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Keynes as biographer and obituarist.

Abstract: In John Maynard Keynes's Collected Writings there are forty-five biographical essays, sixteen of which are obituaries from the Economic Journal. The obituaries in the Economic Journal were very important to Keynes. The Collected Writings attempt 'to publish a complete record of Keynes's serious writing as an economist' and in Essays in Biography 'to include not only his major but also his minor writings both about economists and his friends in King's'. In this paper, however, it is argued that not all of Keynes's biographical writings are included in his Collected Writings. There may be over ten additional obituaries authored by Keynes that are not included in the Collected Writings version of Essays in Biography. Two of these are definitely attributable to Keynes, one of which is half of Ramsey's obituary in The Times. During Keynes's editorship of the Economic Journal there were fourteen anonymous obituaries in the Economic Journal. It is argued that almost all of these were authored by Keynes. In addition to the obituaries in the Economic Journal, there were announcements of death. It is argued that most, if not all, of the announcements of death in the Economic Journal during Keynes's editorship were also written by him.

1 Introduction

John Maynard Keynes edited the Economic Journal for over thirty years. There were over one hundred and forty obituaries published in the Economic Journal while he was editor, a number of them by Keynes. The obituaries in the Economic Journal were very important to him. In an August 1940 letter to R.H. Tawney concerning the notice of Eileen Power, Keynes wrote: 'the obituary section of the Journal is rather ambitious and probably remains the most permanent record of the personalities and accomplishments of the economists of our time ...' (Keynes 1993, p. EJ/1/7/41). And three years later, in a letter to Selig Perlman, Keynes wrote: 'we make rather a feature of our obituary notices and devote more space to them than is usual in most learned journals' (1) (Keynes 1993, p. MM/5/256).

In the General Introduction to Keynes's Collected Writings it states: 'This series will attempt to publish a complete record of Keynes's serious writing as an economist' (Keynes 1972, p. x). In the Editorial Foreword to the Collected Writings version of Essays in Biography (2) it states:

We have decided to include not only his major but also his minor writings both about economists and his friends in King's. We have done this for two reasons. First, many of them admirably illustrate Keynes's remarkable gift for creating a vivid picture of a man in a few unforgettable sentences. Second, and perhaps more important, these are the outstanding economists, public servants or academics of a generation; Keynes's account of them is in some cases almost the only account that survives. (Keynes 1972, p. xvi)

There are forty-five biographical essays by Keynes in the Collected Writings. (3) This, though, may only be about three-quarters of the sketches and essays in biography actually written by Keynes. In this paper it is argued that there are over ten additional biographical essays by Keynes--in the form of obituaries--which are not included in Keynes's Collected Writings. The paper comprises six main sections. In section two l consider the obituaries of French economists that Keynes may or may not have written. In section three I focus predominantly on an obituary of Frank Ramsey that was written by Keynes and which was quite separate from his better known account of Ramsey that appeared in Essays in Biography. In section four I comment briefly upon the paragraph Keynes contributed to Jiuchi Soyeda's obituary in the Economic Journal and which was not published in Essays in Biography. In section five I analyse fourteen of the obituaries in the Economic Journal during Keynes's editorship that do not have an author listed, and, although one of these (on Wilhelm Lexis) is attributed to Keynes and appeared in Essays in Biography (Keynes 1972, pp. 317-8), I argue that that most of the others were also written by Keynes. In section six I consider the many shorter death announcements, primarily of economists, in the Economic Journal during the period Keynes was editor. The paper is summarised in the final section.

2 Obituaries of French Economists by Keynes

Keynes was appointed editor of the Economic Journal on October 17, 1911. 'He remained editor until the April 1945 issue had gone to press' (Moggridge 1990, p. 143). The March 1912 issue of the journal was the first to appear under his editorship (Economic Journal, March 1912, p. 156). He was the second editor of the Economic Journal; F.Y. Edgeworth was editor from 1891-1911. Obituaries were a regular feature of the Economic Journal from the very beginning. In the very first issue there is an anonymous obituary of Antoine Beaujon (Economic Journal, March 1891, p. 219). There were obituaries every year while Edgeworth was editor, from a low of one in 1903 to a high often in 1892, with an average of almost five per year. (4) Under Edgeworth's editorship all obituaries were in the obituary section; there were no extensive memoirs such as Keynes's of Alfred Marshall (Economic Journal, September 1924, pp. 311-72) and of H. S. Foxwell (Economic Journal, December 1936, pp. 589-614), which were the lead articles in their respective issues.

Keynes continued the pattern established by Edgeworth with respect to obituaries. As was mentioned above, over one hundred and forty obituaries were published in the Economic Journal while he was editor, an average of over four per year, with at least one in every year, except for 1913. The greatest number was nine in 1926. There were three in the April 1945 issue, the last under Keynes's editorship. In Keynes's Collected Writings there are sixteen obituaries from the Economic Journal authored by him.

