LDPE Oxidation by C[O.sub.2] Laser Radiation (10.6 [micro]m).
Polyethylene (PE) is one of the most extensively used thermoplastic polymers [1, 2]; its mechanical properties, electrical insulation, chemical resistance, being odorless and nontoxic, toughness and flexibility, low cost, and easy processability have led to a widespread use in diverse applications [3, 4]. These properties make PE suitable material for use as packaging films, enabling the production of mechanically strong films . These films are usually discarded after only single use and then finally accumulate in a sanitary landfill, due to their low degradability caused by their high molecular weight and the absence of hydrophilic functional groups .
Biodegradable polymers may be classified into two groups, those that are intrinsically biodegradable, whose molecular structure allows the action of microorganisms, and those that, after being subjected to aging treatment (UV radiation, heat exposure) or due to the addition of prodegradant additives, like organosoluble transition metal ions, dithiocarbamates, acetylacetonates and ketones, which act as initiators of the degradation process, may undergo a microbiological attack [7-9].
In general, PE is not a biodegradable polymer; therefore, the main strategies to increase their biodegradability are focusing on developing a PE susceptible to hydrolysis reactions, biodegradable PE, PE-BIO, and incorporating oxygen into the backbone polymer, like carbonyl group (C=O) . Commonly, the incorporation of this chromophore group into the polymer backbone is carried out adding chemical additives, like ester, ketones, or lactones, during the polymerization process . The oxidized polymers change the behavior from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, resulting in the fact that polymers could be metabolized by some microorganisms [12, 13].
In this work, we have studied the oxidation of LDPE when it is irradiated with C[O.sub.2] laser radiation (10.6 [micro]m), obtaining an oxidized PE, by a physical process, with similar spectroscopic properties to those of PE-BIO obtained by chemical process.
2.1. Materials. LDPE and PE-BIO films were obtained from commercial bags samples from different supermarkets in Aguascalientes, Mexico; these bags, used for dry-cleaning, newspapers, bread, frozen foods, fresh produce, and garbage, were made in Mexico and are commercialized in Latin America . The molecular weight and exact composition were commercially confidential, because they were synthesized and manufactured under trademark. 32 samples of LDPE were cut into strips of 40 x 50 mm with a thickness of 0.05 mm.
2.2. Laser Treatment. Laser treatment of LDPE films was carried out with a C[O.sub.2] laser model Laser Engraver C120H at wavelength of 10.6 [micro]m with a spot of 3.5 cm. The laser spot was expanded using a zinc selenide (SeZn) mirror and a SeZn meniscus negative lens with a wavelength transmission of 10.6 [micro]m and focal length of -116.16 mm. LDPE films were mounted on racks at 20 cm from the radiation source and irradiated at three fluencies, F, (W x s/[cm.sup.2]): 1050, 2100, and 3050.
2.3. Carbonyl Index ([I.sub.CO]). Structural changes of LDPE films irradiated by C[O.sub.2] laser were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra of the films were recorded on a Thermo-Nicolet spectrophotometer model iS10 with attenuated total reflectance (ATR).
The carbonyl index ([I.sub.CO]), used to characterize the oxidation of LDPE, is defined as the ratio of absorbance of the stretching vibration of carbonyl group (C=O), 1740 [cm.sup.-1] ([A.sub.(1740)]), and the absorbance at 1835 [cm.sup.-1] ([A.sub.(1835)]), used as reference. Consider the following :
[I.sub.CO] = ([A.sub.(1740)] - [A.sub.(1835)])/(0.008 8 t), (1)
where t is the thickness of the LDPE films (mm).
2.4. Hydroxyl Group Index ([I.sub.OH]). The hydroxyl group index ([I.sub.OH]), used to characterize the degree of oxidation of LDPE, is defined as the ratio of absorbance of the stretching vibration of hydroxyl group, 3400 [cm.sup.-1] ([A.sub.(3400)]), and the absorbance at 2020 [cm.sup.-1] ([A.sub.(2020)]), used as reference. Consider the following:
[I.sub.OH] = [A.sub.(3400)]/[A.sub.(2020)]. (2)
The infrared, IR, spectra of PE-BIO and LDPE films exposed to C[O.sub.2] laser radiation are shown in Figure 1. These spectra show the IR bands characteristics of PE: stretching vibration of carbon-hydrogen group (CH) of the main chain at 2772-3038 [cm.sup.-1] and wagging and rocking vibration of methylene (C[H.sub.2]) at 1440-1490 [cm.sup.-1] and 700-750 [cm.sup.-1], respectively [16, 17]. The IR spectra of the PE-BIO films without exposure to C[O.sub.2] laser radiation show an IR absorption band at 1740 [cm.sup.-1] and stretching vibration of carbonyl group (C=O), whereas the IR spectrum of the LDPE films shows this band after being exposed to C[O.sub.2] laser radiation. IR spectra of PE-BIO show a single peak at 700-750 [cm.sup.-1] and at 1440-1490 [cm.sup.-1] because it is a linear polymer, while for LDPE these same bands are bifurcated due to being a branched polymer. See Figures 2(a) and 2(b).
