Kingsbridge, an early quarrying district on Manhattan Island.
I collected mineral specimens at Kingsbridge as a boy in the 1940's. My interest in that locality was revived in 1994 during a visit, to The Old Print Shop in New York City, where I purchased a quaint little drawing entitled Marble Quarry, "Kingsbridge." N.Y. in 1819 [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 2 OMITTED]. Collecting these old glimpses of New York City the way it once was is one of my special interests; another is the history of early American mineral collecting. The drawing was done with brush and ink and is of the school of Archibald Robertson (1765-1835). Robertson opened the Columbia Academy of Painting on Liberty Street in New York City in 1792, and this picture is likely the work of a student at the Academy. The Old Print Shop had other examples done in the same style, some by other hands, showing various views in the city. The acquisition of the drawing spurred me to explore the printed record to find out what could be learned about marble and mineral specimen production at Kingsbridge, and especially about the quarry and the house depicted in the sketch.
Whereas a few locations in early New York City are recorded as quarrying sites for building stone or road metal in the Manhattan schist(1) (which, in earlier times, was called granite), no area was as extensively exploited for quarried stone as were the marble ridges near Kingsbridge, at Manhattan Island's northern tip. At least one large mansion was constructed entirely of this rock around the year 1845, and there may well have been others. Also produced were numerous tombstones, many still visible in several places on the island, funereal monuments, burial vaults and so on. Lime for mortar cement and plaster, always an important commodity, was produced by several kilns in the district.
This area was the first place recorded in the literature as a distinct Manhattan Island mineral specimen locality. Indeed, Kingsbridge is listed as one of only two specific Manhattan localities in James Dwight Dana's (1850) Catalogue of American Localities of Minerals. The Kingsbridge location was published as a source of specimens in the year 1812 and was a mineral collecting site before 1809.
The marble industry was, apparently, well established in Kingsbridge by the end of the 18th century and it can safely be assumed that mineral specimen collecting there was not far behind or, perhaps, even preceded the formal quarrying.
Significant private mineral collections were being assembled in the city at this time, by purchase and by field-collecting. Around 1786, Samuel L. Mitchill, M.D. (1764-1831) brought to New York City, from Edinburgh, one of the earliest mineral collections to come to America. David Hosack, M.D. (1769-1835) owned a large collection of minerals which he opened to public viewing at his famous "Elgin Garden," established around 1804, at what is now Rockefeller Center near Fifth Avenue and 50th Street. However, the most important local devotee of minerals during this period was Manhattan-born, Archibald Bruce, M.D. (1777-1818). His publication The American Mineralogical Journal (New York, 1810-1814), had a strong, positive influence on the science of mineralogy and mineral collecting. Brace built a very large collection during his short life-span.
Jacobus Dyckman's ancestors settled in New Harlaem (an ancient village that existed for a time on northern Manhattan) around 1660. He added to his already large holdings of land there by purchasing, in the 1790's (according to H. D. Romer and H. B. Hartman in Jan Dyckman and his Descendants, New York, 1981), "certain acreage to the north, including Marble Hill - a profitable marble quarry." The name "Marble Hill," however, is modem and was invented by a real-estate developer in the year 1891; but, on a map drawn for The American Scenic and Historical Preservation Society by Reginald Pelham Bolton in 1906, that appears in Riverdale, Kingsbridge, Spuyten Duvvil, New York by William A. Tieck (1968), Bolton indicates a fairly large former marble quarry on Marble Hill. According to the mapmaker it existed on land that was once owned by Jacobus Dyckman.
Incidentally, a founding member and one-time president of The American Scenic and Historical Preservation Society was George Frederick Kunz (1856-1932). Kunz was a gemologist and mineralogist with Tiffany & Co., and the pink variety of the mineral spodumene was named kunzite in his honor. As the founder and longtime president of The New York Mineralogical Club, Kunz organized and led many Club outings to the Kingsbridge area in order to collect mineral specimens from the marble there.
Proof that marble from this area was being produced during the first quarter of the 18th century survives as a headstone in Trinity churchyard, on lower Broadway at Wall Street, with the date 1723 still visible upon it. Other Kingsbridge area marble headstones in the same churchyard are dated 1777, 1795 and 1796, and there are many others perhaps older, judging by their weathered appearance, whose dates and inscriptions have been entirely obliterated by time and the elements. By contrast, nearby headstones of the same period, made of sandstone (called brownstone) quarried in the Connecticut River valley, are holding up much better.
Remains of even earlier Kingsbridge marble gravestones can be seen today in the Jews' Burying Ground in lower Manhattan near present-day Chatham Square. This is the earliest cemetery established on the island, and it is likely that it originated in the year 1652 with a grant of land by Peter Stuyvesant's Council. Some of the gravestones almost certainly date from the 17th century but their inscriptions are long gone. In fact, some stones are so severely weathered that they have shrunk to less than half their original size and look much like melting ice cream pops. Considering their date it is likely that these stones were obtained from surface excavations, but early quarrying cannot be ruled out.