In the preface to the French edition of the General Theory, Keynes wrote: 'it fell to my duty, when I first became a youthful editor of the Economic Journal to write the obituaries of many of (the school of French Liberal economists)--Levasseur, Molinari, Leroy-Beaulieu ...' (Keynes 1973, p. xxxii). Emile Levasseur's obituary is in the September 1911 issue of the Economic Journal, before Keynes became editor. The author is listed as A. de Foville though, not Keynes, at the end of the obituary (Economic Journal, September 1911, p. 490) and in the index on the cover of the journal. Keynes had a certain style in writing the notices of the death of economists in the obituary section of the Economic Journal. There is certain wording that he tended to use in the first sentence of the notice, and a certain style for the notice itself. These will be discussed in detail in section five below. The first sentence of Levasseur's obituary is not written in this style; the notice itself is though.

The obituary of Gustave de Molinari is in the March 1912 issue of the Economic Journal. At the end of the obituary (Economic Journal, March 1912, p. 156) and in the index on the cover of the journal, Yves Guyot is listed as the author. The first sentence of the obituary is not in Keynes's style; the notice itself, to some degree, is. Paul Leroy-Beaulieu's obituary is in the December 1916 issue of the Economic Journal; the obituary of his son Pierre is in the March 1915 Economic Journal. I believe Keynes, in the quote above, was referring to Paul Leroy-Beaulieu. His obituary will be discussed here; the obituary of his son Pierre is discussed in section five below. There is no author listed at the end of Paul Leroy-Beaulieu's obituary, but this obituary is written in Keynes's style (Economic Journal, December 1916, p. 545). So of the three obituaries which, in the preface to the French edition of the General Theory, Keynes said that he wrote, it appears that he did write one, that of Paul Leroy-Beaulieu.

But what about the obituaries of Levasseur and Molinari? In June 1938 Achille Loria, the Economic Society correspondent for Italy, sent Keynes a three and a half page handwritten obituary for Filippo Carli for the Economic Journal (Keynes 1993, pp. EJ/1/5/194-7). On July 26 Keynes wrote to Loria: 'Thanks for your further letter. In view of what you say, I will put a short notice of Carli's death in the Journal. But I still feel that it would be out of proportion to print what you have sent me in full, since I should doubt if there is a single economist in this country who has ever heard of Carli. I enclose a copy of what I am proposing to insert' (Keynes 1993, p. EJ/1/5/198). On the page in the Keynes Papers immediately following Keynes's letter there is a one page notice, in Sraffa's handwriting, based on Loria's notice of Carli, which is what is published in the Economic Journal and attributed to Loria (September 1938, p. 580).

Perhaps something similar happened with Levasseur's and Molinari's obituaries--that is, Keynes rewrote obituaries submitted by others--but this is doubtful. Loria's obituary of Carli was reduced to slightly over eight lines in length. Levasseur's obituary is two and a half pages long and Molinari's almost four pages. Plus, while Keynes claimed, 'I should doubt if there is a single economist in this country who has ever heard of Carli', in the preface to the French edition of the General Theory Keynes wrote, 'in France, as in the rest of Europe, there has been no such dominant school since the expiry of the school of French Liberal economists' (Keynes 1973, p. xxxi). It is this school to which Levasseur and Molinari belonged.

3 Another Obituary of Ramsey

In the original 1933 version of Essays in Biography Keynes split the book into two sections: I. Sketches of Politicians, and II. Lives of Economists. The first two sketches of politicians are 'The Council of Four, Paris, 1919' and 'Mr. Lloyd George: A Fragment'. Both had been written for The Economic Consequences of the Peace, but Keynes had not published the Lloyd George fragment there. All the other sketches of politicians were originally published in The Nation and Athenaeum.

In the lives of economists section, the second section, there are six essays, on T. R. Malthus, Alfred Marshall, Edgeworth and three on Ramsey (Keynes 1933, p. ix-x). The essay on Malthus had not been published before. In the Keynes Papers there is a one page handwritten worksheet on which Keynes had evidently listed the names of those whose essays that, at one time, he intended to include in Essays in Biography. On this handwritten worksheet Keynes apparently estimated the number of pages each essay would be. Beside 'Malthus' Keynes wrote 20 (Keynes 1993, p. B/2/2). The 1922 version of the Malthus essay that Keynes made insertions to and excisions from in preparing the essay for Essays in Biography is eighteen typed pages long (Keynes 1993, pp. SS/1/78-95). In the 1933 version of the book the Malthus essay is fifty-five pages long. It appears Keynes, initially, was not considering revising and extending his original Malthus essay.

The three essays on Ramsey are: i) Ramsey as an Economist; ii) Ramsey as a Philosopher; and iii) A Short Anthology. The essays on Marshall, Edgeworth, and Ramsey as an economist were all originally published as obituaries in the Economic Journal. In the original Essays in Biography Marshall's obituary is over one hundred pages long and Edgeworth's over twenty-five pages long. Ramsey's obituary though is just a sketch, about two pages in length.

