Juvenomimetic and insecticidal activities of Senecio salignus (Asteraceae) and Salvia microphylla (Lamiaceae) on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
Many plants have insecticidal or juvenomimetic activities against insects. The genus Senecio (Asteraceae) comprises about 1,500 species with 165 species found in Mexico. These species are known to produce many insecticidal compounds such as alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, chalcones, and flavonoids (Romo de Vivar et al. 2007). This genus has also been associated with anti-inflammatory, vasodilator, antiemetic, and antimicrobial activities (Rodriguez & Lopez 2001; Rosa et al. 2004). Studies of insecticidal activity have been conducted with Senecio umbrosus Waldst. & Kit and Senecio otites Kunze ex DC., and extracts have been shown to affect larvae of Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (Dominguez et al. 2008; Pavela 2011).
The genus Salvia is the most diverse genus of the family Lamiaceae, with over 1,000 species around the world distributed in tropical and subtropical zones. In Mexico, there are at least 300 reported species (Fernandez 2006). Many species of this genus produce various bioactive compounds such as sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, sterols, and polyphenols (Yi-Bing et al. 2012). Antioxidant, antimicrobial, analgesic, anticancer, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities have also been reported (Kamatou et al. 2008; Akin et al. 2010). In addition, insecticidal activity on S. frugiperda and S. littoralis has been reported (Pavela 2004; Zavala-Sanchez et al. 2013).
The aim of this study was to determine the insecticidal and juvenomimetic activities of the n-hexane extracts of the aerial parts of "chilca," Senecio salignus DC. (Asteraceae), and "mirto," Salvia microphylla Kunth (Lamiaceae), on S. frugiperda.
Materials and Methods
Fall armyworm larvae were reared in the Laboratory of Natural Insecticide Compounds at the Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, in Queretaro, Mexico. The larvae were reared at 25 [+ or -] 2 [degrees]C and 70% relative humidity with a 12:12 h L:D photoperiod. For preparation of the fall armyworm diet, the following mixture was made: 800 mL distilled water, 30 g ground beans, 90 g ground corn (dried beans and corn were ground with a Thomas-Wiley Model 4 mill with a particle size of 1 mm), 20 g brewer's yeast, 10 g vitamins (vitamin mix, Lepidoptera # 722, BioServ), 10 g agar, 1.7 g ascorbic acid (dissolved in 17 mL ethanol), 2.5 mL formaldehyde, 1.7 g methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, and 0.6 g neomycin sulfate (Bergvinson & Kumar 1997).
PLANT MATERIAL AND EXTRACTION
Aerial parts (leaves, stems, and flowers) of S. salignus and S. microphylla were collected in Tenancingo County, Mexico, at 18.9514[degrees] to 19.0403 north latitude and 98.5958[degrees] to 99.6436[degrees] west longitude, and 2,060 m asl. in Sep 2013. Taxonomic authentication was performed by Abigail Aguilar Contreras, and vouchers were deposited at Herbarium of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). The voucher specimen for S. salignus was IMSS M 15,546 and for S. microphylla was IMSS M 15,821.
After thorough cleaning of aerial material from each plant, it was shade dried at room temperature for a minimum of 20 d. The dried plant was then made into powder with a Thomas-Wiley Model 4 mill with a particle size of 1 mm. Dried and powdered aerial material from S. salignus or S. microphylla (250 g) were extracted with 2 L n-hexane under reflux for 4 h. The extract was filtered and the solvent removed under reduced pressure by using a rotatory evaporator. The yield weight of S. salignus extract was 2.31% and of S. microphylla 2.09%.
The extracts were tested in triplicate for various phytochemical classes by using the following methods: 1) alkaloids: Meyer, Wagner, and Dragendorff reagents; 2) cardiotonics: Raymond and Baljet reagents; 3) flavonoids: [H.sub.2] S[O.sub.4] concentrate; 4) saponins: [H.sub.2] O at boiling temperature; 5) sterols and triterpenes: Salkowsky reagent, Liebermann/Burchard reagent; 6) tannins: ferric chloride; and 7) terpenes: Noller reagent (Tiwari et al. 2011; Wadood et al. 2013).