By the year 1808, production of marble had become quite extensive, as shown by a statement made by John Randel, Jr. in his narrative, City of New York, north of Canal Street in 1808 to 1821 (Randel, 1864). "From 213th to 217th street the road [called at the time the Kingsbridge road and now known as Broadway] passed along the foot of the eastern slope of marble quarries." This places additional marble quarries in Kingsbridge, in the year 1808, on the lands of the Dyckman family and elsewhere. The Dyckmans at one time owned the largest single tract of land in the history of Manhattan and were honored by the naming of present-day Dyckman Street, an important east-west thoroughfare that traverses their former lands. Jacobus Dyckman lends his name to today's Jacobus Place on Marble Hill.
John Randel, Jr. (ca. 1780-1865), a surveyor, was responsible for the field work that resulted in the historic "Commissioners Map." This map, published in 1811 and almost 8 feet in length, laid out the current grid pattern of Manhattan's streets. The commissioners, three gentlemen of the City, had been charged by the New York State Legislature "to lay out streets, roads and public squares" in rural Manhattan (mostly north of 14th Street) and this they did, virtually ignoring the natural topography of the island. Their map is generally considered to be the most influential in the history of the development of the city.
Randel, who wrote his narrative in 1864, was but one year from his death at the time, and recollections of observations he made almost 60 years previous must, therefore, be read with some caution. It should be remembered that the streets he mentioned did not yet exist in the year 1808 and he may well have also seen, but did not record, the quarry on Marble Hill claimed by Romer and Hartman (1981) and also by Bolton in Tieck (1968).
The identification of the house in the sketch (Fig. 2) allows the exact site of the depicted quarry to be determined. It was built around 1810 and was pleasantly situated on the southern slope of Marble Hill, 350 feet west of present-day Broadway, approximately 200 feet from, and looking down on, two small tidal creeks. It was probably built by members of the Tison or Post families who were heirs of Jan Nagel, a settler there in the year 1677. According to Reginald Pelham Bolton, in his Washington Heights, Manhattan, Its Eventful Past (1924), the house was purchased in 1816 by his ancestors Curtis and John Bolton,(2) who were "the pioneers in the marble industry, and alongside the High [Albany Post] Road, opposite [350 feet southeast of] their dwelling, they opened a marble quarry . . ."
It is likely that the quarry already existed in 1816 and that the Boltons expanded the operation by, among other things, exploiting the creeks that ran between the house and the quarry as a source of power for sawing the blocks of stone. For many years this waterway was known as the Bolton Canal and then, later, the Dyckman Canal until its obliteration by the Harlem Ship Canal in the 1890's. Tieck (1968) states that although the Boltons left in 1824, marble production continued in the area for some time under the auspices of the Lambert family.
Dyckmans purchased this "old yellow house" and moved into it in 1850, but by that time the quarrying of marble had ceased. The house was, according to a description in Tieck (1968), of central-hall type, of good size, 40 x 25 feet, with the hall measuring about 10 feet in width.
Figure 6 shows the Tison/Post-Bolton-Dyckman house, and surroundings, as it appeared in 1861 when it was owned by Isaac Dyckman. (Incidentally, this view from Valentine (1861) is reproduced by Kouvenhoven (1953) but is incorrectly identified.) Whatever remained of the quarry by 1861 does not show in this view but outcroppings of marble are prominently depicted in the foreground. The Dyckmans moved out of the house by the end of the 1860's.
A view of the quarry site from Figure 2 (or what remained of it by the year 1893) was photographed during the building of the Harlem Ship Canal [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 7 OMITTED]. What may be at least part of the quarry, reduced by this time to a water-filled hole, can be seen at the extreme right in the photograph. The canal, in this vicinity, followed the path of the old tidal creeks that had been exploited by the Boltons almost a century earlier, and probably even earlier by their predecessors.
When the United States Ship Canal(3) (now designated the Harlem River) was completed in 1895 the remains of the old quarry were obliterated by the water. The house, quite run-down by this time and fit only for use as a boarding-house, was left very close to the water's edge [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 8 OMITTED]. Ten years later the rerouting of the Hudson Railroad, along the bank of the canal, resulted in the destruction of the house but increased the exposure of the marble [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 9 OMITTED].
The construction of the Harlem Ship Canal cut off from Manhattan island a piece of land approximately 52 acres in size. That detached land, which includes some of the former acreage of the Tison/Post/Bolton/Dyckman families and the remains of other quarries on present-day Marble Hill, is still, politically, part of Manhattan although it is now physically attached only to the Borough of The Bronx. The original upper boundary of Manhattan island was an east-west creek that ran somewhat to the north of the northern slope of present-day Marble Hill and is now entirely filled in.
