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Khaki in the classroom: compulsory junior cadet training in Australian schools, 1911-31.

The passing of the Defence Act (1909), with its provisions for universal military training, was a profound development for Australia. With bi-partisan support the government exacted compulsory peacetime conscription for all 12-25 year old males in the context of a voluntary defence system considered inadequate in a decade of growing security concerns. It was the first modern English-speaking country in the world to do so. For five years prior to 1909 growing fear for the safety of 'White Australia', coupled with the erosion of British naval supremacy, had forced defence issues into the public domain. Japan's victory over Russia in 1905, followed by a much publicised Anglo-German naval race from 1906, a series of international crises, and the visit of the American Fleet, clearly illustrated the power of a modern military to the Australian public. In particular, the revelation by the Melbourne Age by March 1909 that Germany would have more battleships than England by 1912 precipitated real and widespread defence concern.

Despite a general consensus in principle, however, significant political manoeuvring surrounded the drafting, debating and introduction of the new Act. The Prime Minister, Alfred Deakin, was attacked by the leader of the opposition, G.H. Reid, who favoured compulsory training for youths only and, as a result, the amended Defence Act of 1908 was not passed before the Deakin government was defeated in November. A second draft Act, drawn up by the new Fisher government in May 1909, proposed compulsory membership in the 'Junior Cadets' for ten to twelve year old boys and in the 'Senior Cadets' for fourteen to eighteen year olds, although it too could not be introduced before Andrew Fisher's electoral defeat in June 1909. A final draft, prepared by the new Deakin (Fusion) government detailing obligatory cadet training for boys aged twelve to eighteen, was submitted to parliament in September, and accepted in December 1909. Like Fisher's earlier plan, Section 62 of Deakin's Act required all twelve to fourteen year old boys to become Junior Cadets and all fourteen to eighteen year olds to serve in the Senior Cadets. This was to be followed, by men aged eighteen to twenty-five, by compulsory membership in the Citizen Military Forces (CMF). (1)

The aim of this article is to detail the day to day experience of the Junior Cadet component of the Australian scheme of universal military service from 1911-31. Its focus, therefore, is on describing the administrative and practical functioning of the Junior Cadet system. It does not, for example, seek to address issues such as the social or psychological impact of the scheme or its long-term effects on the development of education in Australia. Nor does it explore questions of how or why the system evolved as it did. Such matters have been the subject of past, and will no doubt be the focus of future research. As space precludes an in depth investigation of all aspects of the practical conduct of the Junior Cadet scheme, a number of important themes will therefore be traced that, taken together, provide a reasonably full picture of how the system functioned. Beginning with its origins, the article traces the evolution of its purpose, organisation/structure, teacher-officer instructional staff, training activities, and the eventual dismantling of the scheme. Building on the practice of military-styled 'drill' in many colonial schools prior to Federation, and embedded in the wider theory and practice of universal military service, this scheme was (and remains) a unique experiment in the history of Australian education.

It is important to begin by distinguishing Junior Cadets from Senior Cadets. Unlike the Senior branch, the Junior Cadet system was a non-uniformed, classroom-based activity. Junior Cadets were not organised as military bodies and were, in effect, classes of schoolboys undergoing compulsory pseudo-military instruction during school hours on school premises. The distinction is important because, situated somewhere between the educational and military history, the story of the practical functioning of the Junior Cadet scheme has been largely neglected in existing literature. This article is quite deliberately a detail-rich narrative, precisely because that is what is lacking in the historical record. Important publications concerning mandatory military training do exist, including Tanner's Compulsory Citizen Soldiers and Barrett's Falling In: Australia and 'Boy Conscription' 1911-15. (2) Both works, however, devote around half of their effort to describing how and why the compulsory system was instituted and where they talk of 'cadets' it is invariably the Senior branch that is discussed. For the first few years of Junior Cadet training D. Jones' 'Cadets and Military Drill: 1872-1914', in Bessant (ed.), Mother State and Her Little Ones: Children and Youth In Australia, 1860s-1930s, and the PhD thesis on which it is based, is a valuable contribution. (3) Unfortunately, it covers only the first three years of a scheme that lasted for two decades. Another perceptive contribution to understanding the cadet movement as a whole is Crotty's Making the Australian Male: Middle-Class Masculinity 1870-1920. (4) While a valuable exploration of the changing ideologies of Australian manliness, it does little to shed light on the day-to-day working of the Junior Cadet system.

One of the more important contributions made thus far to the study of the Junior Cadet system has been provided by Kirk's Schooling Bodies. Kirk shows that the practice of physical training within schools, from the late 1800s, was associated with the construction of the body within a phase of modernity described by Foucault as 'discipline society'. (5) This idea itself was informed by the notion that the body could be disciplined through mass education and other interventions. Kirk's discussion of Junior Cadet training is within this theoretical framework. Schooling Bodies does not, however, describe in detail the practical functioning of the Junior Cadet system. In a similar manner, Kirk and Twigg's 1993 article in the History of Education Review, entitled: 'The militarization of school physical training in Australia: the rise and demise of the Junior Cadet Training Scheme, 191131', valuable and comprehensive as it is, is focused on the origins, problems and eventual downfall of the scheme rather than on its detailed daily operation. (6) Suffice to say that the published record remains thin--especially with regard to the day-to-day running of the Junior Cadet system. It is towards this historiographical gap that this article is aimed.

Although the Junior Cadet scheme officially began on 1 July 1911, its origins lay with two important earlier conferences. The first, held from 16-17 June 1909, was for the purpose of discussing and reporting upon the physical training of schoolboys in relation to their requirement for service as Senior Cadets. Present at the meeting were Commander S.A. Petherbridge, Acting Secretary, Department of Defence; Surgeon-General W.D.C. Williams, Director General of Medical Services and Cadets; Colonel R.E. Roth, the Principal Medical Officer of the Military Forces of NSW and Medical Inspector of NSW Schools; Mr F. Tate, Director of Education, Victoria; Mr A. Williams, Director of Education, South Australia; and Major C.P. Andrews, Inspector-General of Schools in Western Australia. The Surgeon-General presided. The conference decided that a comprehensive national system of physical training should be adopted to encompass all boys, as was already the case in NSW and Victorian state schools. It also recommended that a staff of physical training instructors be appointed by the army in order to support and train teachers in any system that was implemented. In addition, this military staff would be responsible for producing a 'manual' of physical training for use by teachers at schools, and for coordinating medical testing for children prior to the introduction of any physical training regime. (7)

The 1909 conference re-assembled in the office of the Director of Education, Victoria, from 17-19 March 1910, to examine the various responses received after its earlier recommendations had been disseminated and, with these in mind, to draw up and submit a definite scheme 'for the physical training of schoolboys'. The 1910 conference confirmed its previous agenda and suggested that between seventy-five and ninety minutes of physical training each week, along with activities like swimming and organised games, ought to be sufficient to improve the physique and general health of the schoolboys of the nation. These recommendations formed the basis of the system of compulsory Junior Cadet training, later enshrined in the Defence Act, and subsequently implemented across the Commonwealth. Largely in accordance with the outcomes of the 1910 conference, 'Universal Training Regulations, Part IV--Junior Cadets' were soon published which determined the nature, style and function of the Junior Cadet scheme from 1911. (8)