IDENTIFICATION OF THE PRINCIPAL COMPOUNDS FROM NHEXANE EXTRACTS OF S. SALIGNUS AND S. MICROPHYLLA
Twenty [micro]L n-hexane extracts of aerial portions of S. salignus and S. microphylla were diluted with 1 mL acetone. The extracts were analyzed on an Agilent Technologies (Santa Clara, California) 6890N GC equipped with an HP-5MS column (30 m in length; 25 mm internal diameter; 0.25 [micro]m film thickness) equipped with an Agilent MS 5973 detector, at 250 [degrees]C. The carrier gas was helium, with a flow rate of 1 mL/min; the split ratio was 2:1. The column temperature was initially 50 [degrees]C (for 3 min) and was gradually increased to 240 [degrees]C, at 3 [degrees]C/min; this temperature was maintained for 2 min. The injector temperature was 250 [degrees]C, and 1 [micro]L n-hexane extract was injected and analyzed in duplicate. The spectra were collected at 71 eV ionization voltages, and the analyzed mass range was 15 to 600 m/z. The identification of the components was confirmed by comparison of the retention indices with those of authentic compounds and with the Wiley09/ NIST11 library.
Bioassays were conducted using for each concentration 40 replicates (larvae) divided in 5 experimental units with 8 larvae each, selected randomly. Preliminary screening of each extract was carried out at 5 concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5,000 ppm, and a control, by following the previously described method (Santiago-Santiago et al. 2009), altogether using 240 larvae for each plant. The extracts were mixed with the larval diet ingredients during preparation. For the final bioassays, 6 concentrations of extracts were tested (0, 50, 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 5,000 ppm) according to the method used by Rodriguez-Hernandez & Vendramim (1996) as modified by Romero-Origel et al. (2012), and 240 larvae were used for each plant. The larvae were maintained at 27 [+ or -] 2 [degrees]C, 70 [+ or -] 5% relative humidity, and a 14:10 h L:D photoperiod. The pupae were weighed 24 h after pupation and then moved to another container for development to the adult stage. The insecticide parameters evaluated were larval and pupal mortality, and the juvenomimetic parameters were the length of the larval and pupal period and the pupal weight at 24 h after formation. The median lethal concentration (LC50) to the larval population of S. frugiperda was calculated for each extract by using data for total larval period mortality.
A statistical analysis was conducted, and data were tested for normality and homoscedasticity before analysis. In some cases, KruskalWallis non-parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used when data violated these assumptions and could not be corrected using a transformation. ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test, was performed, and the LC50 was calculated by probit analysis, using the SYSTAT statistical analysis program (SYSTAT 1998).
The extract of S. salignus tested positive for tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, triterpenes, and sterols (Table 1). The S. microphylla extract tested positive for cardiotonics, saponins, tannins, terpenes, triterpenes, and sterols (Table 1).
INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF S. SALIGNUS AND S. MICROPHYLLA EXTRACTS
Exposure to the n-hexane extract of the aerial parts of S. salignus (Table 2) induced 100% larval mortality at 5,000 ppm, and 95, 90, and 52.5% at 2,000, 1,000, and 500 ppm, respectively. Mortality was 10% in the control treatment (LC50 = 440 ppm). Pupal mortality was 100, 97.5, 95, and 62.5% at 5,000, 2,000, 1,000, and 500 ppm, respectively, and the control mortality was 15%. The S. microphylla extract (Table 3) resulted in a larval mortality of 100% at 5,000 ppm and 97.5, 87.5, and 65% at 2,000, 1,000, and 500 ppm, respectively. The control showed 7.5% mortality (LC50 = 456 ppm). Pupal mortality was 100, 100, 95, and 82.5% at 5,000, 2,000, 1,000, and 500 ppm, respectively, and 15% in the control.
JUVENOMIMETIC ACTIVITY OF S. SALIGNUS AND S. MICROPHYLLA EXTRACTS
The juvenomimetic activity of the S. salignus n-hexane extract (Table 2) extended the larval period by 31.6, 29.1, and 17.3 d at 2,000, 1,000, and 500 ppm, respectively, and increased the pupal period by 8.9, 5.9, and 1.4 d at 2,000, 1,000, and 500 ppm, respectively, compared with the controls (22.9 and 11.1 d). It also reduced the pupal weight by 63.7, 54.4, and 34.7% at 2,000, 1,000, and 500 ppm when compared with the control weight (241 mg).
The S. microphylla extract (Table 3) prolonged the larval period by 12.5, 10.9, and 2.0 d at 2,000, 1,000, and 500 ppm, respectively, and increased the pupal period by 16.5 and 12.1 d at 1,000 and 500 ppm, respectively, compared with controls (22.5 and 10.5 d). It also reduced the pupal weight by 74.9, 39.2, and 14.1% at 2,000, 1,000, and 500 ppm, respectively, when compared with the control (243 mg).