The essay on Ramsey as an economist was not the only brief sketch Keynes had written for the obituary section of the Economic Journal before 1933. There are brief sketches of Wilhelm Lexis, Frederic Keeling, A.A. Tschuprow, C. P. Sanger and A. J. Balfour by Keynes from the obituary section of the Economic Journal in the Collected Writings version of Essays in Biography, all of which had been written before 1933. Keynes did not include any of these in the original Essays in Biography.

In the Keynes Papers there is a one-page handwritten paragraph, and a typed version of it, that Keynes, at one time, may have intended to include in Essays in Biography. It reads:

To tell a story against myself, it may be recorded that one day at the Treasury during the War | with another guest took lunch at No. 11 with Mr. Bonar Law. As we walked from the dining room, I recall how Mr. Bonar Law, putting on his shrewd affectionate cynical look suddenly stopped the other guest, put his hand on my shoulder, and said: "Look at Keynes here. He likes to go about with Prime Ministers and Chancellors of the Exchequer and such. And then he goes away and says to himself 'Pretty poor fellows these'." Most unjust!--as those will perceive who read the essays in the first section of this book. But there is much truth in it,--my true heroes are those dear names which I celebrate in the second section. (Keynes 1993, pp. B/2/6-7)

So it seems that Malthus, Marshall, Edgeworth, and Ramsey were Keynes's true heroes.

After World War I, during terms, Keynes typically spent extended weekends in Cambridge and the rest of the week in London. His wife Lydia usually did not accompany him to Cambridge. Almost every day Keynes was in Cambridge without Lydia he wrote her a letter. On January 20, 1930, Keynes wrote to Lydia: 'I still think of Frank a good deal and feel very badly about it and can't settle down to anything. It is so terrible when a young person dies. I wrote the second half of the notice in the Times to-day, but only had five minutes to do it in and thought I was providing notes for someone else, not something which would be printed as it stood' (Keynes 1993, p. PP/45/190/4/192). Ramsey had died the day before following an operation for jaundice (Skidelsky 1995, p. 380). So, here is another obituary by Keynes.

Ramsey's obituary, in the January 20, 1930 issue of The Times, reads:

MR. F. P. RAMSEY

MATHEMATICAL LOGIC

Mr. F.P. Ramsey, Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, died in London yesterday after an operation. Although he was only 26, he was already accepted as an authority on mathematical logic.

The elder son of Mr. Arthur Stanley Ramsey, President of Magdalene College, Cambridge, Frank Plumpton Ramsey was born in 1903, was a scholar at Winchester College, and went up to Trinity College, Cambridge, with a scholarship. He passed both parts of the Mathematical Tripos with distinction, and was placed among the Wranglers in Part 2 in 1923. He was Allen University scholar in 1924, and was elected to a Fellowship at King's College in the same year and was appointed University mathematical lecturer.

Ramsey's interests were on the border line between mathematics and logic. In his most important published paper he developed the foundations of mathematics on the general lines of Whitehead and Russell, using the work of Wittgenstein to uphold this system against Continental criticism. He had written also on universals in Mind, and on the theory of taxation and the theory of saving in the Economic Journal. He was accepted as an authority on mathematical logic, and at the time of his last illness was occupied with a general treatise on logic which was eagerly expected by those who knew him and his work.

From his earliest school days at Cambridge, through his time at Winchester and at Trinity, Ramsey was always intellectually precocious beyond his years, and had invariably taken his place on equal terms with those who were several years his senior. But with his precocity he combined great simpleness of mind and manner and character. He was built physically also on a large scale. His contemporaries recognized in him a mind of extraordinary capacity and promise on the territory between mathematics and philosophical and moral science. There was no one in Cambridge among the younger men who would be considered his equal for power and quality of mind, and also for boldness and originality of conception in one of the most difficult subjects of study. His early death means a grievous loss to science as well to his friends and his college.

He married in 1925 Miss Lettice Cautley Baker, and leaves two daughters. (The Times, January 20, 1930, p. 17)

Only the first of the three essays about Ramsey in Essays in Biography is truly biographical. In the other two essays Keynes discusses Ramsey's writings. In his letter to Lydia, Keynes said that he wrote the second half of the notice in The Times. Most likely the section Keynes wrote runs from 'Ramsey's interests were on the border ...' through to the end of the notice. The first paragraph in this section outlines Ramsey's interests and writings. The next paragraph was undoubtedly written by Keynes. There are many parallels between it and Keynes's biography of Ramsey in the March 1930 Economic Journal: Ramsey's death was a grievous loss/heavy loss; he was intellectually precocious/his precocious mind; he was built physically on a large scale/his bulky Johnsonian frame; he combined great simpleness of mind and manner and character/the simplicity of his feelings and reactions.

The major difference between these two biographical essays on Ramsey is that in The Times Keynes discusses Ramsey's work in mathematics, logic and economics, while in the Economic Journal Keynes places most emphasis on Ramsey's work in economics. In fact, in Essays in Biography Keynes added the title 'Ramsey as an Economist' to the sketch from the Economic Journal (Keynes 1933, p. 294).