From the outset the military, swamped by the sheer scale of the new conscript Senior Cadet and CMF organisations, settled on a largely 'hands off' policy with respect to the Junior Cadet scheme. It resolved not to interfere with schools who successfully conducted Junior Cadet training in accordance with the Defence Act. At the same time most educators, besotted with developments in educational philosophy advocating the multi-faceted benefits of physical activity, were eager to take it on. The King's School in Sydney, for example, was 'able to give emphatic approval to the idea of Physical Training for boys', while those at the Patrician Brothers School, Bathurst, believed the proposed scheme was 'an excellent one' and 'well-calculated'. State schools displayed an equal level of enthusiasm. Albert Park State School in Victoria 'generally concurred' with the 1910 conference and the Southport High School in Queensland similarly volunteered its support--along with a suggestion for compulsory military training for all its teachers as well! Admittedly, a small proportion were not completely convinced. A.B. Weigall, headmaster of Sydney Grammar School, was concerned that his curriculum was so congested that school hours would have to be increased to accommodate such training. Similarly, C.J. Prescot of Newington College, felt that 'physical education was already well provided for in school games ... I strongly depreciate any invasion into the regular school hours' that Junior Cadet training would inevitably bring. Restrained perhaps by their Education Departments, few public schools openly criticised the ideas presented by the conference. Perth High School was an exception to this rule and represented some minor murmurings of misgiving when its headmaster commented on the difficulty of compulsion. (9)

In any case the die was cast and the deal done. The physical training conferences of 1909 and 1910, with political commitment, military support and educational enthusiasm laid the foundation for the official inauguration of Junior Cadet training from mid-1911. Why, however, did these groups gave their support so freely? What did military and educational figures expect to get back on an investment in Junior Cadet training?

While purely military considerations provided the basic rationale for the Senior Cadet and CMF organisations from 1911, this was never really the case for the Junior Cadets. Rather, the army considered the scheme useful only insofar as it might build physical fitness in potential recruits. The influential Lieutenant Colonel J.G. Legge, Quartermaster-General of the army, described the purpose of Junior Cadet training at its inception as being of an 'elementary character, and rather for the purpose of building up the frames of our future men and giving knowledge of a general character not always taught in schools'. (10) Similarly, writing in 1913, an officer of the Junior Cadet Physical and Instructional Staff described the object of the scheme as 'not to produce nimble gymnasts, nor alleged supermen with huge knots of surface muscles and strained hearts, but to promote general health of mind and body'. (11) This was in line with the official Junior Cadet training textbook that spoke of:
 the production and maintenance of health in body and mind...to give
 him a stronger and more healthy body, and to aid him to approach
 more nearly to the ideal of perfect physical
 development...especially during the period of growth, when body,
 mind, and character are immature and plastic, that the beneficial
 influence of physical training is most marked and enduring. Rightly
 taught, Physical Exercises should serve as a healthy outlet for the
 emotions, while the natural power of expressing though, feelings
 and ideas by means of bodily movements is brought out. (12)


Beyond issues of fitness, however, it was pedagogical, social and character development outcomes which inspired government decision makers and infatuated educators with regard to the military training of twelve to fourteen year old boys. As an official training publication of the 1920s recorded, Junior Cadet activities:
 should have a twofold effect; on the one hand a physical effect,
 and on the other a mental or moral effect, which for convenience
 may be termed educational in the popular sense ... [it] must be
 recognised as a powerful factor in the formation and development of
 character.


As early as the debates surrounding the Defence Act of 1903 the benefit of military training for primary school boys was espoused as a means to overcome the 'degrading, unhealthy and immoral influences of city life', while in the country it would make life 'more enjoyable through fellowship'. (13) In 1911, Earl Roberts, the influential patron of the Cadet movement in Britain, wrote of the Australian Junior Cadet scheme: 'the training they are undergoing will help them towards the formation of their character, and this is by far the most important thing that they can attend to in this period of their lives.' (14) So too official government sources recorded that:
 Moreover a marked improvement has been quite lately apparent in the
 general conduct and bearing of the youths of Australia, and it is
 claimed that this is the effect of universal training ... It is
 stated that both mentally and morally, as well as physically, the
 benefits were very definite and that the principal effects of a
 beneficial nature are increased self-respect, diminution of
 juvenile cigarette smoking and 'larrikinism' and a general tendency
 towards a sense of responsibility and a desire to become a good
 citizen. (15)


The federal government went as far as conducting an inquiry in 1914, in conjunction with police authorities in each of the states, which concluded that 'the behaviour of youth who were subject to the training is vastly improved.' (16) It was, therefore, with a triple philosophy of physical, social and character development outcomes in mind that the Junior Cadet system came into being--the organisation and function of which now bear further investigation. (17)

The Junior Cadet scheme began operation on 1 July 1911. Under its provisions all boys between twelve to fourteen years of age were subjected to a formal military training syllabus running in parallel with their academic studies in school time on school grounds. While they did not have to 'register' with the military authorities like their Senior Cadet and CMF contemporaries, at the end of their tenure, when they were old enough to join a Senior Cadet detachment, boys were expected to have been fully trained in the subjects taught under the Junior Cadet regime. Instruction began on 1 July of year that boy turned twelve and continued for two years. All boys liable to be trained were required to present themselves for a medical inspection at times and places notified by their local army 'Area Officer'. Those who were deemed unfit for training, and those living more than three miles from a place of drill and not attending a school authorised to provide Junior Cadet training, were exempted. So too were boys known to the Area Officer to be 'blind, deaf, dumb, maimed, insane, or otherwise absolutely unfit.' To give some sense of the scale of the scheme at its inauguration, on 31 December 1911 a total of 33,767 potential Junior Cadets underwent medical examinations and of these 97.8 per cent passed and began their training (18) (see Table 1).

Junior Cadet activities were for the most part carried out at schools, provided the number of eligible boys present was greater than thirty, under the supervision of the school headmaster acting with approval from the local army Military District Commandant. This responsibility was then delegated by the headmaster to a teacher or teachers from within the school. In the early days of the scheme there was some difficulty in training boys who left school before they became eligible for Senior Cadet training at fourteen but this was overcome in most states by the end of 1912 when the various state Education Acts were amended to provide for compulsory schooling up to the age of fourteen years. As a result, there were very few boys of Junior Cadet age not attending school and these few, where not exempted, were trained by the military authorities under the direction of the local Area Officer at night and on holidays. Without doubt, however, virtually all Junior Cadets were trained at schools by their own teachers with their military subjects integrated within existing school curricula. As many schools across Australia prior to 1911 already had comprehensive physical training programmes for male and female students of all ages, much Junior Cadet-type training was carried out throughout the period by girls and boys under twelve years old as well. The Department of Defence had no problem with this at all--it just did not require nor did it recognise it. (20)

Under the Defence Act, and established convention, contact between military personnel and teaching staff conducting Junior Cadet training was always kept to a minimum. In most cases military Instructional Staff maintained cordial associations with school headmasters and teachers but, in some instances, relationships were tested. Overly officious army staff in South Australia encouraged complaint by the state's Minister of Education to the federal Minister of Defence, George Pearce, describing the tendency for uniformed personnel to 'attempt to order teachers about'. Pearce responded by informing his Department that any representations Instructional Staff wished to make to school teachers was to be done through their District Headquarters while reminding them that 'Commonwealth officers have no control over school teachers.' Pearce's letter confirmed what was already happening in most localities--the training of Junior Cadets was largely a matter for schools with military staff there 'to assist, if desired and as far as practicable'. (21)