In a quaint work entitled Springs and Wells of Manhattan and the Bronx New York City at the End of the Nineteenth Century (1938), the author, James Reuel Smith, recorded his travels around upper Manhattan during the years 1898 to 1901, and documented, with photographs, the few surviving natural sources of fresh water. Smith was almost certainly describing an abandoned quarry in the marble, which by 1898 had become an ice pond, when he wrote:
The [Isaac Michael, not the previously mentioned Isaac, but his nephew] Dyckman ice pond is about one hundred and fifty feet north of the Seaman-Drake estate . . . [it] is about three hundred feet long by seventy-five feet wide and for the most part is cut out of the solid natural rock. [Italics added.] Heavy trees and foliage and vines surround it, and I came within a foot or two of walking into it over a bluff twenty-five feet high!
As final proof, Smith's photograph of the pond [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 10 OMITTED] looks very much like many an abandoned, water-filled quarry that I have seen over the years. If this was, indeed, a quarry, it yielded, according to Smith's measurements, a lot of marble - more than 20,000 cubic yards! It was situated on land that is now occupied by Columbia University's Baker Field.
Archibald Bruce wrote, in his The American Mineralogical Journal (1814a), a "Description of Some of the Combinations of Titanium Occurring within the United States." In it he described four specimens of Kingsbridge rutile which he owned and almost certainly collected personally in the field. He depicted one in an engraved plate [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 23 OMITTED] and wrote:
The above specimens . . . are from the island of New-York. They were found in the limestone ridge which crosses the island at its northern extremity, near Kingsbridge. The limestone, which is primitive, has running through it in different directions, veins from one to three or four inches thick, composed of quartz, felspar, mica, and granular lime-stone: through which the oxide of Titanium is sparingly disseminated. The quartz is of the foetid kind, giving out an unpleasant odour on being fractured.
In the same article Bruce wrote also of "Silico-Calcareous Oxide of Titanium" (titanite) and mentioned:
Small brilliant crystals . . . of a light dove(4) colour, imbedded in primitive carbonate of lime, from the marble quarry at Kingsbridge, Island of New-York.
"The marble quarry" mentioned by Bruce as the source of his specimens could have been the Bolton quarry pictured in Figure 2, although there were others in the Kingsbridge area producing marble at the time. The Bolton quarry was, apparently, the most important. These sites were probably often visited by mineral collectors desirous of obtaining specimens to add to their cabinets. Unfortunately, no specimens known to be from the early quarries can be positively identified today.
Kingsbridge was a favorite with other early physician/mineralogists, too. In his Chymical Exercises (1819), William James MacNeven, M.D. (1763-184l) wrote extensively about the area:
The limestone district adjacent to Kingsbridge is shown, by the character of its minerals and the position of its strata, to be chiefly primitive. The marble extends two or three miles into the county of New-York [Manhattan], and is the termination of a range of primitive granular limestone [that at Kingsbridge] is stratified, presenting an inclination to the south-east of from sixty to seventy degrees.
He remarked that it was the only locality in the United States at which could be found crystals of "white augite [diopside] in nearly rectangular prisms." He also noted that "the limestone of Kingsbridge embraces pyroxene, tremolite, mica, fetid quartz, oxide of titanium, adularia, tourmaline and sulphuret of iron." Samuel Robinson, M.D., in his A Catalogue of American Minerals With Their Localities (1825), devoted a full page to Kingsbridge minerals, and in 1842, Lewis Caleb Beck, M.D. (1798-1853) summarized what he knew of Kingsbridge minerals in his Mineralogy of New York (1842).
By the year 1888, Benjamin B. Chamberlin was referring to Kingsbridge in the past tense (Chamberlin, 1888). He wrote: "Nearly fifty years ago the Kingsbridge quarries were much resorted to by collectors." By the time that James G. Manchester wrote, in 1931, The Mineralogy of New York City and Its Environs, the city was encroaching seriously on the few remaining collecting sites, and there are no further references known to me, thereafter in the literature, to mineral collecting at Kingsbridge.
GEOLOGY and PETROLOGY
What is evidently the earliest printed reference to the Kingsbridge area marble was composed by the year 1808. Dr. Samuel Akerly (1785-1845) wrote "On the Geology and Mineralogy of the Island of New-York," and it was published, six years later in 1814, in The American Mineralogical Journal, volume 1, number 4, pages 191-198 (Akerly, 1814). It noted ". . . the primitive limestone which is on the north end of the island." Unfortunately, Akerly wrote nothing at all about the rock's constituent minerals. Earlier, Samuel Latham Mitchill, M.D., in his report "A sketch of the mineralogical history of the State of New-York" (Mitchill, 1798) certainly had the opportunity to describe the marble beds, but did not mention them.
The marble of the Kingsbridge quarries was described by Robinson (1825) as a "granular limestone, sometimes traversed by narrow veins of granite, mica slate, and quartz" with occasional "yellow mica," diopside, tourmaline, kyanite, feldspar, tremolite, pyrite, futile, dolomite and titanite. He states further that the limestone unit "passes through West Chester [sic.] County [NY], in strata dipping to the S.E. at about 65 [degrees]," and is "connected with that extensive deposit of granular limestone which accompanies primitive rocks from Canada through the eastern parts of New England, crosses the Hudson near Stony Point into Rockland Co. [New York], and again appears in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia."