IDENTIFICATION OF PRINCIPAL COMPOUNDS
We found 48 compounds in n-hexane aerial extracts of S. salignus identified by GC-MS analysis, representing 99.95% of the extracted material (Table 4); the retention times ranged between 3.88 and 67.20 min. The major components and their respective retention times were: palmitic acid (12.23%) 44.66 min, [gamma]-sitosterol (16.10%) 54.05 min, [beta]-amyrin (5.18%) 61.51 min, and lupeol (6.44%) 61.72 min. The GCMS analysis of n-hexane aerial parts extracts of S. microphylla showed 59 compounds, which accounted for 99.96% of the extracted material (Table 5); the retention times ranged between 3.72 and 63.39 min. The major components and retention times were: palmitic acid (7.12%) 44.8 min, (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrien-1-ol (11.11%) 49.76 min, oleic acid (14.76%) 49.98 min, and [gamma]-sitosterol (12.77%) 54.74 min.
To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the insecticidal and juvenomimetic activities of the n-hexane extracts of aerial parts of S. salignus and S. microphylla against S. frugiperda larvae. These extracts demonstrated strong insecticidal activity and showed an LC50 of 440 ppm and 456 ppm, respectively. In similar studies, 0.5% of root powder of S. salignus caused 100% mortality in Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored beans (LopezPerez et al. 2007; Lopez et al. 2010). Moreover, the extracts of Lepidaploa lilacina Mart. ex DC. (Asteraceae), Ageratum fastigiatum Gardner (Asteraceae), and Lychnophora ramosissima Gardner (Asteraceae) caused 72.0, 65.9, and 61.0% egg mortality, respectively (Rodriguez & Lopez 2001). Rodriguez & Lopez (2001) also showed that after 2 d, Lychnophora sp. (Asteraceae) and Vernonia holosericea Mart. (Asteraceae) extracts caused 8.7 and 87% larval mortality, respectively, in Z. subfasciatus. The extracts of Lychnophora ericoides Mart. (Asteraceae) and Trichogonia villosa Sch. Bip. ex Baker (Asteraceae) caused 97.7% egg mortality in S. frugiperda after 1 d (Tavarez et al. 2009).
Additionally, the chloroform extract of aerial parts of S. microphylla showed insecticide activity against S. frugiperda (LC50 = 919 ppm) (Zavala-Sanchez et al. 2013). On the other hand, Ramirez-Moreno et al. (2001) reported that aqueous extracts of aerial parts at 5% concentration of Salvia karwinskii Benth (Lamiaceae) and Salvia polystachya Epling (Lamiaceae) had low insecticidal activity (13% with both species) against Leptophobia aripa elodia Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Rashid et al. (2009) showed 80% mortality in adults of Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) with dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of Salvia cabulica Benth (Lamiaceae).
The juvenomimetic activities of S. salignus and S. microphylla n-hexane extracts against S. frugiperda larvae began at 500 ppm, wherein each extract increased the length of the larval and pupal periods and decreased the pupal weight. Ramirez-Moreno et al. (2001) tested the repellent activity of aqueous extract using the powder of the entire S. salignus plant on L. aripa elodia. However, this plant extract had no effect on this insect. Dominguez et al. (2008) showed the antifeedant activity of the ethanolic extract of aerial parts of S. otites against S. littoralis and reported a feeding inhibition of 43% at 100 [micro]g/[cm.sup.2] in Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The same study also showed that only 30% of M. persicae and 13% of R. padi settled to feed at a concentration of 50 [micro]g/[cm.sup.2]. Moreover, the chloroform extract of the aerial parts of S. microphylla showed juvenomimetic activity against S. frugiperda beginning at 500 ppm, which increased the pupal duration to 2 d and reduced the pupal weight by 13.3% with respect to the control (ZavalaSanchez et al. 2013). Ramirez-Moreno et al. (2001) observed 7% repellency with 5% aqueous extracts of S. karwinskii and S. polystachya against L. aripa elodia larvae.
The GC-MS analysis showed that the principal components of S. salignus n-hexane extract were: palmitic acid, [gamma]-sitosterol, [beta]-amyrin, and lupeol, in addition to caryophyllene oxide. Sanchez-Munoz et al. (2012) reported n-hexane extracts of aerial parts of S. salignus from the Mexican state of Guerrero to contain caryophyllene oxide, whereas Perez-Gonzalez et al. (2013) reported nonacosane (10.11%), (Z,Z)-9.12octadecadienoic acid (7.5%), squalene (5.17%), and (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (5%) as principal components of the chloroform extract of aerial parts of S. salignus.