Once a year, by 31 May, all Junior Cadets were inspected by a representative of the Military District Commandant to assess their proficiency and, at the end of each training year, these representatives submitted lists to the Military Board of schools that had not trained their cadets to a 'sufficient' standard. Such schools could then be removed as approved locations for Junior Cadet training thus forcing their pupils to parade elsewhere. In practice this meant that Junior Cadets were inspected annually in public schools by Department of Education inspectors and in private schools by army officers of the Instructional Staff. The reality, however, was that not all schools could be examined on a regular basis as there was simply not enough people, time or resources to do so. In the Casino Training Area in NSW in 1914, for example, only the two largest schools were inspected. All other schools in the area were considered too small to be concerned with--although drill was still insisted upon. By 1915 the state school inspectors were more successful in reaching schools in their areas but nonetheless across all states Education Departments were constantly attempting to chase down 'missing' schools or schools who did not have an inspection report raised on them. It was this extensive use of Education Department inspectors that made military control over the Junior Cadet system largely illusory as it was these individuals who reported on whether or not training requirements were being met. Their loyalties can be reasonably judged to have been to their own Directors rather than the army. (22)

Schools providing Junior Cadet training were given an allowance by the federal government of 2s 6d per 'efficient' Junior Cadet so long as the school had more than eight cadets, maintained a greater than sixty per cent attendance rate, and was judged to be delivering training to a satisfactory standard. This allowance was to be spent on the maintenance of a miniature rifle range, ammunition, stationary, stores, equipment and incidentals connected with cadet activities. An attempt was made by federal authorities in 1914 to pay this allowance to the state Departments of Education as a grant rather than directly to schools and, although initially resisted on the grounds of excess bureaucracy, this came to be accepted practice by 1916. In any event, the administrative system whereby schools conducting Junior Cadet training received their allowance was always clumsy. The procedure was for inspecting officers, in the case of public schools, to forward their reports to the various Departments of Education. The Department would then pay the schools and collate their reports before seeking compensation from the Department of Defence. Private school inspection reports went straight to Defence and were paid directly. The system rarely worked smoothly with reports often waylaid to Area Officers, Military District Paymasters and many other inappropriate locations. The commensurate delay in payment was a constant source of irritation to schools. (23)

As far as disciplinary matters were concerned, for Junior Cadets not at school, Section 134 of the Defence Act forbade any employer from attempting to prevent him from training by reducing wages or dismissal. At the same time, however, a cadet was not paid for time spent in training. The penalty for an employer found guilty of such an offence was 100[pounds sterling]. Section 135 stipulated that any cadet who missed a specified training period, or who committed a breach of discipline, was liable to a fine of 5 [pounds sterling]-100 [pounds sterling] and, in addition, or in lieu of such a penalty, a court could commit an offender to confinement for a period not exceeding twenty-eight days. For any breaches committed by Junior Cadets, offences were heard in a Children's Court. Junior Cadets who committed minor breaches of discipline, or who failed to give proper attention to their training, were most often punished by periods of extra training that were not to exceed thirty minutes for each transgression. With this in mind, however, as a result of most Junior Cadets doing their training in school time as part of school work, there were very few evasions or prosecutions over the lifetime of the scheme compared to the Senior Cadets or CMF. (24)

Despite the embedding of Junior Cadets within the school system, the scheme was never quite as universal as it was intended to be. Training was not compulsory in schools where there were only female teachers present--although states with pre-existing drill syllabi expected these schools to continue with this type of training in lieu of it. In Queensland, a Department of Public Instruction memorandum released in February 1912 revealed that in an number of its schools 'teachers declare, with various reasons, that they are unable to carry out the scheme of training' and that as the number of Junior Cadets in some schools was so small that 'teachers appear to think it unwise to devote attention to them.' The Queensland Department sought to correct both situations in 1916 by allowing small or hard pressed schools to complete compulsory training requirements by following the old 'Manual of Drill for Queensland Schools', used prior to 1911, as its subjects were easy to administer and conduct. Moreover, by 1917 medical inspections for Junior Cadets were only conducted at schools within a five mile radius of a place of training of Senior Cadets. From this point Junior Cadet training could and was conducted for boys in schools outside this radius but it was not strictly compulsory should a parent or guardian claim an exemption for their son on the grounds of travelling time or hardship. (25)

Prescribed Junior Cadet training was initially set by the Defence Act at 120 hours per year for two years. The two compulsory elements of this instruction were physical training and drill. It was recommended that Junior Cadets receive these mandatory lessons in periods of between twenty and thirty minutes, at least three or four times per week. Generally this requirement was broken down into physical training lessons of fifteen minutes of each school day along with elementary drill practice once per week. In NSW public schools in late 1911, for example, training was carried out as fifteen minutes of physical training on four days per week while thirty minutes of the remaining day was devoted to drill. In addition to these two compulsory subjects, each Junior Cadet was required to reach a prescribed level of proficiency in at least one of the following 'optional' specialisations: miniature rifle shooting; swimming; running exercises in organised games, or first aid. The degree of efficiency required was determined by the length of time for which a boy had been liable to train. In many larger schools, instruction was given in more than one of the optional subjects. For instance, at the Fort Street High School in Sydney, the first public school to raise any type of cadet unit in 1873, all Junior Cadet subjects were taught. (26)

To secure uniformity in training across the Junior Cadet scheme, a Physical Training and Instructional Staff, consisting of military officers who were specialists in these fields, was established. To this staff was entrusted the major portion of the administration in connection with the system. Thirteen instructors were appointed on 1 September 1911, and distributed across the Military Districts. The chief duties of this staff were to train the Junior Cadet teacher-officers, to inspect training conducted in private schools, and to make regular visits to all schools within their Training Areas. When visiting schools to assist in training they often handled squads of boys in order to demonstrate the correct methods to be adopted, and occasionally to run training when it was not possible for school staff to do so. (27)

In June 1912 the Prime Minister, Andrew Fisher, called another conference to consider the progress and future of Junior Cadet training. The meeting was held in Melbourne between state Education Department and Department of Defence representatives on 23-24 July. The Minister for Defence, Pearce, as a result of the proceedings of the conference, decreed that from August 1912 army Instructional Staff would dramatically increase the frequency of their visits to schools to help teach drill; that instruction in the 'Mariners Compass' and 'Elementary Signalling' (in certain specified state schools only) be added to the list of option subjects; and that the total training time per annum for Junior Cadets be reduced to ninety hours annually. (28)

As far as the compulsory subjects were concerned, by far the greatest portion of the time allotted for Junior Cadet activities was devoted to physical training. Indeed, in some ways over time the Junior Cadet system became a type of extended physical education programme in some schools. For many years before the Defence Act came into effect physical training had been an important part of the 'drill' curriculum already present in many Australian schools. What the new system gave to this pre-existing inclination was universality and standardisation. In general terms the physical training of Junior Cadets was described as 'variations in marching and running', for those in their first year, with the 'addition of jumping', in subsequent years. It also encompassed a range of recreational exercises of various kinds that were designed to excite 'vigorous, active, enjoyable movement'. The underlying philosophy of such activities was summed up in the Cadet Physical Training Textbook of 1912 which stated:
 The exhilaration, the freedom, the putting forth the effort of
 pitting oneself against difficulty, always appeal to youth, and the
 sense of 'good sportsmanship' and all that this connotes--love of
 fair play, modesty in victory, cheerfulness and good temper in
 defeat, loyalty to one's side, generosity to an opponent, pluck,
 determination and perseverance--which is gained through
 competitive play, is of inestimable value. (29)


Although the content of physical training lessons varied considerably depending on what exercises were to be performed they always followed a standard pattern. Figure 1 provides the standard proforma for a lesson that was to include a game while Figure 2 shows an example script of a physical training lesson given to a detachment of Junior Cadets. (30)