IR band from rocking vibrations of methylene group (C[H.sub.2]) from LPDE films irradiated with C[O.sub.2] laser tends to increase and form a doublet as C[O.sub.2] laser fluency increases (see Figure 2(a)), indicating that crystallinity is increasing, because this IR band shows a doublet when it is in crystalline phase . These results are in agreement with those reported by Laycock et al., since they reported that crystallinity tends to increase at the early stages of PE photooxidation .
IR bands from asymmetric deformation of methyl group (C[H.sub.3]) from LDPE irradiated with C[O.sub.2] laser tend to split and increase the formed shoulder as C[O.sub.2] laser fluency increases (see Figure 2(b)), indicating that LDPE irradiated with C[O.sub.2] laser radiation undergoes branches scission from polymer backbone, allowing the formation of short and low molecular weight polymer chains leading to a decrease in molecular weight and formation of C=O groups. The C=O bonds make the polymer surface ready for microorganism's attack [11, 16, 19].
LDPE exposed to C[O.sub.2] laser radiation undergoes thermooxidation reactions bringing on oxygen diffusion in polymeric chains of the LDPE films, causing polymer backbone scission, resulting in the formation of smaller molecular fragments. The incorporation of oxygen into the polymer chain results in the formation of functional groups like C=O groups. See Figure 3(a). The inclusion of C=O groups in the polymeric chain changes their behavior from hydrophobic to hydrophilic behavior . PE-BIO is an oxidized material since its manufacturing, [I.sub.CO] = 3.75, while [I.sub.CO] of LDPE films without exposure to C[O.sub.2] laser radiation is 0.12; however, LDPE films exposed to C[O.sub.2] laser radiation show similar [I.sub.CO] to that of PE-BIO; therefore, it is possible to oxidize LDPE when it is irradiated with C[O.sub.2] laser radiation. See Figures 3(a) and 3(b).
Figure 4(a) shows IR absorption bands of stretching vibration of the hydroxyl group (OH), 3600-3100 [cm.sup.-1] of LDPE films exposed to C[O.sub.2] laser radiation at different fluencies and PE-BIO without exposure to C[O.sub.2] laser radiation. These bands tend to get broader and coalesce while increasing C[O.sub.2] laser fluency , indicating formation of hydroperoxides and OH groups during thermooxidation reactions. IR absorption band from OH groups increased during thermooxidation reactions because there is a disequilibrium in the formation and consumption of hydroperoxides throughout the formation of carbonyls, esters, lactones, and ketones groups. Hydroperoxides accumulate in the polymer matrix during thermooxidation reaction of PE, unlike the photooxidation reaction, where they do not accumulate [23-25]. Therefore, C[O.sub.2] laser radiation is able to oxidize LDPE films by thermooxidation reactions. Figure 4(b) shows [I.sub.OH] from LDPE and PE-BIO films exposed to C[O.sub.2] laser. [I.sub.OH] tends to increase with the increase of C[O.sub.2] laser fluency; it should be highlighted that [I.sub.OH] from 2100 and 3151F is almost the same as [I.sub.OH] of the nonirradiated PE-BIO films.
Grassie and Scott reported that hydroperoxides and vinyl groups initially are present in LDPE films due to the remnants of additives used during polymerization process . In Figure 5(a), IR absorption regions of vinyl groups, 900-800 [cm.sup.-1], of LDPE films irradiated by C[O.sub.2] laser radiation are shown. The decrease in IR absorbance from the out-of-plane deformation vibration of C[H.sub.2] of vinylidene groups, 895-885 [cm.sup.-1], is due to thermooxidation reaction of the LDPE films which causes the decomposition of vinylidene and hydroperoxides groups and the formation of free radicals. These free radicals tend to react in presence of C[O.sub.2] laser radiation and oxygen forming C=O, C-O and OH. See Figures 3(a), 4(a), and 5(b) [12, 27].
