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Judeo-Kashani: a Central Iranian Plateau dialect.

The city of Kashan (Kagan) in central Iran saw the quick disappearance of its Jewish community in the mid-twentieth century. The Jewish population of the city dwindled from thousands in the 1940s (Razmara, 3: 223; cf. Yeroushalmi, 68, 72, 82) to a mere eleven families or seventy-one souls in the 1970s (Yarshater, 466). Their dialect, Judeo-Kashani, survives only among the older generation of Kashani Jewish immigrant communities in Israel and North America and faces potential extinction. Deserted by its longstanding Jewry, Kashan is now an entirely Persian-speaking Muslim city.

Judeo-Kashani belongs to the group of Central Plateau Dialects (CPDs) spoken in the provinces of Kashan, Isfahan, and Yazd, all in central Iran (Lecoq; Windfuhr; Borjian 2008). Together with the Tatic group of dialects, which extends from the outskirts of Tehran westward to Azerbaijan and Talesh, and the Caspian language groups of Mazandarani and Gilaki, CPDs form the Northwest (NW) Iranian languages. These are distinct from the Southwest (SW) or Perside language group, of which Persian is the most prominent member.

Judeo-Kashani shares the closest affinity with the rest of the CPDs spoken in Kashan province. These vernaculars survive only in a few rural communities that have outlived the rapid process of Persianization since the mid-twentieth century, and their condition is moribund (see Borjian 2009). Notwithstanding geographic ties, Judeo-Kashani shows striking similarities to the dialects of Jewish communities in other cities, such as Hamadan and Isfahan, whose gentile population is Persian-speaking. This can be explained by the strong historical ties among the Jewish communities of central Iran, with evidence of significant migration among the towns in the past few centuries (cf. Yeroushalmi, 63ff., 327). These Jewish dialects spoken in an urban milieu show more Persian influence than do similar dialects spoken in the villages, and this has led to a simpler morphology and syntax. It is interesting to note that the extant Judeo-Persian literature from Kashan, namely, that of the seventeenth-century Baba'i ben Lotf and of the eighteenth-century Baba'i ben Farhad, have no trace of Judeo-Kashani (cf. Moreen, 6). (1)

The following study of Judeo-Kashani is based mainly on documentation collected by Valentin Zukovskij during his travels to central Persia in the mid-1880s. It consists of several texts in Russian transcription (Zukovskij, 2: 390-94) and a glossary shared with the dialect of Tajrish (ibid., 399-432). The texts, totaling 1,426 words, are translated from Persian. They consist of a list of forty-four short sentences (Text I, below), a short piece (Text II), twelve tales (Text III), (2) and two letters written by local Jewish residents (Texts IV and V). Although Zukovskij remains silent on his informants, the texts themselves suggest different informants who spoke varieties of the same dialect. This may be seen in adise (in Zukovskij's glossary) vs. aske (Text 1.18) ('sneeze') at the lexical level, and in tez vs. td ('sharp') (see [section]D7) at the phonological level. Another peculiar difference is between xudd (Texts I, III, IV) and the far more frequent xuz,cd (Texts III, IV), both meaning 'God'; the latter must be a loan word from Judeo-Isfahani (see [section]D12). The fact that we only find a grammatical gender distinction in the third singular personal pronoun (see [section]2.2.1) in Text I suggests that this is the last remaining trace of this morphological trait in the nineteenth century.

The texts are reproduced here in Roman transcription with due punctuation, hyphenation, and paragraphing. They transcription is modified by introducing the sounds,g [y], q, and occasionally h, which Zukovskij did not distinguish from g, k, and x, respectively, and by reducing his palatalized k and g and the y to their obvious allophones. Stress marks are reproduced when they are not predictably word final. Other necessary phonological adjustments are ignored in the reproduced Texts, but are made--based on the other sources of the dialect (see below)--when words and phrases are quoted in the Grammar and Glossary. These include ignoring the vowel length (see [section] 1.2.1) and the stress marks, which sometimes lack distinction between morphological and syntactical accentuation, and changing 6 to the more realistic a. The English translations are made not from the Persian source texts or the Russian translations provided by Zukovskij, but directly from the Judeo-Kashani texts. It should be noted that because these texts are translated from written Persian documents, they sometimes lack the quality of natural speech expected from professional dialect documentation.