In the preface to the 1933 edition of Essays in Biography Keynes wrote: 'Most of (these essays) were composed under the immediate impression of the characters described. They are offered to the reader ... as being of this nature - not written coolly, long afterwards, in the perspective of history' (Keynes 1933, p. vii). In his letter to Lydia, Keynes said that he 'only had five minutes' to write the second half of the Ramsey's notice in The Times, so it truly was 'not written coolly'. It may not be as polished and as reflective as his other biographies, but, considering how much time he had to write it, its quality shows Keynes's outstanding writing ability. (5)

4 A Contribution to an Obituary by Keynes

There is an obituary of Jiuchi Soyeda in the September 1929 Economic Journal. Soyeda had been a correspondent of the Royal Economic Society for Japan. The obituary is approximately two pages long (pp. 469-71). At the end of it, and in the index on the front cover of the journal, Trevor Johnes is listed as the author. It appears though that Keynes wrote the first paragraph of the obituary. At the end of the first paragraph is written 'J. M. K.' (6) The first sentence of this paragraph is written in the style Keynes typically used in obituaries of economists. This paragraph is not published in Essays in Biography.

5 Other Obituaries by Keynes?

The very first issue of the Economic Journal, March 1891, contained an obituary. In the March 1895 issue, there was a brief announcement of a death, which was less than two and a half lines long. This was the first announcement of a death, rather than an obituary, in the Economic Journal. It is in the Current Topics section, with no attribution. It began, 'We regret to announce the death of' ...' (March 1895, p. 148). This phrase had not been used in an obituary in the Economic Journal prior to this. During the remainder of Edgeworth's tenure as editor of the Economic Journal, this phrase, or variations of it, was often used in announcements of death, and very occasionally in obituaries. In none of these instances was the author of the death announcement or obituary identified.

As was mentioned above, Keynes had a certain style in writing the notices of the death of economists in the obituary section of the Economic Journal. In the first sentence he tended to use the word 'regret' to 'record' or 'announce' their death. In Essays in Biography there are five such obituaries. The first sentence in Alfred Hoare's obituary starts: 'We much regret to record the death of ...' (Keynes 1972, p. 310). In Wilhelm Lexis's obituary the first sentence starts: 'We much regret to announce the death of ...' (Keynes 1972, p. 317). In A.A. Tschuprow's obituary the first sentence starts: 'We much regret to announce the death of ...' (Keynes 1972, p. 321). For C. P. Sanger: 'We deeply regret to record the death of ...' (Keynes 1972, p. 324). For George Broomhall: 'We regret to record the death of ...' (Keynes 1972, p. 328). Also, Andrew Andreades's obituary by Keynes, which is in vol. XXX of Keynes's Collected Writings begins: 'We much regret to announce the death ...' (Economic Journal, September 1935, p. 597). Edgeworth was not a joint editor of the Economic Journal with Keynes for any of the issues in which these six obituaries are published.

The first sentence of the obituaries of Paul Leroy-Beaulieu and Soyeda attributed to Keynes in sections II and IV above have a similar style. In Paul Leroy-Beaulieu's obituary the first sentence, in part, reads, '... we learn with deep regret of the death ...' (Economic Journal, December 1916, p. 545). The first sentence of Dr Jiuchi Soyeda's obituary starts, 'We announce with great regret the death of ...' (Economic Journal, September 1929, p. 469).

During Keynes's editorship of the Economic Journal, from the March 1912 issue to the April 1945 issue, there are over one hundred and fifteen obituaries attributed to an author other than Keynes. Of all these obituaries, only two use the phrasing 'regret' to 'record' or 'announce' a death in the first sentence. In the December 1912 issue A. W. F. writes, 'We regret to have to record the death of...' (p. 636) and in the March 1930 issue A. L. writes, 'We regret to announce the death of ...' (p. 155). So, this phrasing, which Keynes tended to use, was definitely not commonly used by others in the Economic Journal during this time.

In writing brief sketches for the obituary section of the Economic Journal, in addition to the style Keynes typically used in the first sentence, there is a certain style he usually used in the sketch itself. Early in the sketch he discusses the deceased's birth and/or ancestry, education and career. Then Keynes discusses their work. Examples of obituaries attributed to Keynes that use this style are Lexis (Economic Journal, September 1914, pp. 502-3) and Tschuprow (Economic Journal, September 1926, pp. 517-8). The slightly longer obituary of Alfred Hoare also has this format (Economic Journal, December 1938, pp. 753-7).