Leo M. Hall, writing in Studies of Appalachian Geology: Northern and Maritime (1968), subdivided those vast Cambrian-Ordovician marble beds, as they are observed in the Greater New York area, into five units which he labeled Inwood A, B, C, D and E, and described them.
Inwood A (the Kingsbridge area): Well-bedded white, gray or blue-gray dolomite marble.
Inwood B (Tuckahoe and White Plains, New York, area): Interbedded white, gray, buff or pinkish dolomite-marble, tan and reddish brown calc-schist, purplish brown or tan siliceous calcschist and granulites, tan quartzite, and calcite-dolomite marble; bedding is typically one half inch to four feet thick. He estimated them to be 2000 feet thick in some places!
Inwood C (Ossining, New York, area): White or blue-gray, clean, dolomite marble.
Inwood D (Farther North): Interbedded dolomite marble, calcite marble and some calc-schist.
Inwood E (Still farther North): Gray or white calcite marble, commonly tan weathering.
The marble deposits of northern Manhattan had long before Leo Hall's time been called Inwood. That name has been in general use in the area since about 1870, but Hall expanded its use to include the entire region.
Unfortunately, it was observed that even in the days of relatively low-level atmospheric pollution, much, but not all, of the Inwood A marble of Kingsbridge tended to weather rapidly and so the quarrying of it for building stone was eventually abandoned. John A. Dix (1836), reporting as the Secretary of the State of New York noted that
The marble at Kingsbridge is mixed with iron pyrites, which on exposure to the weather stains and hastens the decomposition of the stone. [Actually, the pyrite is relatively scarce in the marble and contributed very little to the weathering problem. I have personally observed no pyrite in the surviving pieces. The pyritiferous marble was obviously avoided, whenever possible, by the stonemasons.] Unless it is found in a purer state on further examination, it cannot be advantageously used for architectural purposes.
Beck (1842) believed that the quarries ceased operating by 1842, and said:
The quarries at Kingsbridge have furnished a considerable amount of marble. It is granular, and belongs to the dolomitic variety. By exposure to the weather, some of the specimens fall to pieces, and form a kind of calcareous sand. It is now, I believe, [and had been for almost two hundred years previous to this time] chiefly used for burning into lime. [Beck did not believe the included pyrite was the main weathering problem.]
Indeed, one has only to look at the gravestones, previously mentioned, in the early Jews' Burying Ground, for examples of the weathering described by Beck, although these stones have not fallen to pieces and do not appear to bear any pyrite. The early dated headstones that survive in Trinity churchyard seem to be exceptions.
Issachar Cozzens, Jr. (1780-1865), writing in A Geological History Of Manhattan Or New York Island (1843), called the Inwood A formation a "primitive limestone" (it is one of the oldest of the New York City rocks) and said:
[It] is well known; it is a Dolomite. This Dolomite I examined some 16 years ago, and found it to contain about 28 per cent of Carbonate of Magnesia, from which I manufactured good Epsom Salts (Sulphate of Magnesia) and [it] has all the varieties of white, gray and light blue, granular, coarse marble; it begins at the south end of Mr. Dyckman's farm and runs through the middle of the Island to Spuytenduyvel creek; the same rock runs through Westchester County, and is seen on the other side of Kingsbridge, and thence along the river toward Yonkers . . . [where it is known as the Tuckahoe/ Inwood B marble] . . . A quarry was opened at Kingsbridge, some years ago, which proved unprofitable.
In New York City, in 1822, The Bank of the United States building was erected on Wall Street, just east of Broad Street, and in 1853 it became the United States Assay Office. It was constructed of Inwood B marble from the Tuckahoe beds, in Westchester County, some 18 miles from the city. Tuckahoe produced a finer-grained Inwood marble than that of the Kingsbridge quarries, but it is mostly devoid of mineral specimens. In 1827 The Merchants' Exchange building, which boasted one-piece columns at least 24 feet high, was also built of this rock. The Merchants' Exchange was totally consumed by the Great Fire of 1835, but the handsome facade of the Assay Office, complete with pediment, was preserved when the building was taken down in 1915 and is on display at the American Wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
There were once several Inwood marble quarries located along the ridge paralleling the Bronx River in the town of Eastchester, between Crestwood and Tuckahoe. Operations there started around 1820 and continued until 1930.
Before marble quarrying began in Vermont around 1850, the Tuckahoe beds of the Inwood B were the single most important source of white marble in America. Shipments of this building stone were made from Boston to New Orleans and many places in between. Other notable buildings constructed of this marble include Lyndhurst in Tarrytown, New York (the Jay Gould mansion), The Borough Hall of Brooklyn, New York, and The United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C.
The site of the Ossining Correctional Facility (Sing Sing Prison) was chosen because of the availability of Inwood marble. At this location convicts quarried the rock from which the prison was built. Nice crystals of diopside and specimens of futile on dolomite were reported from here. The Kingsbridge quarrying area was once considered as a possible site for a penitentiary for the same reasons that Ossining was chosen.