The principal components of S. microphylla extract were: palmitic acid, (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrien-1-ol, oleic acid, and [gamma]-sitosterol, in addition to caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide. Lima et al. (2012) found (f)-caryophyllene (15.35%), a-eudesmol (14.06%), [beta]-eudesmol (8.74%), and Y-eudesmol (7.64%) as principal components of essential oil from aerial parts of S. microphylla.
This study showed potential for the use of S. salignus and S. microphylla n-hexane extracts against S. frugiperda larvae. Both plants contain bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, essential oils, diter penes, and triterpenes, which can act as an antifeedants (Tomas-Barberan & Wollenweber 1990). Also, palmitic acid and oleic acid showed insecticidal and juvenomimetic acivities against S. frugiperda larvae with larval viability values of 33.3 and 48.5%, respectively, when exposed to 1,600 ppm of palmitic and oleic acid, with respective LC50 values of 989 and 1,353 ppm, respectively (Perez-Gutierrez et al. 2011). These acids were present as principal components of n-hexane extract of S. microphylla, and palmitic acid was extracted from S. salignus. The [gamma]-sitosterol was reported as an active principle of acetone extract of stem bark of Vitexschliebenii Moldenke (Lamiaceae) against 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) (Nyamoita et al. 2013), and this phytosterol also was a principal component of n-hexane extracts of S. salignus and S. microphylla. The [beta]-amyrin and lupeol isolated from Inulajaponica (Asteraceae) were determined to have acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acari: Tetranychidae) by Duan et al. (2011). In this study, these compounds were also present in S. salignus extract. Therefore, it is possible that the presence of palmitic acid, [gamma]-sitosterol, [beta]-amyrin, and lupeol in S. salignus n-hexane extract and that of palmitic acid, oleic acid, and [gamma]-sitosterol in S. microphylla n-hexane extract are responsible for insecticidal and juvenomimetic activities in the present study. These extracts could provide a botanical source of insecticides for alternative pest management of S. frugiperda.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT) for the master's degree program scholarship, the Autonomous University of Queretaro Institutional Program for Faculty Research (FOFI-UAQ) (FCQ201408), and Q. Candy Monserrat Romero Origel for helping us collect plant specimens. The authors declare no conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.
Akin M, Demirci B, Bagci Y, Husnu CBK. 2010. Antibacterial activity and composition of the essential oils of two endemic Salvia sp. from Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology 9: 2322-2327.
Andrews KL. 1988. Latin American research on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Florida Entomologist 71: 630-653.
Bergvinson DJ, Kumar H. 1997. Crfa masiva de insectos en el laboratorio de entomologfa del CIMMYT (Diatrea grandiosella, SWCB; Diatrea saccharalis, SBC; Spodoptera frugiperda, FAW y Helicoverpa zea, CEW) In Annual Research Progress Report 1996, Maize Entomology, CIMMYT, Mexico. Appendix 7.
Dominguez MD, Reina M, Villaroel L, Fajardo V, Gonzalez-Coloma A. 2008. Bioactive furanoeremophilanes from Senecio otites Kunze ex DC. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung 63: 837-842.
Duan DD, Bu CY, Cheng J, Wang NY, Shi GL. 2011. Isolation and identification of acaricidal compounds in Inula japonica (Asteraceae). Journal of Economic Entomology 104: 375-378.
Fernandez J. 2006. Revision taxonomica de Salvia sect. siphonantha (Labiatae). Anales del Jardfn Botanico de Madrid 63: 145-157.
Kamatou GPP, Makunga PN, Ramogola NPW, Viljoen MA. 2008. South African Salvia species: a review of biological activities and phytochemistry. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 119: 664-672.
Lima RK, Gracas CM, Andrade MA, Guimaraes PL, Batista LR, Nelson DL. 2012. Bactericidal and antioxidant activity of essential oils from Myristica fragans Houtt and Salvia microphylla H.B.K. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 89: 523-528.
Lopez PE, Rodriguez HC, Garza GR. 2010. Factores que optimizan la efectividad del polvo de rafz de Senecio salignus contra el gorgojo mexicano del frijol. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana 33: 225-230.
Lopez-Perez E, Rodriguez-Hernandez C, Ortega-Arenas LD, Garza-Garcfa R. 2007. Actividad biologica de la rafz de Senecio salignus contra Zabrotes subfasciatus en frijol almacenado. Agrociencia 41: 95-102.
Nyamoita MG, Ester I, Zakaria MH, Wilber L, Ochola BJ, Ahmed H. 2013. Larvicidal and brine shrimp activities of Vitex schiliebenii extracts and isolated phytoecdysteroids on Anopheles gambiae Giles S.S larvae. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences 3: 91-95.