There is no author listed for Lexis's obituary, either at the end of the obituary or in the index on the cover of the journal. In the Economic Journal under both Edgeworth's and Keynes's editorships there are no obituaries with the author listed as 'Anonymous', either an author is listed (sometimes only by a letter or letters) or there is no attribution. (7) During Keynes's editorship of the Economic Journal, from the issue of March 1912 until the April 1945 issue, in addition to the obituaries of Wilhelm Lexis and Paul Leroy-Beaulieu mentioned above which do not have an author listed, there are twelve other obituaries that also do not have an author listed. (8) These are the obituaries of Nicholas Paine Gilman (June 1912, p. 342), Pierre Leroy-Beaulieu, Paul Leroy-Beaulieu's son (March 1915, pp. 150-1), O. V. Muller (December 1916, p. 544), Daniel Bellet (December 1917, p. 578), Sidney Ball (June 1918, pp. 237-8), Sir Ernest Cassel (December 1921, pp. 557-9), Lord Bryce (March 1922, pp. 127-9), Arthur Raffalovich (March 1922, pp. 129 30), Alfred Milnes (9) (March 1922, pp. 130-1), George Armitage-Smith (10) (March 1923, pp. 127-8), Lord Haldane (September 1928, p. 507), and J. L. Cohen (April 1941, p. 157). All of these are sketches, typically one page or less. The longest is that of Sir Ernest Cassel, which is almost two pages long. It is not obvious why these are anonymous. There certainly does not appear to be anything controversial in any of them.

Except for the obituary of Ball we believe Keynes probably wrote most, if not all, of these obituaries. The sketch of Ball does not seem to be by Keynes because it is not written in his style. The first sentence of Bali's obituary is: 'Economists, especially those who cultivate the science of wealth for the sake of its bearing upon human welfare, have suffered a heavy loss by the death of Sidney Ball' (Economic Journal, June 1918, p. 237). This seems to be more Edgeworth's style. The first sentence of Edgeworth's obituary of J. K. Ingram is 'Almost all the Muses might weep for the many-gifted Ingram' (Economic Journal, June 1907, p. 299). Plus Sidney Ball was a Fellow of St John's College, University of Oxford, where Edgeworth was the Drummond Professor.

Four of the subjects of these twelve obituaries were involved with the Royal Economic Society: O.V. Muller was correspondent for Bombay for many years, Lord Bryce was Vice-President, George Armitage-Smith had been a member of its Council for many years, and Lord Haldane had been President for more than twenty years. So Keynes would have known them personally, or at least dealt with them. Of these twelve obituaries, seven use the word regret in the first sentence: the obituaries of Gilman, Pierre Leroy-Beaulieu, Muller, Bellet, Milnes, Haldane and Cohen. And, of these seven, all except those for Pierre Leroy-Beaulieu and Haldane use the word 'record' or 'announce' in the first sentence. Six of these seven, all except Haldane, were economists.

Based on the style of the sketches, the format of the first sentence and of the sketch itself, we believe Keynes wrote those of Gilman, Pierre Leroy-Beaulieu, Muller, Bellet, Milnes, Armitage-Smith and Cohen. Plus the sketches of Gilman and Pierre Leroy-Beaulieu were published in the Economic Journal when Keynes was sole editor. Keynes had different joint editors than Edgeworth when the last two obituaries, Haldane's and Cohen's, were published. When Haldane died, Keynes's joint editor was D.H. Macgregor, who, by all accounts, was just responsible for editing the book department. So Keynes probably wrote Haldane's notice. Keynes evidently knew Cohen, or at least his work, fairly well. In 1937, in letters to Kingsley Martin, editor of The New Statesman and Nation, Keynes criticised Cohen's contribution to the Social Insurance Supplement to The New Statesman and Nation quite severely (Keynes 1982, pp. 69-70, 80). Keynes probably wrote his obituary.

We believe Keynes also wrote the sketches of Cassel and Raffalovich; both were financiers and given his involvement in the world of finance Keynes would have personally known them or of them. Keynes certainly knew Cassel, he had lent Keynes 5,000 [pounds sterling] in 1920 when his speculation in foreign exchange went against him (Moggridge 1995, pp. 349-50). Keynes may also have written the sketch of Bryce since Bryce had been an original member of the Economic Society and had been Vice-President from the beginning of the century (Economic Journal, March 1922, p. 127).

So, in summary, of these twelve obituaries, we believe Keynes did not write Ball's, but he may have written most, if not all, of the other eleven.

6 Announcements of Death

In the Economic Journal, in addition to the obituaries, there are announcements of death, mostly of economists. Most of them do not have an attribution. (11) During Keynes's tenure as editor there were over thirty such death announcements, that is, without an author listed: Thomas Kirkup (June 1912, p. 343), M. Alfred de Foville (12) (June 1913, pp. 317-8), Frederick McMahon Hardman (March 1915, p. 151), Charles A. Conant (September 1915, p. 480), T.M. Kettle (December 1916, p. 545), William Kennedy (December 1917, p. 581), M. Kiaer (June 1919, p. 254), William Cunningham (June 1919, p. 254), Max Weber (June 1920, p. 278), Edmund Byron Walker (June 1924, p. 294), Lord Milner (June 1925, p. 330), James Mayor (December 1925, p. 658), Charles H. Oldham (March 1926, p. 158), G. F. Knapp (June 1926, p. 321), Knut Wicksell (June 1926, p. 321), Ludwig Pohle (September 1926, p. 521), Robert Zuckerkandl (September 1926, p. 521), Friedrich Wieser (September 1926, p. 521), Joseph Shield Nicholson (June 1927, p. 335), Sir William Ashley (September 1927, p. 505), R.A. Lehfeldt (December 1927, p. 685), M. Yves-Guyot (March 1928, p. 158), Arthur Twining Hadley (June 1930, p. 338), F. Bernis (December 1933, p. 720), H.S. Foxwell (September 1936, p. 565), Vincenzo Moretti (December 1936, p. 772), John Bates Clark (June 1938, p. 344), George F. Warren (June 1938, p. 351), Ernest Mahaim (March 1939, p. 176), Henry Schultz (March 1939, p. 176), Sir Alfred Flux (June-September 1942, p. 271), Sir J. C. Coyajee (June-September 1943, p. 291), D. R. Dewey (June-September 1943, p. 292), W. J. Roberts (June-September 1943, p. 297), Mary Paley Marshall (April 1944, p. 140) and Gustav Cassel (April 1945, p. 140).