Besides Valentin Zukovskij (henceforth VZ), material on Judeo-Kashani can be found in three additional sources. (1) Yacqub Tabari (1985, henceforth YT), apparently a native speaker of the dialect, published a short text (Text VI), which adds 138 words to our corpus. This text is in Persian script together with a Roman transcription of such low quality that it causes more confusion than elucidation. (2) Ehsan Yarshater (1974, henceforth EY), in a survey of various Jewish dialects of Persia, published six sentences (replicated as Text VII) and a few words from the Jewish community of Kashan. Notwithstanding its limited quantity, the data allow an objective comparison of the phonology against Zukovskij's transcription. (3) In another comparative study, Haideh Sahim (1996, henceforth HS) conjugates the substantive verb in the present tense (see Table 3) and the verbs 'do', 'fall', and 'sell' in the preterit (see Glossary).

These four sources are in general agreement but not without obvious differences, most of which, such as the preverb der-, ver-(in VZ) da:, va:-(in EY), result from chronology or variation of language and pronunciation among speakers. A notable mismatch is the verb ending for the first person singular: -om in VZ vs. -an in EY and HS (YT lacks this morpheme); these two forms are indeed so different that they mark a thick isoglottic boundary among the CPDs. Even so, such heterogeneity in documentation is not rare in other dialects akin to Judeo-Kashani (see, i.a., Borjian 2009).


[section]1.1. Consonants are /p b t d e j k g g~q f v s z g x h m n r l y 'l, very similar to standard Persian. The fricative g and plosive q are likely to be interchangeable allophones of a single glottal phoneme. z must be foreign to the dialect; its sole occurrence is in td, which is also rendered as tez ('sharp').

[section] 1.2. The vowel inventory of the dialect is probably as simple as /i e a u o 'V, much the same as modern Persian. The phoneme /A/ represents EY a (Text VII) and VZ o (Texts I to V), which I will normalize to the more realistic round a. The numerous vowel symbols used by Zukovskij (a a o o u u i i y l e e) call for the following explanations.

[section] 1.2.1. In transcribing his dialect materials Zukovskij was apparently misled, as were some other contemporary philologists, by the traditional rules of transliterating Arabic-based scripts (Borjian 2006). Thus, he renders the kasra mark sometimes as i, following the orthographic rules of classical Persian, and sometimes as e, according to the actual pronunciation he heard from his informants. The same argument holds true for u vs. o. Zukovskij probably normalized his dialect texts to show the long vowels of classical Persian in the words he could establish an etymology for. He also exaggerated the roundness of the back low vowel a by documenting it as a. Thus, while reproducing Zukovskij's text in Texts Ito V without normalization, I slightly altered his transcription in the Grammar and Glossary to conform with other documentations at hand, e.g., dubore to dubare ('again'). Nevertheless, I keep such inconsistencies as VZ xur-or Are-= EY xor-('eat' ), VZ beguden = YT begodan ('they went' ).

[section] 1.2.2. In spite of the consistent use of a (adjusted here as a), 'Zukovskij used a in words that were not likely to be in common use among his informants (e.g., velayati, mirza, ez-in-qarar, kern-iltifati). The only native words with an a in Zukovskij's documentation are the derivatives of the stems (y)a-: timed-('come').

[section] 1.2.3. The Russian letter hi (i.e., [y] or I) is incorporated by Zukovskij in a few words: xIn ('blood'), ita Yirde Ca bit'), Wiz ('letter'), xIyal ('imagination'), dash ('inside'), yaqin ('certainty'), xatir-jam ('confident'). This sound must be an allophone of /i/ on the ground of diachronic fronting of the back vowels ([section]D14).

[section] 1.3. The diphthongs are probably /aw ow Aw eu ay ey/, as in kaug ('shoe'), nou ('new'), xliu ('sleep'), emjeu ('tonighe), xayli ('many'), pey ('after'). Note the split of the diphthong when suffixed by a vowel: xau ('sleep') vs. xati-i, in an etafa construction.

[section]1.4. The dialect tends toward vowel harmony in verbs: dar-k-om ('that I fall') -der-e-kom CI fall'), dar-ket-om (I fell') -der-e-ket-om CI would fall, I was falling'), dar-vaz-om ('that I lose') -der-em-vaza CI lost'), bar yarn ('that I come out') -ber,,e-yar-om CI bring out'). (3)

[section]1.5. Verb stems may trail off in the final position: beber ('carry!') be-ber-id ('carry ye!'); ba-m-berg CI carried') -ba-m-berd-e CI have carried'); ni4-e-xurd ('he used not to eat') -bi-g-xurd-e ('he has eaten'); .f-e-val ('he was saying') -be-g-va(t) ('he said').