Huge quarried blocks of Inwood A/B marble can be seen today in lower Manhattan serving as the foundation of the old Custom House (later known as the Sub-Treasury building) erected in 1842 and still standing on the comer of Broad and Wall Streets [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 12 OMITTED]. This rock came from a site around 138th Street near where the present-day Third Avenue Bridge enters the borough of the Bronx. This quarrying site was, at that time, part of Westchester County.
The Snowflake quarry at Thomwood, Westchester County, New York, survived until 1973, supplying, in its last days, Inwood B marble that was crushed for use in terrazzo and stucco, and fine marble powder that was used in paint and soap.
The commercial exploitation of the various Inwood marble beds lasted for a period of more than three centuries.
Smith (1938) mentions the Inwood A marble deposits several times. He states that the area at Hawthorne Street (West 204th Street) near Broadway was "built up some twenty feet above the natural level of the land with many pieces of white marble from the quarry" and shows an excellent photograph of the location. Unfortunately there is no way to ascertain if "the quarry" was re-worked for this project or if, as seems most likely, existing material, perhaps rubble from the Harlem Ship Canal excavation, was used.
Smith continues and describes the "magnificent" Seaman-Drake estate, of 26 acres in 1898, that stood just west of present Broadway at 216th Street until it was demolished in 1939 and says that:
The dwelling [erected for Valentine Seaman around 1845 at a cost of $150,000] itself is of [Inwood A] marble [which was quarried on the property and came, almost certainly, from the excavation that produced the Dyckman ice pond shown in Figure 10!]. Its large white marble entrance arch (said to have cost $30,000) . . . has for half a century challenged the admiring observation of every traveler entering or leaving New York City by the Hudson River Railroad.
That arch, actually an arched gateway, is today the largest surviving object made of Inwood A marble. Although no longer the visual landmark it was when described by Smith [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 13 OMITTED], it survives, in situ as it were, almost swallowed up by modern Broadway. It stands today, patched with modern bricks and vandalized by graffiti, rather under-utilized as part of the entrance to an auto body repair shop. It is partly hidden from sight because it is set back from the current building line at 216th Street [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 14 OMITTED]. One suspects that it survived the modernization of Broadway simply because the cost of its demolition and removal was (and probably still is) prohibitive. Today it is still quite impressive and, with its architectonic massiveness (sight measurements - 30 by 20 by 12 feet), is reminiscent of the well-known granite arch of New York City at Washington square but, of course, on a much reduced scale. It seems to be holding up quite well to the weather and air pollution, and is not, as Beck (1842) noted, constructed of "the specimens [that] fall to pieces" and it contains little or no noticeable pyrite inclusions.
James G. Manchester in his The Mineralogy of New York City and Its Environs (1931) writing almost a century after Beck, Cozzens et al., discussed the area in some detail:
The crystalline limestone [technically, it is a metamorphosed limestone, or marble] extending from Vermont to North Carolina, is a part of the rock foundation of New York City and comes to the surface at a number of points, principally in the northerly section of the city. The navigable channels around the island are submerged valleys which came into existence through the ease with which this limestone is eroded, its hardness being about 3 on the scale. [Actually it is more about solubility than hardness although the two are related. There is, surviving to this day at the northern-most end of Manhattan island, a large area substantially un-eroded and called, appropriately, Marble Hill.] In the section known as Inwood Valley the prevailing rock is limestone [now called Inwood marble A] and in it many fine minerals have been found, particularly near the zones of contact with the mica schist [and its pegmatite intrusions]. The vacant land in this region, however, is rapidly being improved with buildings and it will not be many years before the opportunity to collect minerals will be somewhat limited. Among the more important minerals reported are pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, marcasite, rock crystal, smoky quartz, rutile, calcite, aragonite [the author pictured a specimen of "Aragonite var. Flos Ferri, Broadway and 215th Street, Manhattan Island, N.Y." as his plate No. 36. This location is but one city-block south of the great marble gateway], malacolite [diopside], tremolite, asbestos, brown tourmaline [uvite], muscovite, foliated talc and gypsum. During the construction of the Harlem Ship Canal [more than a half-million] tons of limestone [including what remained of the former Bolton complex] were removed and the waste pile [on the site that became present-day Baker Field] was the lure of collectors for many years. [Figure 16].
The finest collection of Kingsbridge area mineral specimens surviving today belongs to the New York Mineralogical Club and has been permanently deposited by the Club at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. All of the species described below are represented there in at least a few examples, in some cases many.
Calcite in crystals, rare from Kingsbridge, forms scalenohedrons up to 1 cm across and has been collected on quartz crystals as in Figure 15.