Many of the subjects of these announcement were involved with the Royal Economic Society: Milner was one of the Vice-Presidents, Nicholson was a member of the Council from the beginning, Ashley a Vice-President, Lehfeldt the correspondent for South Africa, Bernis for many years the correspondent for Spain, Foxwell an Honorary Secretary of the Society, Mahaim a correspondent for Belgium and Coyajee a correspondent for India.

These announcements usually are one short paragraph in length. Typically, in the first sentence it states that we 'announce' or 'record', with 'regret', the death, and then there are a few sentences concerning the person. Of all these announcements the only ones that do not use the word regret in the first sentence are the ones for Kettle, Kiaer, Walker and Marshall. All of them, except those for Conant, Kennedy, Kiaer, Walker, Flux and Marshall either use the word 'announce' or 'record' in the first sentence. The announcements for Conant, Kennedy and Flux use the word 'learn'. A typical, but slightly longer than normal one, is the announcement of the death of John Bates Clark:
   We record with great regret the death from pneumonia on
   March 23rd last of Dr. John Bates Clark, Professor Emeritus of
   Political Economy in Columbia University, at the age of ninety-one
   years. With the death of J. B. Clark, the generation which
   recast modern economic theory in the mid-Victorian period has
   finally passed. Jevons was born in 1835, Marshall in 1842,
   Edgeworth in 1845, and J. B. Clark on January 26th, 1847. An
   obituary notice will be published in the September Journal.
        (Economic Journal June 1938, p. 344)


These announcements were also probably written by Keynes. Almost all of these announcements are in the Current Topics section of the Economic Journal. Only four are not, those for Thomas Kirkup, Frederick Hardman, T.M. Kettle and Charles Oldham. These four are in the obituary section.

Keynes is listed as the sole editor of the Economic Journal for the period 1912-1918, but '(a)s a result of the demands of Keynes's Treasury service, Edgeworth had been acting as de.facto Joint Editor from late 1915' (Moggridge 1990, p. 154). He and Edgeworth are listed as joint editors during the period 1918-1925 (Economic Journal, December 1940, p. 409). On March 12, 1926, Keynes wrote to Edwin Carman to describe the division of work as it had existed between himself and Edgeworth as joint editors of the Economic Journal. Cannan had been invited to take over as joint editor in place of Edgeworth. Keynes wrote:

I have been responsible, broadly speaking, for (1) the articles and the memoranda; (2) the make-up of the Journal, and the division of the available space between the different sections; (3) the final responsibility of seeing it through the Press and preparing the cover, and of dealing with any matters which arise with the printer. Edgeworth has been responsible for sending out books for review, for dealing with official publications, and for cataloguing and abstracting new books and recent periodicals. The printer has been accustomed to send proofs of everything to both of us, and we shared the responsibilities for proof reading. We also shared the responsibilities for Current Topics, Edgeworth sending in to me any paragraphs which he wanted to include. The Editors have also shared the general responsibilities, and consulted one another on any matters of doubt--I him on the acceptance or rejection of articles where 1 was doubtful--he me in regard to reviews. We have also felt free to make suggestions to one another at any time outside our respective spheres. I am inclined to think, however, that a fairly sharp division of the duties, such as the above, is what works best.

(Keynes 1993, pp. E J/1/2/209-10)

So, when Edgeworth was joint editor, even though he and Keynes shared the responsibility for the Current Topics section of the Economic Journal, it appears Keynes had the primary responsibility. Cannan declined the invitation to be the joint editor. David H. Macgregor was named joint editor (Economic Journal, December 1940, p. 409).

In January 1934 Macgregor wrote to Keynes informing him that he wanted to give up the joint editor position (Keynes 1993, pp. EJ/1/3/339-40). This initiated a series of letters between Keynes and Carman, President of the Royal Economic Society, about who should replace Macgregor. Cannan sent a memo to all the members of the Economic Journal Committee. In the memo Cannan wrote, 'The proper course seems to me to be not to appoint a second editor nominally equal with (Keynes) and with undifferentiated functions but to recognise and regularise the division of work which has already taken place. Let us leave Keynes sole editor of the Journal and appoint in addition an Editor of the Book Department, whose name as such would be on the title-page and who would be responsible for that department only, subject of course to general directions from the Editor of the Journal' (Keynes 1993, p. EJ/1/3/350). So it appears Macgregor had been responsible for only the book department; Keynes had been responsible for the rest of the Journal, including the Current Topics section.