The second compulsory subject, 'drill and marching', was taught either as a purely gymnastic activity at one extreme or as formal infantry drill at the other. As a general rule both kinds were practiced in most schools. All types of military drill at 'squad' level were taught with the exclusion of movements 'at the double'. Cadets in their first year were expected to achieve a 'fair degree' of accuracy in drill, while those in subsequent years were required to achieve a 'good average' of achievement. A typical drill lesson began with an instructor's call to 'fall in'. Upon this mark the cadets formed up in one line according to height and space themselves at one arms interval from each other. The shortest was always on the right of the rank. The cadets then followed the instructions and example of the teacher who positioned himself in front and centre of them. (33)

In the vast majority of cases drill lessons were delivered as 'commands' with every command consisting of an 'explanatory' and an 'executive' such that action would commence on the executive. An observer would note that the only sounds issuing from a Junior Cadet physical training lesson would be the instructor's firm announcement of phrases like 'head backward...bend' or 'left foot forward...place'. A Junior Cadet at Clayfield College (later Brisbane Boys' College), in Queensland, reported in 1916 that 'at 11.20 each day a visitor to the college would see us forming up in fours, marching and physically jerking.' All of this marching and drill were usually carried out to a cacophony of bugles and drums issued to schools by the army. To assume that these lessons were generally 'fun', however, would be a mistake as instructors were encouraged to take their duties very seriously. Training textbooks advised teacher-officers that 'impatience, on the one hand, and hesitation on the other, should be avoided, and, while cheerfulness is greatly to be desired, the manner should be firm and decided in order that discipline may be maintained.' Junior Cadets instructors were required to adhere closely to the syllabus and to be 'rigid in the correction of faults.' Interestingly, nose-breathing exercises were given to Junior Cadets during periods of drill and physical training as it was believed that: 'mouth breathing, a great cause of post-nasal growths, colds and deafness, is a great deal more prevalent, and more baneful than is commonly supposed!' (34)

The military, at least, considered the most important of the optional Junior Cadet subjects to be miniature rifle shooting. It was strongly encouraged by the army on the grounds that it was the first stage in a progression that continued through Senior Cadet training to culminate in the trained soldier musketry courses of the CMF. To this end, miniature rifle ranges were constructed in many schools across the country in all manner of buildings or playgrounds so long as the design did not exceed fifty yards, was approved by the District Commandant, and there was a teacher on staff who had qualified on the 'miniature ranges' subject at a military school of instruction. Initially only .23 calibre Francotte rifles were used on these ranges. Later, .22 calibre Winchester rifles, or service. .303 Lee Enfield's with aiming tubes fitted to make them of .23 or .22 calibre, were used. During these shoots, no cadet was to fire until he had demonstrated an ability to load, unload and safely handle the weapon and range practices were strictly supervised--to the extent that cartridges were handed to firers one at a time and no talking was permitted except by the range supervisor. In the first few years of the Junior Cadet system the Department of Defence provided much of the funds to construct such ranges but by 1915, however, it had run out of money for this purpose and work in this direction was temporarily halted and then permanently scaled down. To fulfil the requirements of the 'miniature shooting' subject, Junior Cadets needed to fire not less than 20 rounds per year under instruction, were expected to be able to load and fire the weapon without assistance, and to follow safety regulations. Cadets were considered to have 'passed' the subject or to be 'efficient' in it if they were able to hit a target such that three out of five shots fell within a six-inch diameter at a range of twenty-five yards. (35)

All of the other optional subjects had specified standards of 'efficiency' as well. For instance, the 'swimming' syllabus required cadets, by the end of their first year, to be able to swim unassisted a distance of ten yards using breaststroke. The requirement increased to twenty yards in the second year with students also needing to display the 'know-how to rescue a drowning person.' A 'fair knowledge' of the games set out in the Junior Cadet Textbook was required for 'running exercises and organised games' in the first year of training. In their second year cadets were expected to show a 'general improvement' demonstrated by combined exercises, consisting of running, jumping and vaulting in teams of four or more. The 'first-aid' training package consisted of ten subjects ranging from anatomy to bandaging. Boys in their first year of cadethood were required to display mastery of the first five subjects and, by the end of their second year, of the whole course. Junior Cadets studying the 'Mariner's Compass' were to be able to describe the construction of an elementary compass as well as understand the 'compass card' and markings upon it. A cadet studying this subject must also have known the origin and description of the Union Jack, the Ensigns of the Royal Navy, Royal Naval Reserve and Mercantile Marine of Great Britain as well as the ensigns of the Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand. Finally, students of the 'signalling' needed to display knowledge of the semaphore signs and be able to make and read short sentences with it. Students were also to have learned how to make and read letters of Morse code and be able to communicate by waving a flag. (36)

Annual inspections by army Instructional Staff, or Education Department Inspectors, to determine Junior Cadet individual and school efficiency in these subjects were not always a forgone conclusion. For the twelve months ending 30 June 1912, for example, only 11,167 of the 18,907 Junior Cadets in Victorian public schools were considered 'efficient'. Instructional Staff noted across the country in the same year that many Junior Cadet classes were too large, some schools were using old state-based drill instruction rather than that of the new system, faults were often not corrected promptly by teacher-officers, and insufficient instruction was frequently given to the boys. In Queensland in 1924, a total of 556 schools in the state were inspected by Department of Education or military representatives with training standards described only as 'fair' for physical training and 'approaching fair' for drill. The main criticisms revolved around poor instructional technique on behalf of teacher-officers. There were regular complaints at this time from army Instructional Staff that some schools did not properly distinguish between first and second year training curricula and rather taught all their cadets according to either the first or second year schedule. (37)

Apart from fulfilling the training requirements demanded by universal service, Junior Cadets did, occasionally, participate in extra-curricular activities. On 9 June 1916, for example, they were used in wartime recruiting marches in Brisbane. The Queensland Minister of Public Instruction 'heartily approved of the idea of using school children in such marches'. So too the Governor expressed his satisfaction at the parade and the 'way in which they marched past'. The Courier, on the other hand, condemned this parade as a clear attempt to use children to 'shame their elders into getting into khaki'. A second non-prescribed activity were the various Junior Cadet competitions regularly conducted throughout the period. From 1919-31, for example, the 'Stewart Shield' was contested by schools from around the country. The object of this particular competition was to encourage efficiency in school detachments and enthusiasm in Junior Cadet officers. Under the rules of this contest schools nominated themselves as competitors to their local army Instructional Staff and, after 1 September each year, were inspected by an officer of that staff. This officer then selected the detachment in each state that he thought was the most efficient. Each of these winning schools was then inspected by the army's Director of Physical Training to determine a national champion school. (38)

The chief mechanism used by army Instructional Staff to train teacher-officers of the Junior Cadets were 'School of Instruction', at the successful conclusion of which teachers were issued certificates confirming them as 'Instructors of Junior Cadet Training'. These qualified teachers commonly took responsibility for cadet activities within their schools. Such military 'schools' were held quite regularly and were organised by the Military District Commandants, usually in conjunction with state Education Departments and private schools representatives, to run for total of fifteen working days with instruction given six days a week. Teachers were required to be physically fit and under fifty years of age to participate. End of course examinations in the form of a practical and theory tests were conducted on compulsory and optional cadet subjects. The qualification certificates attained by successful teachers listed the subjects studied and the marks obtained by the candidate such that a grade of 60 per cent was required for an overall pass, while to pass 'with honours' a teacher was required to achieve an 80 per cent score. Mere attendance at a school of instruction by no means guaranteed a 'pass'--there were many cases of teachers failing to receive their certificates. One such course conducted at Southport, Queensland, from 6-17 January 1919, for example, saw seven of twenty-one candidates 'fail'. (39)