Figure 5(b) shows IR absorption band of C-O groups present in alcohols, 1200-1010 [cm.sup.-1], of LDPE films irradiated by C[O.sub.2] laser radiation. LDPE exposed to C[O.sub.2] laser radiation undergoes an increase in this IR absorption band, indicating a simultaneous formation and accumulation of hydroperoxides in LDPE films; these results are consistent with the increase in the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups concentration, Figures 3(a) and 4(a), respectively. Therefore, this result indicates that the LDPE is susceptible to oxidation when it is irradiated with C[O.sub.2] laser radiation.
In this work, we have shown that C[O.sub.2] laser radiation at 10.6 [micro]m produces thermooxidation reactions onto LDPE, causing the oxidation of the polymer backbone and the formation of smaller molecular fragments. C[O.sub.2] laser radiation induces the formation, accumulation, and decomposition of hydroperoxides groups causing the formation of oxidized groups such as ketones, lactones, and carboxylic acids into LDPE films. The higher degree of oxidation was obtained at a fluency of 1050 W x s/[cm.sup.2]. Therefore, it is possible to oxidize the LDPE when it is exposed to C[O.sub.2] laser radiation, obtaining, by physical process, a PE with spectroscopic properties similar to PE-BIO.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
 T. F. M. Ojeda, E. Dalmolin, M. M. C. Forte, R. J. S. Jacques, F. M. Bento, and F. A. O. Camargo, "Abiotic and biotic degradation of oxo-biodegradable polyethylenes," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 965-970, 2009.
 E. Gauthier, M. Nikolic, R. Truss, B. Laycock, and P. Halley, "Effect of soil environment on the photo-degradation of polyethylene films," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 132, no. 39, Article ID 42558, pp. 1-10, 2015.
 A. Benitez, J. J. Sanchez, M. L. Arnal, A. J. Muller, O. Rodriguez, and G. Morales, "Abiotic degradation of LDPE and LLDPE formulated with a pro-oxidant additive," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 490-501, 2013.
 E. F. Gamez and F. C. Michel Jr., "Biodegradability of conventional and bio-based plastics and natural fiber composites during composting, anaerobic digestion and long-term soil incubation," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 98, no. 12, pp. 2583-2591, 2013.
 P. K. Roy, P. Surekha, R. Raman, and C. Rajagopal, "Investigating the role of metal oxidation state on the degradation behaviour of LDPE," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 94, no. 7, pp. 1033-1039, 2009.
 M. Koutny, J. Lemaire, and A. Delort, "Biodegradation of polyethylene films with prooxidant additives," Chemosphere, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 1243-1252, 2006.
 G. Scott, "'Green' polymers," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 1-7, 2000.
 E. Chiellini, A. Corti, and S. D'Antone, "Oxo-biodegradable full carbon backbone polymers--biodegradation behaviour of thermally oxidized polyethylene in an aqueous medium," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 1378-1383, 2007.
 P. Roy, P. Surekha, C. Rajagopal, S. Chatterjee, and V. Choudhary, "Studies on the photo-oxidative degradation of LDPE films in the presence of oxidised polyethylene," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 1151-1160, 2007.
 E. Chiellini, A. Corti, and G. Swift, "Biodegradation of thermally- oxidized, fragmented low-density polyethylenes," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 341-351, 2003.
 S. Zahra, S. S. Abbas, M.-T. Mahsa, and N. Mohsen, "Biodegradation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) by isolated fungi in solid waste medium," Waste Management, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 396-401, 2010.
 R. A. Gross and B. Kalra, "Biodegradable polymers for the environment," Science, vol. 297, no. 5582, pp. 803-807, 2002.
 A. Ammala, S. Bateman, K. Dean et al., "An overview of degradable and biodegradable polyolefins," Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1015-1049, 2011.
 L. Guadagno, C. Naddeo, V. Vittoria, G. Camino, and C. Cagnani, "Chemical and morphologial modifications of irradiated linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 175-186, 2001.
 G. Socrates, Infrared and Raman Characteristic Group Frecuencies, Tables and Charts, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2001.