[section]1.6. A stem following a stressed prefix may lose its initial consonant: da-gir-om ('that I seize') -m-e-giret CI used to seize'); be-"in-om ('that I see') -vin-e ('you see').

[section] 1.7. Stress is only documented by Zukovskij, but it is perhaps a mixture of morphological and emphatic types of stress. As in other CPDs the stress appears to be word final in nouns and word initial in verbs.


[section]2.1. Nouns. (1) The plural ending is -(h)a, as in milla ('hairs'). (2) Indefinite markers are ita ('one') and the unstressed suffix -i, as in ita saw Ca night'), raft ea day'). (3) The etafa connector, -i or -e, joins the noun before the pthsessive and adjective modifiers, as in der bal-i xu-ge perha-i siya daru ('in its wing there are black feathers'). (4) -(r)a marks the direct object categorically and precedes a fronted agent marker ([section] (EY) das-e doz-es-a da:bas ('he tied the hand of the thief'), atfal-i mektebha-sun-ra ... sun-e-ber (4) ('they were taking the schoolchildren').

[section]2.2. Pronouns. There are two basic sets of personal pronouns: independent and enclitic (Table 1). The third plural independent pronouns are also used as demonstrative pronouns in the near and far positions ([section]2.4). Enclitics (or pronominal suffixes) function also as personal endings in the ergative construction of transitive verbs in the past tenses (see [section]3.6.2).
Table 1. Personal Pronouns and Verb Endings

Pronouns:  Independent      Enclitic

Endings:                    Set II    Set I

sg.1       mu(u)            m         -om/-an

2          tu               d/t       -e

3          ovilevi          s         -u(pres.),
                                      - [empty

pl.1       hama             mun       -im

2          sema/suma        dun       -id

3          iaha/yaha/uyaha  sun       -end

[section]2.2.1. The freestanding third singular personal pronoun has two distinct forms, ovi (V2 avi) and evi, with possible gender differentiation. The form evi is used only in Text I, as a masculine demonstrative/personal pronoun in both subject and object positions:
  evi merde kuru (This man is blind') (1.15)
  jan-i evi karu ('his wife is deaf') (1.16)
  evi kam xuru, du hem kam tanju ('he eats little, drinks
  little water as well') (1.21)

The form ovi is used in Texts I and II (5) as a feminine personal pronoun: (6)
  der pestan-i dvi sir xaile hu ('there is much milk in her
  breast') (I.4)
  avi hanuz bimar hu ('she is still ill') (I.8)
  der Ogyune ovi tuxmhil-i espid hu ('in her nest there are white
  eggs') (1.36)
  xaile vaxtidu dvi-rd ndmdide CI have not seen her for long') (II.1)
  dest-i dairom ye beeelunom! egeree mar-i der engugt-i dvi
  bu . . . ('may I grab her hand and squeeze [it]; even if a snake may
  be on her finger ...') (I1.3)

In the other texts ovi is used ten times for either gender as the third singular personal pronoun; as a personal pronoun ovi substitutes for "I" in bamga avi-ra aziyyet kerom CI wanted to punish it') (III.5).

[section]2.3. The reflexive xu-/xo-takes pronominal suffixes to function as (1) an emphatic: eger xu-dun pil nedarid Cif you have no money yourself'); (2) object of prepositions: vet xumfun gtuneber ('they were taking with them'); (3) possessive: dvaz-i xu-m ('my [own] voice'), der bal-i xu-.[section] ('in its wing'), dim-e xu-mun ('our face'), raxteha-i xu-dun ('your clothes').

[section]2.4. Demonstratives are i ('this'), u ('thae), yahaliaha ('these'), uyalla ('those'), ito ('this very'), uta ('that very'), indelende ('here'), uya ('there').

[section]2.5. Prepositions are ber ('on'), der ('in'), dim ('on'), pall ('by, near'), ru ('on, in'), vat ba ('with'), vase ('for'), ver(-e) ('at, by, near'), xode ('with').


[section]3.1. Stems. Past stems are either irregular, e.g., (pres.: past) vaj-: vat-('say'), or derivable from the present stem by adding the formant -a(d), e.g., res-: resad-('arrive'). Some verbs have both past stems, e.g., gir-: giret-/gird-('seize').