A good example of a school of instruction for teachers aspiring to become 'qualified' Junior Cadet teachers was held in Bathurst from 16-28 March 1914. The course taught physical training, squad drill, miniature rifle shooting, organised games and first aid. In total twenty-nine teachers from the surrounding region attended with all but two coming from single teacher schools. On arrival candidates were presented with text books, a sweater, a belt and a pair of rubber soled shoes. Work ran from 9:30am to 5:30pm each day with an hour set aside for lunch. Students were observed by army staff to be 'awkward at first' but growing to possess a 'soldier-like manner by the end of the course'. At its conclusion, twenty-six teachers qualified with three unsuccessful in passing the physical training and squad drill subjects. Some teachers objected to the long hours worked at such courses but their complaints were not accepted by either the Defence or the Education Departments who pointed out that all attendees received medical examinations prior to attendance to ensure their fitness to handle the rigours of the course. (40)

In general terms the military-run Junior Cadet schools of instruction were popular affairs and were always well attended. In 1912, fifty-three courses were held for teachers across the country and a total of 1048 males and seventy-one females attended and passed them. Only the demands of the war, and the subsequent shortage of military (and teaching) staff, temporarily wound back the programme from 1914-18. Despite a range of opinions held by teachers as to the overall utility of compulsory Junior Cadet training, most were impressed by their experiences at these army-run schools. The attendees of a course running from 5-21 October 1915, in northern NSW, reported that 'the question of Junior Cadet training will no longer be a bugbear to the teachers who were privileged to attend the school'. (41)

For many teachers, in addition to helping them to execute their Junior Cadet responsibilities upon returning to their schools, army-run schools of instruction had the added attraction of permitting time off from regular routines, pay of up to 10s a day in travelling expenses, and extra leave. Importantly, qualification provided a means by which teachers under twenty-six years of age could substitute the instruction of Junior Cadet for their own universal training requirements in the CMF. With this in mind, so keen was the enthusiasm of teachers for receiving instruction in Junior Cadet training and passing it on to their students that many voluntarily spent their school holidays attending such courses. (42)

On the whole, the teacher-officers of the Junior Cadet system were an interesting group of people. At the initiation of scheme in 1911 an appeal was made by the Department of Defence for teachers to cooperate by accepting military commissions. Many responded to the call and educational staff in schools deemed suitable for the conduct of Junior Cadet training were immediately appointed as officers of Junior Cadets--provided they qualified by examination as officers in the adult army, Senior Cadets, or at the Junior Cadet schools of instruction previously discussed. The number of commissions granted to teachers depended on the number of cadets under training within a school such that for every 200 a major was appointed; for every 100 a captain; for every 50 a lieutenant and for schools with between 30 and 50 cadets a lieutenant was appointed. A school with 300 medically fit boys between twelve and fourteen years of age, for example, could have one major, three captains and six lieutenants commissioned. Strictly speaking, these teacher-officer appointments were deemed 'honorary' and they bestowed no right of command in the wider army beyond the Junior Cadet organisation. Teachers held their rank only for so long as their school continued to train Junior Cadets or while they were appointed as instructors. Unfortunately, these volunteers were often spurned by their CMF counterparts, and when they tried to form an association in 1912 to air their grievances, particularly concerning the respect shown them by their military peers, they were effectively gagged by the Department of Defence. The only way an officer of Junior Cadets could gain a substantive commission in the adult army was to qualify for his rank under the prescribed examinations that applied to the CMF. If successful, the candidate would be allocated to the Reserve of Officers List of the Militia Forces. (43)

Although qualified teachers instructing Junior Cadets were entitled to commissions it was not necessary for teachers to hold them in order to train their students. Nor was it compulsory for teachers to attend Junior Cadet training schools of instruction. The primary purpose of commissioning was to provide some motivation and acknowledgement to volunteer teachers while the aim of the schools of instruction was to familiarise them with the syllabus they were required to teach. Overall, in an absence of both commissions and formal training, so long as the Military District Commandant was satisfied with the standard of instruction at a school then that was all that was required. Most teacher-officers, however, embraced their cadet responsibilities and, provided the school was large enough, many spent the majority of time on these activities. In rare cases individual teachers became so specialised that they were sent by their Departments to supplement army Instructional Staff by visiting schools and providing advice on the proper conduct of Junior Cadet training. (44)

As there were many eligible boys enrolled in single-teacher schools run by women, the theoretical universality of the Junior Cadet system provided rare opportunities for female teachers to be involved with military-oriented activities. These women did not shrink from their responsibilities in this regard and across the country in 1912 alone 100 were certified as Junior Cadet instructors, compared to 140 males. In the following year, a further 245 women successfully completed Junior Cadet schools of instruction. Numbers were restrained at this time by the NSW Education Department's refusal to allow female teachers to be formally qualified as cadet instructors. NSW educational authorities only relented on such a policy in 1915 when the shortages of male teachers, brought on by the war, made it untenable. The damage was done, however, with the women teachers of NSW from this point never as keen to attend schools of instructions as their male counterparts. Ignoring the impact of a previous policy of exclusion, the Inspector of Schools in NSW concluded that 'judging by the few applications so far received by them, the advantage of such a course of training does not appear to be realised by the women teachers.' True to the attitudes of the era, even where female teachers were able to become instructors of Junior Cadets, they were not entitled to be commissioned as officers. (45)

There is little doubt that for boys, educators and even many military figures, the Junior Cadet system was the most popular portion of the overall scheme of universal military training. As early as 1913 an officer of the army Physical Training Instructional Staff observed that:
 apart from the military considerations, the boy who passes through
 the Junior Cadets learns much that will improve his value as
 citizen. He receives the benefit of sound physical training at an
 important stage of his growth. The qualities of alertness,
 cheerfulness and prompt obedience are fostered.


Junior Cadet 'organised games' were so well-liked that on the Friday afternoons usually allotted for them many metropolitan schools found that their truancy problems for this part of the school week were significantly reduced. Mr A.J. Kilgour, the headmaster of Fort Street High School, Sydney, commented in 1913 that the excellent discipline prevailing in his school as 'largely due to the splendid work in physical training done there.' The federal government pointed to a steady decrease in the number of 'non-efficients' in the Senior Cadet system over the time span of its operation as evidence that the Junior Cadet scheme yielded material results. Indeed, an analysis of the medical condition of the 1898 'quota' of Senior Cadets (under training in 1912) shows a far higher percentage of medically unfit boys than subsequent quotas subjected to two full years Junior Cadet training. Even as late as 1921 the Prime Minster's Department released a memorandum pointing out the positive effects of Junior Cadet training on the national physique. It offered statistics resulting from medical examinations as 'proof of the efficiency of Junior Cadet Training in the increase in national physical efficiency'. (46)

Despite such positive sentiments, however, the compulsory Junior Cadet scheme was abolished on 30 June 1922. Why was this so? In truth, the writing had been placed on the wall for the Junior Cadets in 1920 when the Minister for Defence, Pearce, in a policy speech to the Senate on 17 September, stated that:
 the Commonwealth government has thus supported and developed the
 Junior Cadet movement in the states to a definite point. It is now
 for consideration if the time has not arrived when the
 responsibility for Junior Cadet training should pass to the entire
 control of the states.