Archibald Bruce was the first mineralogist to encounter diopside from Kingsbridge, but without, apparently, knowing what it was - A mineral presenting some characters which rendered its nature doubtful, [probable clarification: 'I did not have a clue to its identity'] we some time ago transmitted to Paris, for the examination of our venerable friend M. Hauy, [Rene Just Hauy (1743-1822)] who, after duly considering its structure agreeably to the laws of crystallization, has pronounced it to be Pyroxene. [The name pyroxene was created by Hauy in 1796 for a new mineral species; that name is now used for a group of minerals.] This substance is white, and occurs crystallized in eight-sided prisms, of which two opposite sides are often much larger than the other six, so as to present a tabulated form. The prism is variously terminated, sometimes resembling the Pyroxene of Vesuvius, while in other instances the termination is more complex, giving rise to a new variety which M. Hauy has named epimeride.-Specific gravity 3.1. Crystals of various sizes, from minute to several inches in length are found imbedded in the primitive limestone which crosses the island of New-York at its northern extremity. (Bruce, 1814b)
Bruce's phrase "some time ago" used in referring to his sending the specimens to Paris, probably meant 1811 or even earlier, since Hauy published his comments on the mineral in 1812. Hauy's article included a plate of crystal drawings, one of which (Hauy's [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4 OMITTED]) was the new mineral epimeride(5) [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 17 OMITTED]. This drawing was later reproduced in Victor M. Goldschmidt's Atlas der Krystallformen (1922) as his Figure 9 of plate 7 in volume VII. Hauy was very optimistic in his report and added:
The soil of the United States of America has, in the last few years, become the subject of investigations which show the progress and development of mineralogy. In these investigations several highly distinguished scientists . . . Messieurs [Archibald] Bruce, [Benjamin S.] Barton, [Charles W.] Peale, [Silvain] Godon de St.-Memin, [William] Maclure and [Samuel L.] Mitchill . . . have participated, most of them Americans; and the progress which has already been made gives the fight to expect, in the future, the harvest of that which they have begun with so much zeal and success. (Hauy, 1812)
Cleaveland (1816) cited the notice published by Bruce and mentioned the "new and more complex variety of form," epimeride.
In 1819 MacNeven described "white augite [diopside] in nearly rectangular prisms" from the Kingsbridge quarry and noted that "[this] was, for a long time, the only locality for this mineral in the United States, but Mr. Pierce has lately met with it at Singsing, higher up the Hudson," also from Inwood marble deposits. MacNeven also made note of associated pyroxene, tremolite, mica, fetid quartz, rutile, adularia, tourmaline and pyrite. Robinson (1825) described the crystals as having "4 sided tables [terminations]" and "8 sided prisms." Dana (1837) merely noted the occurrence. Beck (1842), in his review of New York State's mineralogy, remarked that the "abandoned quarries at Kingsbridge, about 208th Street, also afford very good [diopside] specimens." Beck depicted a crystal drawing of "epimeride." By the time of the publishing of the sixth edition of Dana's System of Mineralogy (Dana, 1892), the occurrence was listed under augite - "In N. York, in N.Y. Co[unty, i.e. Manhattan], white cryst. 2-3 in. long in dolomite."
Forty years later Manchester (1931) considered diopside (calling it "malacolite," a now discredited name) a common mineral of the marble, often found in crystals standing out in relief on the more soluble weathered matrix, and illustrated such a specimen in his plate 42. In fact, he stated that loose single crystals had been collected years earlier in the nearby plowed fields.
I personally collected these diopside crystals as a boy in the 1940's when they were still known locally as malacolite. I remember vividly banging them out of their marble matrix with my hammer and chisel while seated on the ground and then being threatened with arrest by a gruff Irish policeman. As far as the officer could see, I was vandalizing a New York City marble sidewalk.
Robinson (1825) reported dolomite as a component of the marble at Kingsbridge, and Beck (1842) elaborated that the dolomite is "large grained . . . with indications of a foliated structure." Dana (1892) stated that augite crystals were found at Kingsbridge in dolomite, but I have never seen, nor heard of, such a specimen. Dana may have been referring to the dolomite-rich marble.
The early references to feldspar at Kingsbridge are rudimentary. Robinson (1825) reported "fetid feldspar . . . bluish white" in color. Bruce (1814a) and MacNeven (1819) had also reported feldspar, but without further description, except that MacNeven mentions the presence of adularia. Beck (1842) described a fetid feldspar as coming from a white limestone at "Thompson's quarry, near 196th Street." This excavation, probably a later one, was almost a mile and one-half from the Bolton quarry and about a mile from the area described by John Randel, Jr. but was located on the same Inwood A marble unit, probably near its southern and western limits. Chamberlin (1888) described the mineral assemblage at Thompson's quarry as including rutile, diopside, kyanite, phlogopite, brown tourmaline, fetid feldspar, tremolite and titanite. The quarry may have belonged to Samuel Thompson who Bolton (1924) called "one of the earliest of those well-to-do residents who settled on the Inwood hillside overlooking the Hudson River." George C. Wissig, Jr., in Bedrock Geology of the Ossining Quadrangle, New York (1979), found potassium-feldspar in the Inwood beds by microprobe analysis.