[section]3.2. The causative and the passive. (1) A causative stem is formed by suffixing -en-to an intransitive present stem: jus: jusad-(intr.), jugen-: ju.fena(d)-(trans.) ('boil'): intrans. jus-om ('I boil'), be-jusad-om ('I boiled'), trans.juifen-om ('I boil'), ba-m-ju.fenad ('I boiled' ). (2) An inflectional passive is formed with the formant assin-um viar-i-ad-e ('my sleeve is torn'), (EY) va:darz-i-ad ('was sewn'), har kar ekeran mase da:neband-i-u ('whatever I do the yogurt does not get firm'). (7)

[section]3.3. Preverbs. These are der-Idar-Ida:-, va-lva-, and ver-. The adverb ber ('our) functions also as a preverb. Preverbs usually modify the stem semantically, as in
  ker-: kerd-('do'), with vet--('open'), ber ('throw out')
  (y)a-: amed-('come'), with der--('come in'), bar -('come out')
  gir-: girit-('seize'), with der-Ida--('seize'), ver--('pick up')

[section]3.3.1. Preverbs function as modal prefixes in lieu of the non-durative prefix be-([section]3.4). However, at least for three stems, namely, pej-('cook'), pij-('twise), and biz-('sife), the preverb va-/va-occurs only in the present indicative to distinguish it from the subjunctive; for example, va-pej-om ('I cook') [no equal to] be-pej-om ('that I cook').

[section]3.3.2. The following preverbs occur with the following verb stems:

dar-: (y)a-: amed-('enter'), bend-: bass-('close; tie'), d-: dad-('give'), gir-: k-: ket-('fa11'), ni-: ni[section]t-('sie), vaz-: vazad-('lose'), xus-: xuss-('throw'), (h)-: bu(d)-('be in')

va-: espar-: esparad-('entruse), gard-: gardad-('return'), issad-('stand'), ker-: kerd-lka:d-('open'), mun-: mend-('stay'), nevis-: nevth-('write'), pers-: persad-('ask'), yuz-: fuss-('search' b-: bu(d)-('become')

ver-: darz-: dagt-Idarzad-('sew'), gir-: girit-Igira-('pick up')

bar: (y)a-: amed-('exit'), (y)ar-: ard-('bring out'), ker-: kerd-lka:d-('throw out')

[section]3.4. Modal affixes are be-and -e-, which differentiate between the non-durative and durative aspects respectively.

[section]3.4.1. be-normally appears in the imperative, subjunctive, preterit, and perfect (see Table 2).
Table 2. Verb Forms (1st pers. sg.)

                         Intransitive                 Transitive

             no preverb  with preverh   no preverb    with preverb
             'go' (8)    'fall'         'do'          'throw'

present      s-om        der-e-k-om     (e-)ker-om    der-e-xus-om

subjunctive  be-g-onm    dar-k-om       (be-)ker-om   der-xus-om

imperative   be-s-id     dar-k-e!       be-ke(r).!    ba-xus!

preterit     *           dar-ket-om     ba-m-ke       der-em-xuss
             * sud-om    dar-e-ket-om   * m-e-ke      der-em-e-xuss

perfect      * be-sude   * dar-kete     * ba-m-kerde  der-em-xusse
             hom         horn

pluperfect   * besude    darkete budom  * bamkerde    * derentxusse
             budom                      bu            bu

future       * kem-em    * kem-ern ket  * kem-em ke   * kem-em xuss

[section]3.4.2. The durative marker e-occurs before the stem (1) when the verb has a preverb or nominal complement: (imperfect intr.) der-e-ket-om. CI would fall'); (pres.) ber-e-ker-om CI send away'), ver-e-gir-om CI pick up'), der-e-d-om CI give'), bete-yar-om CI take out'), av,e-ker-om CI melt'), bang,e-bag-om CI shout'), tekun',e-xur-e ('you move'), yacle-gir-om CI learn'), maruz r-om CI propose'), llama harf i-vaj-im ('we talk'), (EY) eiv,e-xodin CI am drinking water'), ee keir,e-kere ('what are you doing?')--but is omitted occasionally: dard keru ('it aches'), gir yu Cis found'), (EY) daran vintin CI am seeing'); (2) in the imperfect transitive: m-e-gird CI would seize'),:fun-e-ker ('they would do'), sun-e-ber ('they would carry'), dar-m-e-bess CI would close'), ver-m-e-giro CI would pick up'), va-m-e-persa ('I would ask'). Note: EY found a total loss of the imperfect marker, as in dadan Sodan CI was going').