E. A. G. Robinson, assistant editor of the Economic Journal from 1934 to the end of Keynes's editorship, wrote, 'the responsibility of the Assistant Editor for all reviewing, which I inherited from Macgregor ...' (Robinson 1990, p. 164). 'I was responsible for the review section of the Journal' (Robinson 1990, p. 166). 'Roy Harrod, like Maynard Keynes, had carried the whole responsibility for the articles and notes sections of the Journal' (Robinson 1990, p. 175). So, over the years, with the various joint and assistant editors, it appears that Keynes was principally responsible for the notes section and therefore the Current Topics section specifically. (13)

In the June 1935 Economic Journal there are notices of the life and influence of Edwin Cannan by A. L. Bowley and Lionel Robbins. Immediately after the obituary section, in Current Topics, there is a one paragraph tribute to Edwin Cannan, who had been President of the Royal Economic Society, for his services to the Society. The first sentence in this paragraph is 'We record with deep regret the death of our President, Edwin Cannan' (June 1935, p. 406). This paragraph was also probably written by Keynes.

7 Summary and Conclusions

The editors of Keynes's Collected Writings attempted 'to publish a complete record of Keynes's serious writing as an economist' and in Essays in Biography 'to include not only his major but also his minor writings both about economists and his friends in King's'. In Keynes's Collected Writings there are forty-five biographical essays by him. These though may be only about three-quarters of the sketches and essays in biography actually written by Keynes. It is argued in this paper that there may be over ten additional obituaries authored by Keynes that are not published in the Collected Writings version of Essays in Biography.

Keynes wrote that he authored the obituary of Leroy-Beaulieu in the Economic Journal. There are obituaries of two economists named Leroy-Beaulieu in the Economic Journal: Paul Leroy-Beaulieu in the December 1916 issue (p. 545) and his son Pierre in the March 1915 issue (pp. 150-1). Neither of these obituaries has an author listed. Keynes may have written both. Keynes wrote the second half of Ramsey's obituary in The Times and the first paragraph of Jiuchi Soyeda's obituary in the Economic Journal (September 1929, p. 469), neither of which is published in Essays in Biography. Plus, in addition to the obituaries of Paul and Pierre Leroy-Beaulieu, there are eleven other obituaries in the Economic Journal during Keynes's tenure as the editor that do not have an author listed. (14) It is argued in this paper that Keynes probably wrote most of these. Finally, there is a series of announcements of the death of economists in the Economic Journal during Keynes's tenure as editor that do not have an author listed, many of which, if not all, may also have been written by him.

References

Economic Journal, various issues.

Keynes, John Maynard. 1933. Essays in Biography. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company.

Keynes, John Maynard. 1951. Essays in Biography. New York: Horizon Press Inc.

Keynes, John Maynard. The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, edited by Elizabeth Johnson and Donald Moggridge. London: Macmillan.

Keynes, John Maynard. [1933] 1972. Vol. X, Essays in Biography. London: Macmillan.

Keynes, John Maynard. [1936] 1973. Vol. VII, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. London: Macmillan.

Keynes, John Maynard. 1982. Vol. XXVIII, Social, Political and Literary Writings. London: Macmillan.

Keynes, John Maynard. 1993. John Maynard Keynes Papers. Chadwyck-Healey Microfilm Edition. Cambridge.

Moggridge, Donald (ed.). 1989. The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, Vol. XXX, Bibliography and Index. London: Macmillan.

Moggridge, Donald (ed.). 1990. 'Keynes as Editor', in A Century of Economics, edited by John D. Hey and Donald Winch, pp. 143-57. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Moggridge, Donald (ed.). [1992] 1995. Maynard Keynes. London: Routledge.

Robinson, Austin. 1972. John Maynard Keynes: Economist, Author, Statesman. Economic Journal 82 (June), pp. 531-46.

Robinson, Austin. 1990. 'Fifty-five Years on the Royal Economic Society Council', in A Century of Economics, edited by John D. Hey and Donald Winch, pp. 161-92. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Skidelsky, Robert. [1992] 1995. John Maynard Keynes: The Economist as Saviour 1920-1937. New York: Penguin Books.

The Times. 'MR. F. P. RAMSEY.' January 20, 1930, p. 17.

Notes

(1) The pages beginning with 'MM', although included in the microfilm edition of the John Maynard Keynes Papers, are not actually part of the Keynes Papers, but rather part of the Papers of E.A.G. Robinson (EAGR)." Economic Journal editorial correspondence.

