)###2 Years and 2 Months

Table - 2

Project Financing

Description###Amount(Rs)

Total Equity (10%)###176546

Bank Loan (90 %.)###1588914

Markup to the Borrower (%age/annum)###8%

Tenure of the Loan (Years)###8

Grace period (year)###1

Project Cost

Total project cost of the LED Lighting Assembling business would be Rs 1.77 million. Out of this fixed capital cost of the project is Rs. 0.71 million and remaining will be the working capital.

Table - 3

Project Cost

Capital Investment###Amount (Rs)

Tools and Equipment###179900

Renovation Cost###200000

Workshop/office furniture###221000

Motorcycle for local business activities###63000

Preliminary Expenses###50000

Total Capital Investment###713900

Total Working Capital###1051560

Total Project Cost###1765460

Table - 4

###Space Requirement

S. No.###Details###Area %###Size / Area(sq. ft.)

1###Assembling Area###45%###1000

2###Storage Facility###30%###600

3###General Administrative Area###20%###400

4###Guard and Waiting Room###5%###200

###Total Area###2200

###Total Renovation Cost (Rs)###200000

inspected then paste will be dispensed and components are placed on batch sizes of ten boards. The boards will then be sent through a reflow machine. After the boards are completed they will be sent directly to the board installation station of the assembly area.

Assembly

The assembly area relies heavily on low skilled workers that work more than 7 hours per day. The processes outlined require low skilled workers and technician. One should have instituted lean manufacturing practices where applicable in an effort to maximize production efficiency. The 500 unit per month demand is an average throughout the year. Sets of five boards will then travel to the assembly area. Back plates will be assembled at the first station and then handed to the second station where two transformers will be installed.

Project Economics

The table-1 shows internal rate of return and payback period for LED Lights assembling unit.

Returns on the scheme and its profitability are highly dependent on the efficiency of the production team interest of the owner and quality of the products and fulfilling the market demands.

Space Requirement

LED Lighting assembling is a sophisticated activity that requires fairly good arrangements and system. This is because tools and accessories that are needed to be stored and used in the assembling unit are very sensitive. Therefore during site development proper concealed electrical wiring with extra arrangement like electric points and switch boards for technical department must kept in mind.

The area has been calculated on the basis of space requirement for production area management section scrap yard and stores. Although the units operating in the industry do not follow any set pattern it is recommended that the space in assembly unit is allocated according to the aforementioned categories.

Table-4 shows calculations for project space requirement.

Land and Building

LED LightingAssembling unit would be on rental basis which will cost around Rs25000 per month for a single storey with an area of 200 sq. yards.

It has been assumed that the premises would be a developed site with basic infrastructure available. However for necessary construction renovation and customization of the facility Rs200000 will be required which has been assumed to depreciate at 10pc per annum using diminishing balance method.

Raw Material

There are major end products of the assembly unit i.e. LED Light of 12 36 and 40 watts. raw material requirement to assemble one unit of each of the products table was not available.. Following table provides details of machinery and equipment:

Table - 5

###Machinery and Equipment

S. No###Tools Detail###Required No###Unit Price(Rs)###Total Cost(Rs)

###of Units

###For Assembling Department

1###Screw Drivers###5###1700###8500

2###Nut Drivers###5###700###3500

3###Nose Pliers###5###650###3250

4###Side Cutter###5###750###3750

5###Component Box###5###1000###5000

6###Drill Machine###2###5000###10000

7###Spanner Set###1###1000###1000

###Total###35000

###For Wiring Department

1###Soldering iron Automatic###2###1800###3600

2###Hot Air gun###2###1600###3200

3###D-Soldering Sucker###4###800###3200

4###Soldering Wire###10###600###6000

5###Soldering Flux###4###300###1200

6###Squeezer###4###300###1200

7###Nose Pliers###4###650###2600

8###Cutter###4###700###2800

9###Wire Stripper###5###1800###9000

###Total###32800

###For Quality Assurance Department Testing

1###Multi Meter###1###6000###6000

2###Clamp Meter/Power Meter###1###6500###6500

3###Cutter###2###800###1600

4###Nose Pliers###2###700###1400

5###Screw Drivers###2###1800###3600

6###Oscilloscope###1###56000###56000

7###Light Meter/Flux Meter###1###6000###6000

8###1###16000###16000

###103100

###Fire Fighting Equipment

1###Fire Fighting Equipment###1###25000###25000

###Total###25000

Total Tools and Equipment Cost###179900

Table - 6

###Office Furniture Cost

S. No.###Item###Quantityin Nos.###Cost###TotalCost

###Office Furniture

1###Tables for Management Staff###3###10000###30000

2###Chairs for Management Staff###3###6000###18000

3###Chairs for Technical Staff###4###4000###16000

4###Chairs for General Staff###6###2000###12000

5###Chairs/ Sofa Set for Waiting Room###1###25000###25000

6###Carpets###1###10000###10000

Total###111000

###Electrical Work

8###Electrical Fittings and Lights###1###30000###30000

9###Electric Wiring for Technical Departments###3###10000###30000

Total###60000

###Wooden Work

10###Fixed Wooden Wall Board forTechnical Staff###2###25000###50000

Total###50000

Grand Total###221000

Table - 7

###Office Vehicle Cost

S. No.###Vehicle Type###RequiredNo. of Units###UnitCost###Total Cost(in Rupees)

1###Motor Cycle###1###63000###63000

Total###63000

Table - 8

Estimated Cost of Energy Efficient 2' x 2' LED Panel

Light approximately:

1. LED's###Rs.1800/

2. Power Drivers###Rs. 900/

3. Metallic PCB's###Rs.1200/

4. Special Adhesive###Rs. 500/

5. 2'x2' Light Steel Frame/Housing###Rs. 1100

6. Acrylic Sheet###Rs. 500/

7. Hardware (Screws and Nuts etc)###Rs. 100/

Stuffing Requirement

8. Special Purpose Soldering Paste###Rs. 400/

9. Stencil Printer###Rs. 500/

Total###Rs.7000/

Table - 9

###Human Resource

Title/Designation###No of Employees###Salary PerMonth (Rs)

Strategic Business Unit Manager / Owner###1###25000

Supervisor###1###17000

Technical Staff###2###24000

Loader###1###10000

Total Staff###5###76000

Machinery and Equipment

List of Machinery and Equipment Spare Parts and Consumables: Suppliers credit agreements and availability as per schedule of maintenance be ensured before start of operations Energy Requirement Should not be overestimated or installed in excess and alternate source of energy for critical operations be arranged in advance.

Machinery Suppliers Training and after sales services to be sought under the contract with the machinery suppliers.

Quality assurance equipment and standards: Required products quality standards need to be defined on the packaging and a system to check them instituted this improves credibility.

Marketing product developments and

Packaging: Expert's help may be sought for product or service and packaging design and development. Ads and P.O.S. Promotion: Business promotion and dissemination through banners and launch events is highly recommended. Product brochures from good quality service providers may be developed and circulated. Sales and Distribution Network: Expert's advice and distribution agreements are required with.

Price - Bulk Discounts Cost plus Introductory Discounts: Price should never be allowed to compromise quality. Price during introductory phase may be lower and used as promotional tool. Product cost estimates should be carefully documented before price setting. Government controlled prices shall be displayed.

Components

LED's: Metallic PCB's SMT stuffing services (Facility available at NIE)

Power Drivers: Special Adhesive 2'x2' Light Steel Frame/Housing Acrylic Sheet hardware screws and nuts etc.

Other Costs

Considering the industry norms it has been assumed that 80pc of the total sale will be on cash while remaining 20pc sales will be on credit to local distributors. The collection period is supposed to be 30 days.

A provision for bad debts has been assumed to be to 2pc of the annual credit sales. The cost of the utilities including electricity fuel for motor cycle telephone and water is estimated to be around Rs41000 per month.

It has also been assumed that assembling unit will be engaged in local sales for which demand can be created through retailers and directly selling to distributor. As print advertising would be difficult for a new setup as advertising draws substantial funds. Therefore it has been assumed that relationship building will be followed by the business in order to create consistent demand for the product. For this purpose an amount equivalent to 6pc of the annual sales has been allocated. This amount will be utilized for schemes for distributors whole sellers and retailers.

It has been assumed that long term financing for 8 years will be obtained in order to finance the project investment cost. The installments are assumed to be paid at the end of every month.

Miscellaneous expenses of running the business are assumed to be Rs10000 per month. These expenses include various items like office stationery daily consumables etc. and are assumed to increase at a nominal rate of 10pc per annum.

The business is assumed to be run as a sole proprietorship; therefore tax rates applicable on the income of a non salaried individual taxpayer are used for income tax calculation of the business.

Cost of Capital

The weighted average cost of capital is based on the debt / equity ratio of 90:10.