[section] The marker is omitted when the verb is freestanding--tanj-u ('he drinks')--and before and after vowels: vd-pers-om ('I ask'), peydd kerom ('I find'), girye keru ('he cries'), ez kid voje ('from where do you say [that]?'), akse keru ('he is sneezing'), xdhdr-i to xussu ('your sister is sleeping'), cegmhd Baru (It has eyes'), hama duty pa dei rim ('we have two feet'), daru meru (It is dying').

[section]3.5. Negation. The prohibitive marker is me-: meke ('do not!') The negative marker ne-suppresses be-and may absorb an adjoining durative marker. Examples are (present subjunctive) vd-ne-mun-u ('[one] may not be left'); (present indicative) ne-ddr-om ('I have not'), ni-mer-u (It dies not'), vele-ni-ker-u ('he doesn't let go'); (preterit) na-m-di ('I didn't see'), peydd-m ne-ke ('I didn't find'), mahalle-dun ne-na ('you didn't pay attention'), galled gun-ne-dard ('they had no evidence'), (YT) vel-eg ne-ka ('he didn't let go'); (imperfect) dun-ni-xu ('you [pl.] were not eating'), ni-d-e-xu ('you [sg.] were not eating'); (perfect) na-m-kerde ('I have not done'), dar-es-ne-girete ('it has not been seized'). [section]3.6. Personal endings consist of two sets, as listed in Table 1. Imperative endings are singular -e or zero and plural -id: be-pij ('twist thou!'), b-dr-e ('bring!'), vd-k-e ('open!'), bure ('come!'), (irregular) ba-rug-id ('sell ye!').

[section]3.6. I . Set I endings, -om (EY, HS -an), -e, -u, -im, -id, -en, are used in the present tense and the intransitive past (the third singular is zero in the past: ba-vedagt-[empty set] 'it passed').

[section]3.6.2. Set II endings, i.e., the enclitic pronouns ([section]2.2), are employed as agent markers in the transitive past.

[section] In the imperfect Set II is always prefixed to the durative marker: gun-e-ker ('they would do'), vd xu-gun gun-e-ber ('they were taking [them] with them'), tekun rn-e-xu ('I was moving'), dard .eke ('it was painful', lit. 'it pained'), nem& g-e-vd ye duvd ('he was saying prayers and running'), hemei ki ez Au biddr vdbu, g-e-zund ke xeiu ba-g-dide ('as soon as he woke up, he realized that he was dreaming'). (9)

[section] In the preterit and the perfect Set II often precedes the stem: ba-g-bdga ('he hit'), ba-g-xurde ('he has eaten'), xdu ba-g-dide ('he has dreamed'), eam ber mun ver-ed-dagt ('you cast lit. sewed--your eye at me') but occasionally assumes the word-initial position: [section]un-be-vdt ('they said'), sun-barde (they have broughe), (EY) mun-be-rit ('we poured'). (12)

[section] In the preterit and the perfect of compound verbs the enclitic usually moves to the nominal component: ber ru-i avi nigah-es ke ('she looked at his face'), afsus-es box& ke Gird pil-i siya-rd ez eeng-i nes reher4 diz' ('he regretted that he let the black money escape his hand'), yad-em girt,' CI learned'), yeid-em begirite bu CI had learned'), (YT): xcihe.f-es be-ka ('he requested'), kard ('he accepted'), dumen-a-a vel-es neka rhe didn't let go of his skirt'), dumen-a-a nid-S chide ('he has held onto his skirt').

[section] Set II may move from the verb to the preceding word: pur-es beza(ne)de ('she has given birth to a boy'), eiei-t boxurde ('what have you eaten?'), (YT) ayriz-es xund ('he was singing songs'), (EY) das-e doz-es-a da:bas ('he tied the hand of the thief'). As seen in these examples, the enclitic may move forward in the sentence, but never farther than the word immediately preceding the verb. Hence the tendency for fronting, as occurs in many other CPDs (see, i.a., Stilo 2003; 2008a), is relatively weak in Judeo-Kashani.

[section]3.7. Tenses. (1) Simple tenses are the present indicative and subjunctive, preterite, imperfect, and perfect, as shown in Table 2. (2) A future tense is formed with the present conjugation of the stem kern-followed by the past stem of the main verb: kern-irn gudIkerd ('we shall go/do'), kern-u vat ('he will say'). (3) The perfect tenses employ the past participle ([section]3.12.2). The present perfect and the pluperfect conjugate respectively with the present (optional) and past copula ([section]3.9.1): ya-gardlide homlbudom CI have/had returned'), ba-m-peskide olbu CI have/had cooked'). (4) Progressive forms can be built on the verb 'to have' ([section]3.10): dar-u ez veski mer-u ('he is dying of hunger'), (EY) dar-an yin-an CI am seeing'), (EY) dad-an godiin vajar ('I was going to the market').