Robinson (1825) reported "rhaetizite" (an early synonym for white kyanite) as occurring at Kingsbridge in "yellowish white, crystalline masses, laminated, translucent or transparent." This description appears to have been taken essentially verbatim from Cleaveland (1822), who cites his source as the "Rev. F. C. Schaeffer," apparently a personal communication from a local collector. Kyanite is unlikely in a marble, and may be a misidentification.
The designation of the "mica" as muscovite is merely a guess but a fairly safe one. Robinson (1825) reported "yellow mica." Bruce (1814a) and MacNeven (1819) both reported "mica" without further description. Beck (1842), however, described tourmaline as occurring with a "reddish brown mica" that may perhaps have been phlogopite. Chamberlin (1888) actually does call it phlogopite, having a "handsome light brown" color. The Kingsbridge mica in general, he says, exhibits a variety of colors and occurs in plates seldom of large size but sometimes having a perfect tabular-hexagonal crystal habit.
"Sulphuret of iron" was reported by Robinson (1825) as "small dodecahedrons with pentagonal faces," and earlier by MacNeven (1819) without giving a description. Manchester (1931) noted pyrite as well as pyrrhotite, marcasite and chalcopyrite, all of which may have fallen under Robinson's "sulphuret of iron." The pyrite crystals, he said, were "quite common" in the limestone, "where they have been found in such a variety of form and brilliancy of luster as to make them a welcome addition to any cabinet." Illustrated here [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 18 OMITTED] is an example of the type of pyrite crystal ("dodecahedrons with pentagonal faces") to which Robinson referred. Manchester collected it and Whitlock illustrated it in the American Mineralogist in 1919. Manchester also illustrated it in his 1931 book. It is the best example that I know of, and is a fine specimen by any standard of judgment. The American Museum of Natural History acquired it from me in 1962, along with a few other New York City specimens that had been illustrated in The Mineralogy of New York City and Its Environs. Manchester had also collected other specimens of pyrite in marble which he treated with acid to free the individual pyrite crystals. Ten of these were then measured goniometrically by Whitlock (1919), and one was figured as a crystal drawing. Whitlock described their habit as uniformly rather flattened, and showing combinations of 11 different crystal forms.
Manchester (1931) described "small, hexagonal crystals of thin, tabular habit, iridescent blue in color." These may not have come from Kingsbridge quarries per se, but from masses of rubble thrown up during the digging of the Harlem Ship Canal. Smith (1938) noted that in 1898 for "three acres of ground, made of the white stone taken from the Canal . . . the United States are paying Mr. [Isaac Michael] Dyckman $2000 a year rent" [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 16 OMITTED]. Those three acres are included in the present Baker Field location. Specimens of massive pyrrhotite in veins up to 2.5 cm running through the marble were also reported.
"Fetid quartz" that gave off an odor when broken was described by Bruce (1814a) and MacNeven (1819). It is a common constituent of the veins penetrating the marble. Small, clear, well-formed quartz crystals are seen occasionally.
Rutile was first reported and figured from Kingsbridge by Bruce (1814a) [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 14 OMITTED], who found it "sparingly disseminated" in veins 2.5 to 7.5 cm wide cutting granular limestone. Associated minerals were said to include fetid quartz, feldspar and mica. The specimens in his collection included: (1) "small quadrangular prismatic, nearly acicular semi-transparent crystals . . . of a dark red color, variously recumbent on a granitic aggregate . . ."; (2) a "small, dark red, semi-transparent double [twinned] crystal . . . four-sided prisms . . . the surface highly resplendent . . ."; (3) a "large amorphous blood-red" mass on white feldspar; and (4) "light red acicular embedded in bluish quartz." MacNeven (1819) noted its presence as well, but without giving a description. Manchester (1931) described "finely terminated crystals . . . semi-transparent, ranging from blood-red to wine color, [and] capillary crystals to one inch or more in length extending across a vug or cavity lined with calcite crystals" [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 21 OMITTED].
Titanite, like rutile, was first reported and figured from Kingsbridge by Bruce (1814a). He described "small, brilliant crystals . . . of a light dove [or clove?] colour embedded in granular primitive carbonate of lime."
MacNeven (1819) reported tourmaline from Kingsbridge, but without giving further description. Robinson (1825) referred to "schorl" and "red tourmaline" embedded in dolomitic limestone, as crystals in various shades of red and brown, and cited an 1820 article in Silliman's Journal as his source, which was actually the abstract of an 1819 lecture presented at the "Lyceum of Natural History, New-York" by Mr. N. Pauling. The lecturer described a red tourmaline found at Kingsbridge by Mr. I. Pierce, which was supposed at first to be rubellite but was really just a schorl. He gives a surprisingly detailed morphological description:
The fundamental form appears to be an equilateral three-sided prism, acuminated by three planes, which at one extremity are set on the lateral planes. This form is variously modified by truncation and bevelments. Most of the crystals are bevelled on the lateral edges, forming nine-sided prisms. Sometimes the lateral planes are nearly destitute of striae, though the faces of the acumination are always smooth and splendent. [He then gives a series of interfacial angles, and notes that they] agree almost precisely with the tourmaline isogone of Hauy.