Pavela R. 2004. Insecticidal activity of certain medicinal plants. Fitoterapia 75: 745-749.
Pavela R. 2011. Screening of Eurasian plants for insecticidal and growth inhibition activity against Spodoptera littoralis larvae. African Journal of Agricultural Research 6: 2895-2907.
Pavela R, Chermenskaya T. 2004. Potential insecticidal activity of extracts from 18 species of medicinal plants on larvae of Spodoptera littoralis. Plant Protection Science 40: 145-150.
Perez-Gonzalez C, Serrano-Vega R, Gonzalez-Chavez MM, Zavala-Sanchez MA, Perez-Gutierrez S. 2013. Anti-inflammatory activity and composition of Senecio salignus Kunth. BioMed Research International 2013: 1-4.
Perez-Gutierrez S, Zavala-Sanchez MA, Gonzalez-Chavez MM, Cardenas-Ortega NC, Ramos-Lopez MA. 2011. Bioactivity of Carica papaya (Caricaeae) against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Molecules 16: 7502-7509.
Ramirez-Moreno LA, Garda-Barrios LE, Rodriguez-Hernandez C, Morales HE, Castro RAE. 2001. Evaluacion del efecto insecticida de extractos de plantas sobre Leptophobia aripa Elodia. Manejo Integrado de Plagas 60: 50-56.
Rashid R, Mukhtar F, Mohammad MN. 2009. Biological screening of Salvia cabulica. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41: 1453-1462.
Rodriguez HC, Lopez PE. 2001. Actividad insecticida e insectistica de la chilca (Senecio salignus) sobre Zabrotes subfasciatus. Manejo Integrado de Plagas 59: 19-26.
Rodriguez-Hernandez C, Vendramim DJ. 1996. Toxicidad de extractos de Meliaceae en Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Manejo Integrado de Plagas 42: 14-22.
Romero-Origel CM, Perez-Gutierrez S, Ramos-Lopez MA, Zavala-Sanchez MA, Sanchez-Mendoza E. 2012. Insecticidal activity of kramecyne isolated from Krameria cytisoides against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Agricultural Science Research Journal 2: 493-498.
Romo de Vivar A, Perez-Castorena AL, Arciniegas A, Villasenor JL. 2007. Secondary metabolites from Mexican species of the tribe Senecionae (Asteraceae). Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society 51: 160-172.
Rosa LM, Statti AG, Tundis R, Conforti F, Bonesi M, Autelitano G, Houghton JP, Miljkovic-Brake A, Menichini F. 2004. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Senecio inaequidens DC. and Senecio vulgaris L. Phytotherapy Research 18: 777-779.
Sanchez-Munoz BA, Aguilar MI, King-Diaz B, Rivero JF, Lotina-Hennsen B. 2012. The sesquiterpenes caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide isolated from Senecio salignus act as phytogrowth and photosynthesis inhibitors. Molecules 17: 1437-1447.
Santiago-Santiago V, Rodriguez-Hernandez C, Ortega-Arenas LD, Ochoa-Martinez D, Infante-Gil S. 2009. Repelencia de adultos de mosca blanca (Trialeurodes vaporariorum West.) con aceites esenciales. Fitosanidad 13: 11-14.
Santos LM, Redaelli LR, Diefenbach LMG, Efrom CFS. 2003. Larval and pupal stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sweet and field corn genotypes. Brazilian Journal of Biology 63: 627-633 SYSTAT. 1998. SYSTAT 8. SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois.
Tagliari MS, Knaak N, Fiuza LM. 2010. Efeito de extratos de plantas na mortalidade de lagartas de Spodopterafrugierda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Arquivos do Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo 77: 259-264.
Tavarez SW, Cruz I, Petacci F, Junior SLA, Freitas SS, Cola ZJ, Serrao JE. 2009. Potential use of Asteraceae extracts to control Spodoptera
frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selectivity to their parasitoids Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae). Industrial Crops and Products 30: 384-388.
Tiwari P, Kumar B, Kaur M, Kaur G, Kaur H. 2011. Phytochemical screening and extraction: a review. Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia 1: 98-106.
Tomas-Barberan FA, Wollenweber E. 1990. Flavonoid aglycones from the leaf surfaces of some Labiatae species. Plant Systematics and Evolution 173: 109-118.
Wadood A, Ghufran M, Babar JS, Naeem M, Khan A, Ghaffar R, Asnad. 2013. Phytochemical analysis of medicinal plants occurring in local area of Mardan. Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry 2: 144-147.