[section]3.8. Transitivity. Like other CPDs, Judeo-Kashani has retained an ergative construction in the conjugation of transitive verbs in past tenses. This produces a profound difference between intransitive verbs, in which the endings ordinarily follow the stem, and transitive verbs, where the enclitic pronouns, or Set II "endings," appear before the stem to act as agent markers. The agent is optionally fronted to a word that precedes the verb ([section] The transitive conjugation governs when the verbal element is transitive but the compound verb is not, as in dard g-e-ke ('it pained'), tekun m-e-xu CI was moving').

[section]3.9. Be and become

[section]3.9.1. The substantive verb has the present stem h-or zero, the subjunctive stem b-, and the past stem bu(d)-. The copula is aspect insensitive, i.e., it takes no modal prefix (Table 3). Examples: viayunfn ('they are innocent'), bude horn CI have been'), mah ez esserrehd gurditeru, ez aftau vijikter hu ('the moon is larger than the stars, it is smaller than the sun'); neg.: nou('is not'), n-im ('we are not'), ne-bu ('was not').
Table 3. The Verb 'to he'

       Present (10)  Subjunctive  Preterit

Sg.1   (h)om, (h)an  bom          bu(d-o)m
2      (h)e          * be         bud-e
3      (h)u          bu           bud-im
P1. 1  (h)im         * bim        bud-id
2      (h)id         * bid        hud-id
3      (h)an         ban (11)     bud-en(d)

The copula is incorporated in the perfect tenses ([section]3.7.3) and in the subjunctive forms of 'to know': (YT) gunega zun ban keji ke az hame yel ha delda rtar o pahlevuntar bu, kiu ('they wished to know who was the most courageous and athletic among them all').

[section]3.9.2. The locative verb may be expressed with the preverb/preposition dar-: der-u ('he is in'), der-an ('they are in'), dar-n-e ('you are not in'); but der agyune avi tuxmha-i espid hu ('in its nest there are white eggs').

[section]3.9.3. 'Become' is based on the present stem b-and past stem bu(d)-, normally with the preverb va-. Most passive forms are built with 'become' (cf. the inflectional passive, [section]3.2.2). Examples: be-b-id ('become ye!'), va-b-an ('they become'), va-ne-bu ('he doesn't become'), va-bud-om became'), va-(ne-)bu ('he became (not)'); pa bi ('stand up!'), pa b-om CI stand up'), pa bud-om CI stood up'), pa bude bud-om CI had stood up'), zeide vabu ('he was born'), amuxte va-b-om ('that I learn'), amuxte va-bude bud-om CI had learned').

[section]3.10. dar-: da(r)d-('have'). The past transitive endings may follow the stem: dard-eg ('he had'); cf. fronted gahed gun-ne-dard ('they had no witness'), YT nia-g dade (le has held'). 'To have' is used as an auxiliary verb in the progressive tenses ([section]3.7.4).

[section]3.11. The modal gu: ga ('want; must') is conjugated with the enclitic pronouns as agents in all tenses: pres. m-e-gu, d-e-gu, mun-e-gu, dun-e-gu, gun-e-gu, past m-e-ez (cf. EY m-e-ga) and ba-m-ga, etc. Examples: tiff-ra ne-m-e-gu CI do not want the child'), dil-e mun g-e-gu Oily heart desires'), veee ne-g-e-gu bemoku ('the child does not want to suck'), ba-rn-ga avi-ra aziyet kerom CI wanted to upset him'), insaf gun-e-ga ('they wanted justice'), YT gunega zun-ban ('they wished to know'), YT vaxtike gega biu bar ('when he wanted to come out'). 'Must' is expressed in a sole example with the modal be-: mun-be-gu bekerim we should do').

[section]3.12. Verbal nouns. (1) The infinitive marker -an is added to the past stem preceded by the preverb (if any): did-en ('to see'), da-it-an ('to seize'), HS ka:d-an ('to do'), god-an ('to go'), herut-an ('to sell'), da:-ket-an ('to fall'). (2) The past participle consists of the verbal prefix, the past stem, and the suffix -e, e.g., (YT) be-god-e ('gone'), vd-garda d-e ('returned'), as is employed in the perfect tenses ([section]3.7.3).


