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L'Anatolia occidentale nel medio regno ittita.

By STEFANO DE MARTINO. Eothen. Collana di studi sulle civilta dell'Oriente antico, vol. 5. Florence: IL VANTAGIO EDITORE, 1996. Pp. 123.

Hittitologists have long made good use of the prologue to the Telipinu Proclamation to establish the framework for reconstructions of Old Hittite history, and we have enjoyed an ever-increasing number of narrative sources (royal annals, introductions to treaties, hieroglyphic display inscriptions, etc.) on which to base our accounts of the Empire. In contrast, only a few documents provide information on the Middle Hittite period (fifteenth and early fourteenth centuries B.C.E.), and many of these have come to us in very poor condition. In addition, until about twenty-five years ago, texts originally composed during the reigns of the Middle Hittite kings Tudhaliya I and lI and Arnuwanda I were misattributed to their late successors Tudhaliya IV and Arnuwanda III. Consequently, Middle Hittite times, in which the foundations for imperial expansion were laid, remain the least understood epoch of the history of Hatti.

Interestingly enough, the first primary evidence concerning the Hittites to become available to modern scholarship pertains precisely to the latter years of this period: copies of letters (in Hittite!) exchanged by Amenophis III and Tarhuntaradu of Arzawa in southwestern Anatolia, which were discovered among the Amarna correspondence and initially published in 1889-90 (EA 31 = VBoT 1 and EA 32 = VBoT2). In the first of these letters the Egyptian remarks that "the land of Hattusa is shattered(??)," and requests that his correspondent send him exotic Kaskaean slaves. Since this people dwelt in north-central Anatolia between Hattusa and the Black Sea, Tarhuntaradu might be expected to have access to them only if the Hittite state was in decline. And indeed, we now know that the Middle Hittite period witnessed a struggle between Hatti and Arzawa for the domination of the peninsula of Asia Minor, a conflict which was ultimately resolved only with the conquest and dismemberment of Arzawa by Mursili II in the late fourteenth century.

The work under review is devoted to the elucidation of the early course of this contest. Within its short compass the author presents a concise and persuasive synthesis of the evidence available from both contemporary and later Hittite documents. Building on a suggestion of M. Forlanini, de Martino (pp. 63-68) makes a convincing case that the hitherto-unidentified Huhazalma of CTH 28 was a king of Arzawa, and that he ruled between the reigns of Kupanta-Kurunta and Tarhuntaradu. The discussion here of the "indictment of Madduwatta" (CTH 147) (pp. 47-62) is in my opinion the best section of the book. The author makes excellent sense of the career of the untrustworthy Hittite vassal, demonstrating how his activities as a double-dealing ruler of a buffer state are to be interpreted within the larger context of the conflict between Hatti and Arzawa. Any future reconstruction of Middle Hittite history will certainly have to take this and other results of de Martino's study into account.

The volume includes a select bibliography, a map illustrating the author's conception of the geography of western Anatolia, and indices of passages treated and of proper names. I conclude with a few technical comments and corrections:

P. 13, n. 32. No. 8.B among the manuscripts should be KUB 23.65.

P. 27. The copy of KBo 5.13 confirms the presence of a Personenkeil before Du-ut-ha-li-ya in i 29[prime].

P. 54. On Hittite Attarimma [greater than] Lycian Trmmili, see already H. Eichner, "Etymologische Beitrage der Trilingue vom Letoon bei Xantos," Or 52 (1983): 65-66.

P. 57, n. 257. KBo 32.202 rev. 14[prime]: . . . nasta UD.7.KAM pa?-iz?-zi; rev. 14[prime]: [. . . B]E-LI-YA . . .

P. 70. KBo 16.47 rev. 23[prime]: [. . . nu URUHattusas-s]a! linkiyaz . . . (cf. obv. 14[prime]); rev. 34[prime]: [. . . p]f-i-e-ez-zi, "he will send."

Pp. 76-78. KUB 26.29 + KUB 31.55 obv. 6: . . . mPar-ku-sar [. . .] (so copy); obv. 12-13: [nu-us-ma-ag ku-it?] memiskimi nu apat istamaskatten nu = za ANA dUTUSI / [. . . LU.MESsar-di-]uus esten, "Listen to [what] I tell [you], and be [. . . hel]pers for My Majesty!" - cf. KBo 8.37 (MH/NS) rev. 10[prime]: [LU]MESsar-tee-es estu (sic!) [. . .]; obv. 20: [. . . te-li-]pu-u-ri-ma . . .; obv. 26: [. . . K]UR-SU . . .; obv. 28: [. . . IS-T]U? KUR URUHat-ti . . .

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Title Annotation:Review
Author:Beckman, Gary
Publication:The Journal of the American Oriental Society
Article Type:Book Review
Date:Oct 1, 1998
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