Yi-Bing W, Zhi-Yu N, Qing-Wen S, Mei D, Hiromasa K, Yu-Cheng G, Bin C. 2012. Constituents from Salvia species and their biological activities. Chemical Reviews 112: 5967-6026.
Zavala-Sanchez MA, Perez-Gutierrez S, Romo-Asuncion D, Cardenas-Ortega NC, Ramos-Lopez MA. 2013. Activity of four Salvia species against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Southwestern Entomologist 38: 67-73
Diana Romo-Asuncion (1), Marco Antonio Avila-Calderon (2), Miguel Angel Ramos-Lopez (2) *, Juan Esteban Barranco-Florido (1), Silvia Rodriguez-Navarro (1), Sergio Romero-Gomez (2), Eugenia Josefina Aldeco-Perez (2), Juan Ramiro Pacheco-Aguilar (2), and Miguel Angel Rico-Rodriguez (2)
(1) Metropolitan Autonomous University Campus Xochimilco. Calzada del Hueso 1100. Col. Villa Quietud. Coyoacan C.P. 04960. D.F. Mexico
(2) Autonomous University of Queretaro, Faculty of Chemistry, Cerro de las Campanas s/n, Col. Las Campanas, C.P. 76010, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro, Mexico
* Corresponding author; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (M. A. R.-L.)
Table 1. Phytochemical test of the n-hexane extracts of Senecio salignus and Salvia microphylla. ALK CAR Extract Mayer Wagner Dragendorff Raymond Beljet S. microphylla - - - + + S. salignus - - - - - FLA SAP STE Extract [H.sub.2] [H.sub.2]O Salkowski S[O.sub.4] S. microphylla - + + S. salignus + - + TAN TER TRI Extract Fe Noller Liebermann- [Cl.sub.3] Burchad S. microphylla + + + S. salignus + + + ALK = alkaloids; CAR = cardiotonics; FLA = flavonoids; SAP = saponins; STE = sterols; TAN = tannins; TER = terpenes; TRI = triterpenes. Table 2. Insecticidal and juvenomimetic activities of aerial parts n-hexane extract of Senecio salignus against Spodoptera frugiperda. Mortality (%) Concentration Larva Pupa (ppm) 5,000 100 [+ or -] 0 * 100 [+ or -] 0 * 2,000 95.0 [+ or -] 3.5 * 97.5 [+ or -] 2.5 * 1,000 90.0 [+ or -] 4.8 * 95.0 [+ or -] 3.5 * 500 52.5 [+ or -] 8.0 * 62.5 [+ or -] 7.8 * 50 12.8 [+ or -] 5.3 20.0 [+ or -] 6.4 Control 10.0 [+ or -] 4.8 15.0 [+ or -] 5.7 LC50 0.440 x [10.sup.3] (0.24442-0.60503) ppm Duration (d) Concentration Larva Pupa (ppm) 5,000 -- -- 2,000 54.5 [+ or -] 0.5 * 20.0 [+ or -] 0 * 1,000 52.0 [+ or -] 1.8 * 17.0 [+ or -] 1.0 * 500 40.2 [+ or -] 1.8 * 12.5 [+ or -] 0.3 * 50 23.2 [+ or -] 0.2 11.1 [+ or -] 0.2 Control 22.9 [+ or -] 0.2 11.1 [+ or -] 0.2 LC50 Concentration Pupal weight (mg) (ppm) 5,000 -- 2,000 87.5 [+ or -] 14.5 * 1,000 110.0 [+ or -] 5.8 * 500 157.3 [+ or -] 6.3 * 50 226.5 [+ or -] 3.1 Control 241.0 [+ or -] 4.1 LC50 Results are the mean of at least 40 determinations [+ or -] standard error. * Significantly different from control (P < 0.001). Table 3. Insecticidal and juvenomimetic activities of aerial plant Tissue n-hexane extract of Salvia microphylla against Spodoptera frugiperda. Mortality (%) Concentration Larva Pupa (ppm) 5,000 100.0 [+ or -] 0 * 100.0 [+ or -] 0 * 2,000 97.5 [+ or -] 2.5 * 100.0 [+ or -] 0 * 1,000 87.5 [+ or -] 5.3 * 95.0 [+ or -] 3.5 * 500 65.0 [+ or -] 7.6 * 