At a subsequent conference in Sydney the various state Directors of Education voiced the opinion that the sentiments outlined by Pearce with respect to the future of Junior Cadets would be a retrograde step. They applauded the efficiency and effectiveness of the system as it stood and could not overstate the national value of the scheme. Importantly, however, they also claimed that the states could not maintain a uniform standard of instruction without a federal lead as it was impossible, for example, to control work done within private schools. To transform the Junior Cadets into a state-based scheme would, in their eyes, lead to a rapid unravelling of a useful enterprise and a reintroduction of pre-1911 circumstances. (47) Of course, while many of these arguments held true, they do not mask the most significant state concern--how much would it cost if the army tried to off-load the scheme onto them?

In any case, on 1 June 1922 the Prime Minister, Billy Hughes, wrote to the state Premiers to inform them that the current system of Junior Cadets had 'received earnest consideration in view of the urgent need for economy existing at present'. Such thoughts involved 'the whole question of whether this activity rightly belonged to the Defence Department or to the educational authorities of each state.' Hughes went on to conclude that although statistics conclusively proved that economic gain to the nation, as a result of improvements in health and fitness, had accrued as a result of the physical training implicit in the scheme, 'in view of the need for economy in expenditure on matters relating to Defence, the Commonwealth government has reluctantly decided to cease its activities in connection with the Junior Cadet training scheme as from the 30 June 1922'. (48)

Two factors appear to have influenced the government's decision. First, the Australian people were war-weary and tended to look without enthusiasm on any form of continuing compulsory military training. The war had, after all, been won and interest in defence evaporated in its wake. Second, and most important, was the issue of cost. Junior Cadets expended between one to two per cent of the defence budget in 1922 and as a relatively minor priority in a time of enforced fiscal restraint on the Department of Defence it was a burden that became too heavy to bear. Originally, one of the most attractive aspects of the Junior Cadet system was its perceived inexpensiveness. All that was needed was a trained instructor, an open piece of playground and a small amount of equipment--the most expensive of which were arms and ammunition. In reality, however, largely as a consequence of a wholesale underestimation of its associated costs, the scheme was never so thrifty. The annual Junior Cadet contingent allowance was reduced from 2s 6d to 1s 6d per annum for each efficient cadet in 1917 due, in the words of the army's Adjutant General, to the 'need for economy in this present crises'. Nevertheless, the scheme still milked the defence vote of over 2,110 [pounds sterling] per annum in allowances alone in 1919, and by 1922 the cost of the entire system had grown to around 15,000 [pounds sterling]. Following its decision to abolish the scheme the Prime Minister's Department conveyed to each Department of Education, via a circular memorandum, that 'it is desired to emphasis the fact that only the present state of the country's finances renders necessary the course of action outlined'. The need for economy was the nail in the coffin for the Junior Cadets. The new Minister for Defence, W.M. Greene, responded to unhappy letters from Departments of Education, state Premiers, and even a delegation from the Council of Public Instruction, Victoria, who called on him to voice their displeasure and urge reconsideration, with the following public reply:
 with reference to the recent decision of the Defence Department to
 discontinue activities in regard to Junior Cadet training, I desire
 to inform you that the facts outlined in support of the scheme of
 Junior Cadet training are fully realised, and I am grateful at the
 expression of opinion regarding the efficient physical training
 work conducted by the Physical Training Staff. It is regretted that
 funds are not available to continue the service desired. (49)


Picking up the earlier theme, the Minister then went on to suggest that should state governments be prepared to pay for the continuance of the scheme then he would be willing to allow its federal structure to remain in place. This suggestion was considered by the 1922 conference of state Directors of Education which resolved, inconclusively, that the scheme ought to continued in some manner and that the matter be referred to the Premiers Conference of 1923. The Premiers subsequently agreed on a counter-proposal suggesting that the states take on responsibility for coordinating the Junior Cadet system so long as federal funding, to the tune of between 3,500 [pounds sterling] and 4,500 [pounds sterling] pounds per annum, continued. The Military Board was asked to comment on the proposal by Greene's replacement as Minister for Defence, E.K. Bowden. Although the Board was keen to see Junior Cadet training continue, due to the perceived effect it had on the quality of adult recruits, it supported Greene's original proposal in that the states should bear the cost of any continuing scheme, with the only concession being that the Commonwealth ought to maintain carriage of policy and instructional issues, estimated to cost under 2,000 [pounds sterling]pounds per year. Even this reduced cost, however, was criticised by the Finance Member of the Military Board on the grounds that this sum was too great and would be spent at the expense of more important military requirements. The government agreed and the states did not get their money.

Despite the formal end of federal government support to Junior Cadets the various state Education Departments were not eager to forgo many aspects of the training system that their students had previously enjoyed. The Queensland Minister for Education, Pascoe, for example, ordered 'that there must be no relaxation in the instruction and practice of the subjects which have hitherto been required for their training'. His Department considered any 'discontinuance of the work in connection with Junior Cadets would be a serious retrogression in the training of youths'. The Under Secretary of Education in Brisbane wrote personally to the Prime Minister informing him of such intentions on 11 July 1922. Eventually the continuing support for the concept of Junior Cadets by state education authorities began to bear fruit. A Junior Cadet round-table conference, attended by federal and state ministers in May 1923, was concerned that 'the determination of the Defence Department to withdraw from this system ... may lead to the abandonment of the good work that has already been accomplished'. It urged that 'state authorities make strong representations to the Commonwealth government to have this system of training under Commonwealth direction continued'. (50)

Following the May conference, and the backdrop of continuing agitation by state representatives, approval was finally given for a resumption of military support for Junior Cadet training from 1 July 1924. From this point, direction and coordination (but not formal ownership) of the Junior Cadet system was again undertaken by the army. Military instructors were re-allotted and the training of teacher-officers was begun again. Most importantly, however, the scheme was no longer compulsory and was run, for all intents and purposes, through the Departments of Education in each state with a minimum cost to army. The actual system of training remained similar to its earlier incarnation, with the exceptions that rifle shooting was removed from the syllabus as an overly expensive subject, and many administrative responsibilities were taken on by schools. In addition, medical examinations were dispensed with and power delegated to headmasters to deem boys as fit or unfit for Junior Cadet activities. Army Instructional Staff still visited schools to give model lessons and to supervise the conduct of training but Junior Cadet activities outside of schools was never reinstituted. In this way the Junior Cadet system continued on a more unstructured, informal and voluntary basis in schools across the country. (51)

Under such arrangements the Junior Cadet scheme limped along for another seven years. Inevitably, however, its days were always numbered. Existing as a consequence of state agitation, it could not outlive the unavoidable cooling of passion and loss of interest in the issue as time progressed. With little state protest the army finally discontinued any further association with the scheme as of 30 June 1931. Military supervision and coordination of Junior Cadet activities in the form of visits and inspections by army Instructional Staff and instruction of teacher-officers were discontinued henceforth and all items of military equipment used in support of Junior Cadet training were withdrawn. Many schools chose to continue with a similar or slightly modified programme under their own volition and in the main the physical training, previously conducted under the auspices of the Junior Cadets, was gradually absorbed into school curricula as 'physical education' or similarly titled subjects. Army connections were lost and quickly forgotten although the provisions of the Defence Act concerning the training of Junior Cadets, as well as the associated Junior Cadet Regulations, were not actually repealed until December 1951. (52)

So ended Australia's singular experiment with classroom-based military-oriented instruction for primary school aged boys. While the wider cadet movement certainly lived on, as a voluntary extension of the Senior Cadets from 1929, the Junior Cadet scheme was over. No longer would military subjects be integrated within traditional school syllabi. No longer would teacher-officers drill their boys in the morning and teach them maths or history in the afternoon. No longer would the crack of miniature rifle ranges punctuate the school day. The Junior Cadet scheme, as representative of a true integration of military and educational objectives, theory and practice, was an interesting and unique phenomenon in Australia. It touched the lives of thousands of young Australians and remains an important aspect of Australian educational/military history. As the teachers and children of the twenty-first century make their way to 'outdoor' and 'physical education' classes it is with little sense of their Junior Cadet forebears. Nonetheless, they do so as a result of what came to pass in Australian schools from 1911-31.