 W. D. Rethwisch, Callister, Materials Science and Engineering, Limusa-Wiley, 2010.
 B. Laycock, M. Nikolic, J. M. Colwell et al., "Lifetime prediction of biodegradable polymers," Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 71, pp. 144-189, 2017.
 T. Corrales, F. Catalina, C. Peinado, N. S. Allen, and E. Fontan, "Photooxidative and thermal degradation of polyethylenes: interrelationship by chemiluminescence, thermal gravimetric analysis and FTIR data," Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, vol. 147, no. 3, pp. 213-224, 2002.
 L. A. Pinheiro, M. A. Chinelatto, and S. V. Canevarolo, "The role of chain scission and chain branching in high density polyethylene during thermo-mechanical degradation," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 445-453, 2004.
 J. V. Gulmine, P. R. Janissek, H. M. Heise, and L. Akcelrud, "Degradation profile of polyethylene after artificial accelerated weathering," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 385-397, 2003.
 M. C. Mistretta, P. Fontana, M. Ceraulo, M. Morreale, and F. P. La Mantia, "Effect of compatibilization on the photo-oxidation behaviour of polyethylene/polyamide 6 blends and their nanocomposites," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 112, pp. 192-197, 2015.
 F. Gugumus, "Thermolysis of polyethylene hydroperoxides in the melt: 3. Experimental kinetics of product formation," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 95-110, 2002.
 F. Gugumus, "Thermolysis of polyethylene hydroperoxides in the melt. Part 9: re-examination of the experimental kinetics of hydroperoxide decomposition," Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 2121-2134, 2007.
 I. Enomoto, Y. Katsumura, H. Kudo, and M. Sekiguchi, "The role
of hydroperoxides as a precursor in the radiation-induced graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene," Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 718-724, 2010.
 J. D. Peterson, S. Vyazovkin, and C. A. Wight, "Kinetics of the thermal and thermo-oxidative degradation of polystyrene, polyethylene and poly(propylene)," Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics, vol. 202, no. 6, pp. 775-784, 2001.
 E. A. B. Moura, A. V. Ortiz, H. Wiebeck, A. B. A. Paula, A. L. A. Silva, and L. G. A. Silva, "Effects of gamma radiation on commercial food packaging films--Study of changes in UV/VIS spectra," Radiation Physics and Chemistry, vol. 71, no. 1-2, pp. 201-204, 2004.
A. Martinez-Romo, R. Gonzalez-Mota, J. J. Soto-Bernal, and I. Rosales-Candelas
Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, AGS, Mexico
Correspondence should be addressed to R. Gonzalez-Mota; firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 5 October 2017; Revised 15 February 2018; Accepted 26 February 2018; Published 10 April 2018
Academic Editor: Miriam H. Rafailovich
Caption: Figure 1: IR spectrum of LDPE and PE-BIO films exposed to C[O.sub.2] laser radiation.
Caption: Figure 2 (a) Infrared band of rocking vibration of methylene, C[H.sub.2], from LDPE irradiated with CO2 laser at different fluencies
(b) Infrared band of asymmetric rocking vibration of terminal methyl, C[H.sub.3], from LDPE irradiated with C[O.sub.2] laser at different fluencies
Caption: Figure 3 (a) Infrared absorption region of carbonyl group (1600-1750 [cm.sup.-1]) of LDPE films exposed to C[O.sub.2] laser radiation
(b) Carbonyl index ([I.sub.CO]) of LDPE films exposed to C[O.sub.2] laser radiation at different fluencies
Caption: Figure 4 (a) Infrared absorption region of hydroxyl groups (3600-3100 [cm.sup.?1]) of LDPE films exposed to C[O.sub.2] laser radiation
(b) Hydroxyl group index ([I.sub.HO]) of LDPE films exposed to C[O.sub.2] laser radiation at different fluencies
Caption: Figure 5 (a) Infrared absorption region of vinyl functional group of LDPE films exposed to different fluencies
(b) Infrared absorption region of C-O groups in alcohols of LDPE films exposed to different fluencies
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Title Annotation:||Research Article|
|Author:||Martinez-Romo, A.; Gonzalez-Mota, R.; Soto-Bernal, J.J.; Rosales-Candelas, I.|
|Publication:||International Journal of Polymer Science|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2018|
|Previous Article:||Structural Characterization, Antioxidant Activity, and Biomedical Application of Astragalus Polysaccharide Degradation Products.|
|Next Article:||Polyarylene Ether Nitrile-Based High-k Composites for Dielectric Applications.|