Key management practices for organic wheat small grain production.
Instruments crop rotation.
Resistant varieties choose for disease and insect pests.
Plant on time (not too early not too late) in a well-prepared seedbed.
Use correct seeding rates drill calibration and drill operation.
Avoid excessively high nitrogen levels (but work towards good soil fertility).
Harvest on time. Don't let mature grain stand in the field.
The following are general rules for choosing varieties for organic wheat production:
Wheat Variety Performance and Recommendations Smart Grains Newsletter for a list of varieties verified for minimum two years.
Resistant (MR) to scab. Avoid varieties esteemed poor" for Hessian fly biotype-L particularly if establishing will be early or even on time.
If you are in the NC littoral plain perfect varieties will have fighting to powdery mildew leaf rust and soil borne mosaic virus.
Planting wheat into old wheat beard is permanently a bad impression. Several main small-grain infections (Stagonospora nodorum blotch tan spot and scab) are spread by old wheat beard. Short small grain variations also put the crop at high hazard to soil borne diseases such as take-all
SEEDING RATE DRILL CALIBRATION AND OPERATION
Wheat is the best resistance against weeds and cereal leaf beetle and is the best pointer of a high yield possible. When planting on time with high quality seed into unadventurously tilled seedbeds the mark seeding rate is 30 to 35 seeds per square foot. Increase this board rate if seed germination is below 90% or if sowing is more than two weeks after the dates.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR BROADCAST SEEDING
Broadcast sowing often uneven seed assignment in the soil which results in unseen appearance and positions. Seeds may be sited as deep as 3 to 4 inches where seeds will propagate but will not appear through soil surface.
Soil pH is very essential for extraordinary yielding wheat crop. Little soil pH can result in poor growing and improvement. High soil pH particularly on coarse rough soils can result in manganese shortages. Wheat that yields 65 stacks per acre takes up about 45 lb of phosphate per acre (most of which is removed with the grain) and about 135 lb of potash per acre (of which about 100 lb is in the straw).
Basically all weed resistant in organic wheat must be completed in seedbed research before sowing. Slight no farming is used in wheat after planting to kill developing weeds but a turning hoe or tine weeded can be used before the crop develops and again at the one-to-three-leaf stage. Though weeds typically cause fewer problems in wheat than in corn or soybeans because wheat is a strong competitor against weeds and is drilled in narrow rows that quickly shade the soil.
INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT
Many types of insects can be initiated in wheat fields but only one likely to become yield intimidating.
Aphids are small lapping insects that settle small grains early in the spell and may form in the spring or fall. They damage the plants by sucking sap or by spreading BYDV. Aphid inhabitants are typically kept in check by weather situations (such as freezing temperatures in late fall) and organic control agents such as lady beetles biting wasps syrphid fly maggots and fungal pathogens which are often rich in small grains
Armyworm damage small grains like wheat from late April to mid-May. Biological growers have the optimal of accepting the suckling of armyworms or using an insecticide accepted for organic creation (such as a spinosad or pyrethrin) in emergency conditions.
CEREAL LEAF BEETLE
Cereal leaf beetle has one generation each year and both the adult and larval stages eat leaf tissue on wheat and oats. They also feed on barley triticale or rye. Leaf nurturing by larvae during April and May can decrease yields.
In latest years many NC fields have hurt extensive losses because of Hessian fly incursions. Because the Hessian fly life cycle depends largely upon the attendance of wheat stubble using rotations that do not plant new wheat into or near a previous wheat crop's stubble will be the most effective way to prevent infestations.
The best disease controlling method for organic makers is to avoid diseases in the first place by choosing wheat varieties with good resistance letters. Excellent small grain disease evidence and assistance with disease identification can be found in Small Grain Disease Management") in the Small Grain Production Guide (When planning for an organic small grain crop variety selection and traditional practices should include concern of the following diseases.
BARLEY YELLOW DWARF VIRUS
Because unfriendly temperatures kill the aphids that vector BYDV in the fall planting near or after the first freeze is a good way to avoid BYDV pollutions. If BYDV has been a problem in the past selecting wheat varieties that are resistant to it may also be valuable.
One of the most yield-limiting factors in NC wheat manufacture is powdery mildew. This is especially true in the NC littoral plain and southern piedmont and some NC tidewater areas. Conventional producers often do not consider powdery mildew in their planning because they can rely on foliar fungicides to control the disease if it occurs.
BEETLE LEAF RUST
Leaf rust is a foliar disease that outbreaks wheat late in the growing season. Although leaf rust can occur anyplace in North Carolina it is most likely to be a difficult in the NC coastal plain and tidewater. Conventional manufacturers rely on foliar fungicides to protect the crop from this disease.
Loose smut indications occur among heading and development. Diseased seeds appear normal. The fungus which is found inside the embryo of the seed will grow within the plant from germination until the seed heads emerge and smutted grains appear.
STAGONOSPORA NODORUM BLOTCH
Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) is affected by the fungus Stagonospora nodorum and can be a serious disease of wheat. It used to be known as sectorial leaf blotch and glume blotch. Indications may appear at any time through the plant's growth and on any part of the plant.
SCAB OR HEAD BLIGHT
Head scab of small grains is affected by the fungus Fusarium graminearum which also infects corn. Scab can occur in all small grains. Wheat and barley are the most liable to the disease oats are a little less liable and rye and triticale are the most unaffected. Infection occurs at or soon after blossoming when fungal spores reach small-grain heads by wind or rain-splash.
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|Author:||Rasool, Kamran; Mahmood, Nasir; Khan, Imran|
|Date:||Oct 12, 2014|
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