82.5 [+ or -] 6.1 * 50 15.0 [+ or -] 5.7 20.0 [+ or -] 6.4 Control 7.5 [+ or -] 4.2 15.0 [+ or -] 5.7 LC50 0.456.2 x [10.sup.3] (0.32647-0.58455) ppm Duration (d) Concentration Larva Pupa (ppm) 5,000 -- -- 2,000 35.0 [+ or -] 0 * -- 1,000 33.4 [+ or -] 3.2 * 27.0 [+ or -] 1.0 * 500 24.5 [+ or -] 0.4 * 22.6 [+ or -] 0.6 * 50 23.1 [+ or -] 0.2 11.1 [+ or -] 0.2 Control 22.5 [+ or -] 0.2 10.5 [+ or -] 0.2 LC50 Concentration Pupal weight (mg) (ppm) 5,000 -- 2,000 61.0 [+ or -] 0 * 1,000 148.0 [+ or -] 22.0 * 500 209.1 [+ or -] 3.8 * 50 232.1 [+ or -] 2.0 Control 243.4 [+ or -] 3.9 LC50 Results are the mean of at least 40 determinations [+ or -] standard error. * Significantly different from control (P < 0.001). Table 4. Composition of the n-hexane aerial plant tissue extract of Senecio salignus. Retention Peak area No. time (min) (%) (a) Compound name 1 3.88 0.73 p-Xylene 2 4.08 1.03 Acid 2-methyl-butanoic 3 30.43 0.86 (-)-Spathulenol 4 30.55 1.75 Caryophyllene oxide 5 31.77 0.21 1-Benzoxepin-3-ol, 2,3,4,5- tetrahydro- 6 32.44 0.51 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4,4a,7-hexahydro- 1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)- 7 32.59 1.26 Hexadecane 8 33.89 0.80 Longifolenaldehyde 9 36.76 0.23 Alloaromadendrene oxide-(1) 10 38.06 0.75 Tetradecanoic acid 11 39.41 0.58 Benzene, 1,4-diethyl-2,3,5,6- tetramethyl- 12 39.64 2.12 Octadecane 13 40.55 1.21 6,10,14-Trimethylpentadecane-2-one 14 41.56 0.30 (1S,5R,10S)-1,5,8,8- Tetramethylbicyclo [absolute value of 8.1.0] undecano-2,6-dione 15 44.31 1.73 Dicyclooctanopyridazine 16 44.66 12.23 Palmitic acid 17 46.06 1.29 Eicosane 18 48.03 1.08 1-Octadecene 19 49.38 3.88 Linoleic acid 20 49.64 1.66 Trans-oleic acid 21 49.73 0.52 Ledol 22 50.49 1.85 Stearic acid 23 51.77 0.31 1-Docosene 24 51.94 2.10 Docosane 25 52.56 0.26 2-Oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-1- carboylic acid-4,7,7-trimethyl-3- oxo-(1,2-dimethyl-1-ethynyl) propylester 26 52.66 0.21 1H-Cycloprop[e]azulen-4-ol, decahydro-1,1,4,7-tetramethyl-1, 1ar-(1a[alpha],4[beta],4a[beta], 7[alpha], 7a[beta], 7b[alpha])-1- 27 53.70 0.47 [beta]-Sitosterol 28 53.82 3.24 Stigmasterol, 22,23-dihydro- 29 54.05 16.10 [gamma]-Sitosterol 30 56.30 0.82 Cyclopentaneacetic acid, 3-oxo-2- (2-pentenyl)- 31 56.56 1.14 4,4,6a,6b,8a,11,11,14b-Octamethyl-1, 4,4a,5,6,6a,6b,7,8a,9,10,11,12,12a, 14,14a,14b-octadecahydro-2H-picen- 3-one 32 57.35 1.17 Heptacosane 33 57.50 0.40 Cholestan-3-one, 4,4-dimethyl-,(5P)- 34 57.66 4.32 Triphenylphosphine oxide 35 59.17 1.05 Z-14-Nonacosane 36 59.80 0.31 Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 37 59.91 1.73 Triacontane 38 60.31 1.22 4-Androsten-6[beta]-ol-3,17-dione 39 60.35 0.42 2-benzoylguaiazulene 40 60.82 4.85 Baurenol 41 61.16 2.94 1-Hexacosene 42 61.51 5.18 [beta]-Amyrin 43 61.72 6.44 Lupeol 44 62.36 1.08 Heptacosane, 1-chloro- 45 62.59 1.14 Z-11(13-Methyl)tetradecen-1-ol acetate 46 64.74 4.30 Heptacosane 47 66.53 0.19 Cyclohexane, 1-(1,5-dimethylhexyl)- 4-(4-methylpenthyl)- 48 67.20 1.98 Nonacosane (a) Values reported as a