Table - 10

###Cost of Capital

Particulars###Rate###power supply outside. It makes the lamps' life more

Required return on equity###20%###than 30000th.

Cost of finance###8%

Weighted Average Cost of Capital###9.2%

Philips LED Bulb

Philips Ambient LED lights provide instant functional lighting while saving energy due to its state- of-the art LED technology. It performs better in the daily in door activities in the most environmental manner. It's one bulb Philips LI working for the last 15 years based on 2.7 hours per day usage in an open fitting. User of Philips LED bulb not only has a lifespan of up to 15 years but also saves up to 85pc energy.

LED Lights Replacing Florescent Tubes

Main Feature of the product is its low power consumption as compared to ordinary Tube Rods. Led Rods with 8 Watt16 Watt and 18Watt are available with better light as compared to ordinary tube lights rods. LEDs are poised to replace traditional incandescent light bulbs. LEDs are rapidly becoming the preferred lighting solution of both professionals and residential users. LED technology is continually advancing producing brighter LED bulbs. It is green and energy saving and low carbon and energy saving it can save 60pc energy than traditional light.

Light tubes Structure design is 180 degree rotatable lamp holder can regulate different lighting directions.

No RF interference No flickering or buzzing No Mercury and other hazardous materials fully RoHS-complia Minimum maintenance costs Produce less Heat Solid State high shock/vibration resistant Quick and easy installation to minimize retrofit costs. Work without ballast Instant soft start Double click on above image to view full picture. MORE VIEWS Product Description Technical Specification Related Products.

Long life span the lamp adopts high quality led chips and with high precision constant current source power supply outside. It makes the lamps' life more than 30000th.

Light tubes are easy to installWide voltage (90- 260v) design only need to through to the main electricity then light. - See more at Mian Brothers supply and services http://mianbros.com/led-tube light.

Top 10 LED bulb brands in India

India's LED market is forecasted to reach $1457.8 million by 2019 at a CAGR of 35.9 percent during the period 2014-2019. Government initiatives to replace incandescent bulbs with LED bulbs due to the increasing energy demand supply gap and declining prices are the factors driving the growth of LED lighting in India. Street lighting applications account for most of the market revenues in the Indian LED lighting market.

Energy conservation drives the need for more power efficient products and the electrification of rural areas are some of the other factors that are driving the Indian LED lighting market.

Unlike in developed countries LED lighting constitutes only a negligible part of India's overall lighting market.Among the various verticals the LED industrial lighting segment is gradually opening up with a wide range of opportunities for players in India who are witnessing immense growth. However for the consumer market LED is still an expensive technology. LEDs are penetrating the consumer market but lag behind CFL technology especially in the lamps tube lights and bulbs sectors.

A survey done by Electronics Bazaar found that consumers prefer the bigger brands over the SME brands available in India. The SME brands are yet to make their mark in the lighting segment. Besides none of the companies could be ranked on the basis of their revenues as most of them have not filed their latest revenues for 2013-14 with the Ministry of Corporate Affairs. Another challenge was that since these companies are into multiple businesses it was difficult to access their divisional revenue particularly for the total LED bulbs sold.

LED in USA

Statistics and Facts about LED Lighting in the US A light emitting diode is an electronic semiconductor device which is used in digital displays and lamps. In general lighting incandescent light bulbs are still the most widely used electric lights today. However many countries including the United States have begun to phase out incandescent lamps in favor of more energy efficient light sources such as light emitting diodes and organic light emitting diodes. In 2019 LEDs are estimated to achieve a 53 percent penetration of the global lighting market. As Asian countries are likely to increase their share in global sapphire production thus eroding the price of semiconductors the cost of LED lamps is expected to decrease rapidly.

Currently LED lighting is predominantly used as a backlight technology for television and mobile phone screens. In 2011 the North American LED market was sized at around one billion euros.

Contact details of suppliers experts/ consultants

There are many local suppliers of LED Lights finished goods as well as parts in Karachi and other major cities of Pakistan; during the course of study following machinery manufacturer was identified:

National Institute of Electronics Plot # 17 Sector H-9 Islamabad

Phone: 051 -9257973 Fax: 051 -9258515

Green Energy Associates Office No.302 3rd Floor Crystal Court Block-5 Clifton Karachi Phone: +92 - 21 -35293187

Creative Electronics and Automation

Plot 142 Industrial Triangle Kahutta Road Islamabad Phone: (051) 4492001
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Publication:PIAR Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Feb 28, 2015
Words:7123
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