The affinity of Judeo-Kashani to and its position within the Northwest family of Iranian languages can be seen in the following characteristic sound changes, which also illustrate the mixed nature of the dialect in certain developments.

[section]D1. PIE stkpicr) > proto-Ir. * ts/dz > z: zun-('know') (cf. Av. zan-, OP dan-), zumad ('son-in-law'). A counter-example might be gord ('big') (< * yard < * vardak < SWIr. * vadraka-, cf. NWIr. * vazraka- (13)).

[section]D2. PIE * Rwrgw > OIr. sp/zb, SWIr. s/z: esbe ('dog') (cf. Median spaka-), espid ('white'); the status of zevun ('tongue') is unclear (for CPD forms, see Krahnke, 151-52).

[section]D3. OIr. * Or (> OP 9 > MP s) > NWIr. hr > r: pur ('son'), avir ('pregnane).

[section]D4. OIr. * dw-> b: ber ('doof ), abe ('again, other'), also bedin ('other').

[section]D5. (1) OIr. * y-> y (cf. MP j-) yeda ('separate'), cf. Pth. yuS, MP jud(a g) ('separate') < * yuta-, "lyaw-. (2) OIr. * wy-> y: ya ('place') (cf. Pth. wyag, MP gyil g), kia ('where') (< * ku-ya), vd-yuz-('search').

[section]D6. PIE * g(w)(h) < OIr. * j-< j (cf. MP z-): jan ('woman, wife'), jande ('alive').

[section]D7. PIE * k(w) < OIr. * -6-< j (cf. MP z): ruj ('day'), suj-('burn') (> 4saue), pej-cook, vaj-('say') (> Vwae), taje ('fresh'), tafiune ('whip'), vajar ('markee), tej ('sharp') (te-idem--therefore must be a loanword), and probably larj-('shiver'). Thus biz-('sift') must be a loanword for the lost native * vej-(see also [section]D1 1).

[section]D8. OIr. * xr-, * fr-(via * hr) are partially intact: xarin-: eri-('buy'), nth-: (e)rut-('sell' > * fra-4waxg, 'grow'). Medial * -fr-is retained in vafr ('snow').

[section]D9. OIr. * -xt-, * -ft-< t. (1) * xt: dut edaughten, rut-('sell'), sut-('burn'), vat-('say'), rit-('pour'); hence, pux-('cook'), bixt-('sife), and arnuxte (learned') must be loanwords. (2) The data demonstrating the reduction of * ft are limited to ket-(Ian') and probably gi(ri) t-('seize') (>? \lgrab). [section]D9.1. OIr. * xm remains in tuxm ('egg').

[section]D10. OIL * hw-is reduced to x or h: xu-('self), xin ('blood'), baxasil ('father-in-law') (> billy + OIr. * xwasura-aka-> PIE * swekuro-), xau, xuss-('sleep') (< 4hwap), xus-: xuss-('throw') (> inchoative stem of * hwah-'strike, thresh'; [inch., intr.] 'become tired'; Cheung, 141-43).i

[section]D11. MWIr. * w-remains: vad ('wind'), vafr ('snow'), vajar ('market'), varun ('rain'), vece ('child'), ved ('bad'), vehter ('bettee), ver ('at, by, near'), veski ('so much'), veski ('hunger'), vi-('without' ), viss ('twenty'), vigter ('more'), vive ('widow'), vaj-: vat-('say'), vaz-('lose'), vedaft-('pass'), vine ('see').

[section]D12. MWIr. final and medial * d is preserved systematically: espid ('white'), ved ('bad'), vad ('wind'), zumad ('son-in-law'), zid ('quickly'), bidar ('awake'), vedaft-('pass'), yeti& ('separate'), erit-('buy'), did-('see'), gud-('go'), -id (verb ending 2nd pl.), -ad-(past stem marker); but marlmane ('mother'). Note also xuza ('God'), which must, in its solitude, be a loan from Judeo-Isfahani xozalxo8a (> xuda).

[section]D13. Old labials in positions other than initial are absorbed into adjacent vowels, yield-ing diphthongs: au ('water'), xau ('sleep'), aftau ('sun')--the same strong root, * tap-, is also found in tav-('twise); [section]autfev ('nighe), kau.f ('shoe'); also sauz ('green'), saur ('patience') (> Arabic-Pers. sabr), maktaudar ('school principal'). Also a vir ('pregnane) (> * a-puOra-), vase ('for') (cf. MP abayistan).