percentage of the total area. Table 5. Composition of the n-hexane aerial plant tissue extract of Salvia microphylla. No. Retention Peak area Compound name time (min) (%) (a) 1 3.72 0.14 9-Isopropyl-1-methyl-2-methylene- 5-oxatricyclo(5,4,0,0,8,8) undecane 2 3.90 0.49 p-Xylene 3 4.37 0.21 m-Xylene 4 4.73 0.16 Ethanol,2-butoxy- 5 5.18 0.10 Cumene 6 5.53 0.45 [alpha]-Thujene 7 6.79 0.63 [beta]-Phellandrene 8 8.29 0.23 2-Carene 9 9.83 0.21 Crithmene 10 12.51 0.16 L-Camphor 11 13.88 0.61 Borneol 12 14.98 0.28 (+)-[alpha]-Terpineol 13 22.82 0.17 (+)-Cyclosativene 14 23.02 0.89 Ylangene 15 23.46 0.24 [beta]-Baurbonene 16 23.65 0.16 [beta]-Cedrene 17 24.61 0.17 Isoledene 18 24.76 1.24 Caryophyllene 19 25.57 0.16 [+]-Aromadendrene 20 26.01 0.45 Cadinene 21 26.47 1.52 [alpha]-Copaene 22 27.22 0.68 Isoledene 23 27.32 0.56 [alpha]-Curcumene 24 27.61 0.45 Naphthalene,hexahydro-1,6-dime 25 27.74 1.40 Aristolene 26 28.04 0.28 [alpha]-Muurolene 27 28.45 0.77 Bicyclo[4.4.0]dec-1-ene,2- isopropyl-5-methyl-9-methylene 28 28.57 1.12 Naphthalene,1,2,3,4-tetrahydro 29 28.88 1.15 -Cadiene 30 29.02 0.21 [beta]-Sesquiphellandrene 31 29.29 2.61 Quinoline,5,8-dimethyl- 32 29.62 0.47 Germacrene 33 29.74 2.76 Copaene 34 29.99 0.56 Naphthalene,1,2-dihydro-1,1,6- trimethyl- 35 30.65 3.86 Caryophyllene oxide 36 31.53 1.22 Guaiol 37 31.64 2.50 1-Naphthalenol,decahydro-4a- methyl-8-methylene-2- [methylethyl]-[1-,1R(1[alpha], 2[beta],4a[beta],4a[alpha]]- 38 32.02 0.61 Eremophilene 39 32.66 1.63 10,10-Dimethyl-2,6- dimethylenebicyclo-[abslute value of 7.2.0] undecan-5[beta]-ol 40 33.02 0.23 -Gurjunene 41 33.14 1.12 [beta]-Endesmol 42 33.27 0.73 1,4-Methano-1H-indene,octahydro-1, 7a-dimethyl-4-(1-methylenyl)-11s- (1[alpha],3a[beta].,4[alpha], 7a[beta])- 43 33.36 0.80 [delta]-Selinene 44 34.00 1.33 Cadalene 45 43.92 1.57 Hexadecenoic acid, Z-11- 46 44.80 7.12 Palmitic acid 47 48.15 0.44 Methyllinoleate 48 49.02 2.08 Phytol 49 49.76 11.11 9,12,15-Octadecatrien-1-ol,(Z,Z,Z)- 50 49.98 14.76 Oleic acid 51 52.52 3.20 Selenolo[3,4-b]benzoselenophen- 3-(1H)-one 52 55.74 12.77 [gamma]-Sitosterol 53 57.11 0.35 Cyclopropanecarbonitrile,1-(p- bromophenyl)-2-1b-(dimethylamino) phenyl 54 58.03 3.08 Triphenylphosphine oxide 55 59.17 0.93 Benzene, 1-(4-phenyl-1,3- butadinylil)-3-|2-(trimethylsilyl) ethynyl- 56 59.93 3.83 Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 57 60.02 1.10 4-[3-Pyridyl]-3-thiosemicarbazone piperonal 58 60.25 0.54 Androst-2-en-17-one,4,4-dimeth 59 63.39 1.36 [alpha]-Monoolein (a) Values reported as a percentage of the total area.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Romo-Asuncion, Diana; Avila-Calderon, Marco Antonio; Ramos-Lopez, Miguel Angel; Barranco-Florido, Ju|
|Date:||Sep 1, 2016|
|Previous Article:||Evaluation of food lures for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) captured in a citrus orchard of the Serra Gaucha.|
|Next Article:||Proliferation of the invasive termite Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on Grand Cayman and overall termite diversity on the Cayman...|