(2) There are three versions of Essays in Biography. Keynes's original version was published in 1933. Keynes's brother Geoffrey published a new edition, with three additional essays, on W. S. Jevons, Isaac Newton and Mary Paley Marshall, in 1951. Finally there is the Collected Writings 1972 version that contains over twenty additional essays. Unless otherwise specified, in this paper reference will be to the Collected Writings version (Keynes 1972).

(3) Two obituaries by Keynes in the Economic Journal were inadvertently omitted from the Collected Writings version of Essays in Biography. Both of these, obituaries of Andrew Andreades (Economic Journal, September 1935, pp. 597-9) and Leonard Darwin (Economic Journal, December 1943, pp. 438-9), are published in Volume XXX of Keynes's Collected Writings. In addition there are biographies of Alfred Marshall and Edgeworth in the Dictionary of National Biography, 1922-30, and of Edgeworth in the Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences by Keynes that are not included in the Collected Writings because they 'are very compressed and factual notices based on the much fuller biographies (in the Collected Writings); to reproduce them would have represented unprofitable duplication' (Keynes 1972, p. xvii).

(4) There is one obituary by Keynes's father Neville in the Economic Journal, a lengthy obituary of Henry Sidgwick in the December 1900 issue (Economic Journal, December 1900, pp. 585-91).

(5) Robinson commented that 'Keynes, as an author, was happiest ... in the things that he wrote at white heat, at a sitting, with a clear unity of thinking running through the whole thing' (Robinson 1972, p. 543).

(6) If Keynes signed an obituary in the Economic Journal, he usually signed it 'J. M. K.' or 'J. M. Keynes'. The obituary of Leonard Darwin in the December 1943 Economic Journal is simply signed 'K' (p. 439), and the obituary of Mary Paley Marshall in the June-September 1944 Economic Journal is signed 'Keynes' (p. 284).

(7) Keynes did seem concerned with identifying who wrote biographies in the Economic Journal. On May, 31, 1944, Gleb Struve wrote to Keynes, 'I enclose herewith the proof of my father's obituary. 'May I suggest, if that is not entirely against your practice, that it be printed without signature or over my initials' (Keynes 1993, p. MM/4/298). On this letter Keynes wrote 'Not agreed K'. Since previous to this there were over fifteen obituaries in the Economic Journal during Keynes's editorship that only listed an initial or initials of the author, apparently either Keynes objected to it being 'printed without signature' or to Gleb Stuve only identifying himself by his initials since he was writing about his father. At the end of the obituary the author is listed as 'Gleb Struve' (Economic Journal, December 1944, p. 441).

(8) During Edgeworth's editorship of the Economic Journal there were many more obituaries that do not have an author listed than during Keynes's editorship. From 1891-1911 over forty percent of the obituaries did not have an author listed. The prevalence of this varied substantially from the first half of Edgeworth's editorship to the second half. During 1891 1902 almost sixty percent of the obituaries did not have an author listed. During 1903 1911 only twelve percent did not--four out of thirty-three obituaries. There is only one obituary for which Edgeworth (F. Y. E.) is listed as the author: John Kells Ingram's in the June 1907 issue.

(9) The obituary of Alfred Milnes consists of a six-line announcement of his death, 'We regret to announce the death of ...', followed by a quotation from a letter from one of his pupils.

(10) In the Index to the Economic Journal, Volumes XXXI--Volume XL, C. E. Collet is listed as the author of the obituary notice of Armitage-Smith (p. 74). In the March 1923 Economic Journal there are two obituaries, for Sir Charles Loch and George Armitage-Smith. At the end of the obituary for Sir Charles Loch, and in the index on the front cover of the journal, Clara E. Collet is listed as the author. There is no author listed for the obituary for George Armitage-Smith, either at the end of the obituary or in the index on the front cover of the journal.

(11) Some announcements do have an attribution. For example, 'Our Australian Correspondent writes' about the death of Walter Scott (June 1925, p. 332), and Professor Loria writes to 'announce the death of Filippo Carli' (September 1938, p. 580).

(12) In de Foville's announcement it states: 'An obituary notice of M. de Foville will appear in the September number of the Journal' (June 1913, p. 317-8). In the log of submissions, correspondence and so on, that Keynes kept during his first years as editor of the Economic Journal, in which he numbered entries, number 114 is 'L' Beaulieu obituary of De Foville Promised for July v. 13 never arrived' (Keynes 1993, p. EJ/4/28).

(13) Moggridge writes that, 'After 1915 the editors consulted over individual articles and the "Current Topics" section, but the main responsibility would be Keynes's' (Moggridge 1995, p. 210).

(14) This does not include the obituary of Wilhelm Lexis which also does not have an author listed but is attributed to Keynes (Keynes 1972, pp. 317-8).

* Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, United States of America. Email: rkent@kent.edu. I would like to thank two anonymous referees for helpful comments on an earlier version of the paper and Dr Patricia McGuire, Archivist, King's College Library, the University of Cambridge, for assistance concerning the Keynes Papers. Unpublished writings of J. M. Keynes copyright The Provost and Scholars of King's College Cambridge 2010.
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