This article set out to describe the practical and functional details of the Junior Cadet system from 1911-31 because such detail had been largely absent from the historical record. With such foundations laid it becomes possible to explore a range of other intriguing questions regarding the compulsory Junior Cadet system like, for example, what it actually achieved in a military or social sense. What impact did it have on educational culture and community attitudes to service, discipline or other civic 'virtues'? But these are the questions of future scholarship.

CRAIG STOCKINGS

University of New South Wales

(1) T.W. Tanner, 'The introduction of compulsory military training in Australia 1901--1914', Armidale and District Historical Society Journal & Proceedings, no. 10, 1967, pp. 24-25; Notes on the Defence Act, 1909. Commonwealth Record Service (CRS), Series A5954, Item 1282/1.

(2) See T.W. Tanner, Compulsory Citizen Soldiers, Sydney, Maxwell Printing, 1980; J. Barrett, Falling in: Australians and "boy conscription", 1911-1915, Sydney, Hale & Iremonger, 1979.

(3) D.J. Jones, 'Cadets and military drill: 1872-1914', in B. Bessant (ed.), Mother State and Her Little Ones: children and youth in Australia, 1860s-1930s, Melbourne, Centre for Youth and Community Studies, Phillip Institute of Technology, 1987.

(4) M. Crotty, Making the Australian Male: middle-class masculinity 1870-1920, Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 2001.

(5) D. Kirk, Schooling Bodies: school practice and public discourse, 1880-1950, London, Leicester University Press, 1998.

(6) D. Kirk and K. Twigg, 'The militarization of school physical training in Australia: the rise and demise of the Junior Cadet Training Scheme, 1911-31', History of Education Review, vol. 22, no. 4, 1993.

(7) Report of Physical Training Conference, 1909, CRS A2, Item 1909/673.

(8) Report of Physical Training Conference, 1910, CRS MP84/1, Item 1832/1/220; Australian Junior Cadet Regulations, 1917, CRS A1194, Item 12.10/4328.

(9) Correspondence: Headmasters to Director of Education (NSW) April-May 1910, CRS MP84/1, Item 1832/13/579.

(10) Notes of Lectures by the Quartermaster-General, 1911, CRS A1194, Item 12.11/4336.

(11) J.R. Collins, 'Training of Junior Cadets', Lone Hand, 1 March 1913, p. 414.

(12) Department of Defence, Physical Training. Part 1. Junior Cadet training textbook (Physical Training Textbook (1925)), Government Printer, 1925, p. 7.

(13) Tanner, 'The introduction of compulsory military training in Australia', p. 21.

(14) P.C. Candy, The Victorian Cadet Movement: an outline history from 1867 to 1969, Melbourne, P.C. Candy, 1969, pp. 24-22.

(15) Official Yearbook of the Commonwealth of Australia, No. 9, Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics, Melbourne, 1916, p. 982.

(16) Official Yearbook of the Commonwealth of Australia, No. 9, 1916, p. 982.

(17) Department of Defence, Physical Training Textbook, 1925, pp. 7 and 11.

(18) Area Officers placed notices in Post Offices and other approved places and wrote to headmasters of schools in which Junior Cadet training was authorised. For the purposes of assessing fitness, along with officers of the Army Medical Corps and other certified medical practitioners, Area Officers and headmasters were deemed to be the 'prescribed medical authorities' required by Section 138 of the Defence Act. Defence Act 1903-1912, Sections 125-126, quoted in Regulations and Instructions for Universal Training, CRS A1194, Item 12.11/4339; Commonwealth Yearbook, No. 8, 1915, p. 937 and No. 9, 1916, p. 982, and Department of Defence, Physical Training Textbook, 1925, p. 9.

(19) Sources for this table are: Commonwealth Yearbook, No. 7, 1914, p. 936; No. 8, 1915, p. 944; No. 9, 1916, p. 984; No. 10, 1917, p. 988; No. 11, 1918, p. 1021; No. 12, 1919, p. 1010; No. 13, 1920, p. 1003; No. 14, 1921, p. 921; No. 15, 1922, p. 620.

(20) Report of the Minister for Defence on the Progress of Universal Training, 1912, CRS A5954, Item 1208/7; Department of Defence, Australian Junior Cadet Regulations 1917 (hereinafter Regulations 1917), Government Printer, Melbourne, 1912, p. 12; Collins, 'Training of Junior Cadets', p. 413; K. White, 'Compulsory military training in Australia in 1914', Sabretache, vol. 18, p. 16.

(21) Memo: Military District Commandant to Cadet Battalions, CRS MP84/1, Item 1832/13/483.

(22) Department of Defence, Regulations 1917, p. 13; Report of Department of Education Inspector, 1914, State Records of NSW (SRNSW), Series CGS3830, Item 20/12532; Reports of Department of Education Inspectors, 1915-1921, SRNSW CGS3830, Item 20/12534.

(23) The eight cadet minimum was dropped after 1914. Regulations and Instructions for Universal Training CRS A1194, Item 12.11/4339 (pp. 12-13); Correspondence: Director of Education (NSW) to Army Headquarters, 1916, CRS A457, Item C404/5; Reports of Department of Education Inspectors, 1915-1921, SRNSW CGS3830, Item 20/12534.

(24) Defence Act 1903-1912, Sections 134-135, quoted in Regulations and Instructions for Universal Training CRS A1194, Item 12.11/4339, (pp. 8 and 10); Collins, 'Training of Junior Cadets', p. 413.

(25) Memo: Junior Cadet Training in Queensland Schools, 23 February 1912, Queensland State Archives (QSA) Series RSI15191, Item 1-434; Memo: Department of Public Instruction re: Drill an Queensland Schools, 1916, QSA RSI15191, Item 1-428; Australian Junior Cadet Regulations, 1917, CRS A1194, Item 12.10/4328 (p. 14).

(26) Department of Defence, Physical Training Textbook, 1925, p. 24; Minutes of Conference on Junior Cadet Training, 1912, CRS MP84/1, Item 1832/13/573; Collins, 'Training of Junior Cadets', p. 413.

(27) Report of the Minister for Defence on the Progress of Universal Training, CRS A5954, Item 1208/7, p. 12.

(28) Minutes of Conference on Junior Cadet Training, 1912, CRS MP84/1, Item 1832/13/573.

(29) Collins, 'Training of Junior Cadets', p. 61.

(30) Collins, 'Training of Junior Cadets', pp. 61 and 416.

(31) Source: Department of Defence, Junior Cadet Training, Text Book, 1916, Part 1--Physical Training, Government Printer, Melbourne, p. 82.

(32) Department of Defence, Junior Cadet Training, Text Book, 1916, Part 1--Physical Training, Government Printer, Melbourne, p. 86.