Cleaveland (1822) also cited red tourmaline.
Robinson (1825) reported schorl (separately from "tourmaline") as occurring at Kingsbridge in "brown or reddish brown, translucent, usually 9-sided prisms, terminated at each end by 3 faces. Also in brownish yellow, 6-sided prisms well-terminated by 3 planes." Beck (1842) describes "tourmaline" crystals in brown, yellowish brown and reddish brown colors, in 6-sided prisms with three terminal faces, associated with a reddish brown mica.
Manchester (1931) adds a bit more information, describing "finely terminated brown tourmaline, some of gem quality, and small green tourmalines embedded in cream-colored calcite" at the "northerly end of Broadway where at times this mineral is to be found in many of the rock excavations of the neighborhood." He depicted, in his frontispiece plate, two small, brown-colored, faceted stones of this material. These stones, probably uvite, passed through my hands more than thirty years ago and, although they were small, it is my recollection that they were of fine quality.
I have never seen nor heard of any tourmaline from this location that was not almost certainly uvite or schorl.
Robinson (1825) mentioned tremolite at Kingsbridge, "both [presumably coarsely] crystallized and in fibrous masses" in the marble. MacNeven (1819) had noted it too, but without giving a description. Beck (1842) noted "a beautiful white and bluish white tremolite," sometimes in "broad laminated masses," with folia sometimes "six to nine inches in length."
Wissig (1979), writing of the overall Inwood marble deposit, added to the traditional list of species those minerals he observed by microprobe analysis. They are phlogopite, scapolite, apatite, zircon, sericite, sillimanite, biotite, olivine, serpentine and chlorite.
The Kingsbridge quarries, like virtually every other early mineral collecting site on Manhattan island, are now long gone and covered over with concrete, steel, asphalt and water. There are no workable outcroppings of the marble anywhere on the island that might offer the modern collector a glimpse of what all the fuss was about nearly two centuries ago. Even the surviving mineral specimens have dwindled to a rare few as attrition has taken its toll on the early collections, leaving present-day mineralogists and collectors almost no clues at all to the former prominence of this interesting and historic quarrying district and its unique mineral assemblage.
Thank you to Wendell E. Wilson for making order out of the original draft of this article, and thanks to the following for their help: John Betts, Louis D'Alonzo, Robyn Green, George Harlow, Richard Hauck and the Hauck Archives, Sidney Horenstein, Steven P. Maslansky, Charles Pearson, Joseph J. Peters, Stephen E. Pober, Joel Poliner and Juan Salvador. Special thanks go to Robert T. Curran, Jr. whose powers of observation never fail to amaze.
As this article was going to press, John Betts informed me of an Inwood Marble collecting site on northern Manhattan Island that was recently rediscovered by Ted Zirnite. The three most significant Kingsbridge species, diopside, dravite and pyrite, can still be collected in good crystals at this location, which is roughly on a line with West 218th Street in Inwood Hill Park. The rock here seems to be rabble from the Harlem Ship Canal excavation as in Figure 16.
1 "Blackwell's island [in the East River, known for many years as Welfare Island and called today Roosevelt Island] near Hurlgate, is a mass of rock, similar to that part of [New] York island opposite. A considerable part of the building stone used in the city is brought from the quarries in the granite of this [167-acre] island." (Akerly, 1814, but written before 1808.) A former stable, now the headquarters of the Colonial Dames of America, constructed entirely of this rock in the year 1799, is a unique survival on Manhattan or "York island" near the East River at 61st Street. It is reasonable to assume that the building material for this structure was transported from the Blackwell's Island quarries directly across the river.
2 The land records, which are still preserved, show that the Posts sold the property to George W. Hall and John C. Bolton in 1816 and that two years later George Washington Hall transferred his interest in the property to his partner John Curtis Bolton. It is therefore probable that "Curtis and John Bolton" were unwittingly created out of John Curtis Bolton.
3 The Harlem Ship Canal is the largest excavation into the marble beds of Manhattan. When it was opened to shipping in 1895, 550,000 tons of marble had been removed and an additional 5,000 cubic yards of the rock were used in the construction of retaining walls. Many buildings on Marble Hill contain some of this rock and a good deal of it was exported to Bayonne, New Jersey for use in a breakwater there. In the early stages of the excavation, in 1891, a mastodon tusk was uncovered, the only such find on the island. It is preserved at the American Museum of Natural History.
4 The Editor has suggested that "dove" may have been a typographical error for "clove," since titanites are not usually dove colored and a handwritten "cl" could be misread as a "d." The careful proofreading which is evident in Bruce's Journal makes this conclusion, in my opinion, unlikely.
5 Hauy stated (not too clearly) that he used this new name because it means "overgrowth" or "over-extended." These were, apparently, the first examples of crystals he had seen that decreased "one unit in size on their sides as against a greater decrease on their angles."
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