(33) Collins, 'Training of Junior Cadets', p. 414.

(34) Department of Defence, Physical Training Textbook, 1925, pp. 27-28; Clayfield College, (Brisbane Boys College), The Clayfield Collegian, 1916, p. 17; Collins, 'Training of Junior Cadets', p. 415.

(35) Collins, 'Training of Junior Cadets', p. 416; Memo: Director of Education (NSW) to Headmasters, SRNSW, CGS3830, Item 20/12532; Regulations and Instructions for Universal Training, CRS A1194, Item 12.11/4339, pp. 14 and 20; Australian Junior Cadet Regulations, 1917, CRS A1194, Item 12.10/4328; Correspondence: Army Headquarters to Director of Education (NSW), SRNSW CGS3830, Item 20/12534.

(36) Regulations and Instructions for Universal Training, CRS A1194, Item 12.11/4339, pp. 20 and 23.

(37) Return of Efficient Junior Cadets in Victorian Public Schools, CRS MP84/1, Item 1832/2/22; Memo: PT Staff to Minister for Public Instruction, 13 August 1912, QSA RSI15191, Item 1-424; Report: Summary of Physical Training for 1924, QSA RSI15191, Item 1-432; Department of Education (South Australia), Education Gazette, September 1915, p. 172.

(38) Letter: Queensland Recruiting Committee to Headmasters, 29 May 1916 and 1 Military District Orders No. 28, QSA RSI15191, Item 1-428; Courier, 19 June 1916; Conditions for the Stewart Shield, QSA RSI15191, Item 1-432.

(39) Report of the Minister for Defence on the Progress of Universal Training, CRS A5954, Item 1208/7, p. 12; Commonwealth Yearbook, No.8, 1915, p. 937; Instructor of Junior Cadets Certificate, SRNSW CGS3830, Item 20/12534 and Junior Cadet Training Course Report, 7 March 1919, QSA RSI15191, Item 1-430.

(40) Reports of Junior Cadet Schools of Instruction (NSW), 1914, SRNSW CGS3830, Item 20/12532.

(41) Report of the Minister for Defence on the Progress of Universal Training, CRS A5954, Item 1208/7, p. 18; Memo: Military Board re: Junior Cadet Schools of Instruction, December 1912, SRNSW CGS3830, Item 20/12532; Report of Department of Education Chief Inspector, 1915, SRNSW CGS3830, Item 20/12534.

(42) White, 'Compulsory military training', p. 16.

(43) Adelaide High School, 50th Anniversary Book, 1958, p. 15; Department of Defence, Regulations 1917, p. 17; Regulations and Instructions for Universal Training, CRS A1194, Item 12.11/4339, p. 11; Candy, The Victorian Cadet Movement, pp. 22-24.

(44) Australian Junior Cadet Regulations, 1917, CRS A1194, Item 12.10/4328, p. 17; Department of Defence, Australian Junior Cadet Regulations, 1925, Government Printer, Melbourne, p. 17.

(45) D.J. Jones, 'The military use of state schools 1872-1914', PhD Thesis, La Trobe University, 1991, p. 510; Collins, 'Training of Junior Cadets', p. 414; Report of Department of Education Chief Inspector (NSW), 1915, SRNSW CGS3830, Item 20/12532.

(46) Collins, 'Training of Junior Cadets', p. 418; Minutes of Meeting and Report of State Directors of Education re: Junior Cadet Training, 1922, CRS A6006, Item 1923/11/8; Memo: Prime Minister's Office to State Premiers, 16 December 1921, CRS A457, Item C404/5.

(47) Minutes of Meeting and Report of State Directors of Education re: Junior Cadet Training, 1922, CRS A6006, Item 1923/11/8, p. 3.

(48) Letter: Prime Minister to Premiers, 1 June 1922, QSA RSI15191, Item 1-431.

(49) Collins, 'Training of Junior Cadets', p. 41; Memo: Education Department Queensland (internal), re: Abolition of Junior Cadet Training, 11 May 1923, QSA RSI15191, Item 1-431; Memo: Prime Minister's Office to State Departments of Education, 2 July 1922, CRS A457, Item C404/5; Minutes of Meeting and Report of State Directors of Education re: Junior Cadet Training, 1922, CRS A6006, Item 1923/11/8, pp. 3-4.

(50) Memo: Education Department (Brisbane), re: Abolition of Junior Cadet Training, 11 May 1923, QSA RSI15191, Item 1-431.

(51) Military Board Order No. 162 of 1924, CRS A5954, Item 895/9; Department of Education (South Australia), Education Gazette, June 1924, p. 151; Letter: Commandant 1 Military District to Undersecretary of Public Instruction, 17 June 1924; Memo: Education Department (Brisbane), re: Abolition of Junior Cadet Training, 11 May 1923, QSA RSI15191, Item 1-431.

(52) Memo: Army Department of Physical Training to Military Commandants, Australian War Memorial (AWM), Series 61, Item 412/3/72; Australian Junior Cadet Regulation, 1927, CRS MP742/1, Item 4/1/291.

Dr Craig Stockings is a Lecturer in History and Strategic Studies at the University of New South Wales, Australian Defence Force Academy. His areas of academic interest include Australian military history and, in particular, battlefield or 'operational' analysis. He has recently published a history of the army cadet movement in Australian from 1866-2006, entitled The Torch and the Sword (UNSW Press).

Email: c.stockings@adfa.edu.au
Table 1: Junior Cadets registered medically fit and under
training 1914-21 (19)

 1914 1915 1916 1917

Medically Fit 47,236 48,561 49,112 53,817
Percentage Tested 97.8 97.6 97.7 97.9

 1918 1919 1920 1921

Medically Fit 55,625 54,910 56,003 51,471
Percentage Tested 98 98 98 98

Fig 1: Standard lesson proforma for a physical training lesson to
junior cadets, 1916 (31)

Serial Action

{1. Introductory running and breathing exercises 10 mins}
{2. Head pressing backward, truck pressing forward 10 mins}
{3. Arm exercises (boning and stretching and 10 mins}
 shoulder blades)
{4. Balance and leg exercises 10 mins}
{5. Trunk turning and bending sideways 10 mins}
{6. Marching, running, jumping 10 mins}
{7. Game 10 mins}
{8. Breathing exercises 10 mins}

Fig 2: Script of a physical training lesson given to a detachment of
Junior Cadets (32)

Serial Action Command

1. Form Class into one rank Backs to the wall--move!
2. Select two leaders and place
 them in position 2 paces
 apart (on marks)
3. Form 2 ranks on leaders (Cadets go alternatively to
 front and rear ranks)
4. Practice whole class running To the wall--move! To
 to wall and back in ranks places--move!
5. Attention. Stand at Ease. Atten--tion! Stand at--ease!
6. Covering in files Class--cover!
7. "As small as possible, as As small as possible, as tall
 tall as possible" as possible--down! Class--up!
 Etc
8. Knees full bending Knees full--bend! Knees--
 stretch! (The heels are
 raised as knees are bent).
9. Marking time Mark--time! Class--halt!
 (begin on left fool; instant
 halt on command)
10. Rapid march in large circle, Quick--march! Class--halt!
 instant halt on signal or (step off with the left foot,
 command. keep time)
11. Racing in 4s or "all
 against all"
12. Reform in open ranks (place To your places--move!
 leaders)
13. "Bouncing Balls" (Small rapid jumps with
 straight knees)
14. Breathing Breathing--commence!
 Class--steady!
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Publication:History of Education Review
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Date:Jan 1, 2008
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