[section]D14. Vowels. Fronting of the back vowels is a norm, with the following occurrences: kia (NP kuja) ('where'), kin-arenj ('elbow'), mi ('hair'), pesade ('decayed'), pil ('money'), pur (EY pir) ('son'), pis ('skin'), ri ('face')--also in abed ('dignity') but ru ('on')--gi/ su ('husband'), the ('poppy), xeb ('good'), xin ('blood3), xinia (see [section]D15.1) ('source of a qanat'), xirde ('bit'), zid ('quickly');--(in the second syllable) ambin (> ambun > Pers. anban) ('sack'), angi[section]t ('finger'), avir ('pregnant'), baxasil ('father-in-law'), bazi ('arm'), engi (> en gonak?) ('such'), pali ('near'), tenir ('oven');--(in Arabic words) orisi ('wed-ding'), qabil ('accept'), siret ('register') (> face).

However, in many words the back vowels are not fronted: du ('two'), dud ('smoke'), dut ('daughter'), gurd ebiggen, gurg ('wolf'), kur ('blind'), ruj ('day'), to ('you'), u ('thar), xuza ('god'), zevun ('tongue'), zumad ('son-in-law');--(verbal stems) duv-('run'), gu-('wanr) cf. Pth. gw'nyg ('needed, desired'), jug-('boil'), kub-: kuft-('pound'), pus-('wear': rut-('sell'),: stud-('go'), suj-: sut-('burn'), xun-: xund-('read'), yuz-: fuss-('search' zun-('know').

[section]D15. Some words

(1) sipak or sipak xinia is glossed by YT as payab-e kariz; jay-i az kariz ke ba pella ba daxel-e an miravand o az On ab barmidarand ('the exit of a subterranean irrigation channel [Pers. kariz, qanat], where people enter through a stairway to draw water from it'). The word sipak was also used in the Persian variety of Kashan for public lavatories, especially the long staircase leading to its chamber underground; the word is said to consist of si ('thirty') and pak ('stair'), to convey the meaning 'having many stairs' (cittefi, 60). Consequently, if sipak is the stairway, xiniti must pertain to the mouth of the qanat. (14) The word may be broken down into xin (< xun < xun < xon < xon < xAn 'source') and nid, which might be related to Kupayi nira (lit. 'down-road') ('stairway leading to the outlet of a qanat') (Borjian 2011), or simply rah ('road, way'). xinid may alternatively be the plural form of S ('spring, well'), for a qanat consists of a series of ventilation shafts leading from the ground level to the horizontal conduit tunnel.

(2) tanj-('drink'), also found in the Jewish dialect of Isfahan (personal notes) and Judeo-Persian tnjdn ('to drink'; Lazard, 53).

(3) xode ('with') probably consists of the adpositions xo and de found in other CPDs.

(4) Note the past formant -ad (Pth. -CO), past stem dard-(Pth. Bird-) ('have'), present stem ker-('do').

(5) Hebrew words include ovan ('sin'), from Hebrew 'awon (15) solami well-being'); melax-e hamovet (Angel of Death'), found also in Judeo-Isfahani as melax movat (Ebrahimi, 40), from [??] (cf. Arabic malak al-mawt).

Text 1

1 xudo nimeru   God does
                not die.

2 odem xaile    Man lives
umr nikeru      not very

3 mor           A mother
farzend-1       loves her
xus-ro dust     child.

4 der peston-i  There is
Ort sir xaile   much milk
hu              in her

5 su-s ovi-ro   Her
dust doru       husband

6 i jan homile  This woman
bu              was

7 ses ruj hu    It is six
ke pur-es       da s
bezo(no)de      since she
                has iven
                birth to
                a boy

8 ovi hanuz     She is
bimor hu        still

9 dut-es ver    Her
ovi niste       daughter
girye keru      is
                next to

10 vece nesegu  The child
bemoku          does not
                want to

11 dutie (17)   The girl
hanuz nezunu    cannot
reh besu        walk yet.

12 ovi yek sol  She was
ve du moh pis   born one
ez ita zo'ide   year and
vobu(18)        two

13 i cehor      These four
purho heme      boys are
tendurusten     all in

14 evvel dovu,  The first
dovum jehu,     [one]
sevum xunu,     runs, the
ceorum xandu    second
                the third

15 evi merde    the fourth
kuru            laughs.
                This man
                is blind.

16 jan-i evi    His wife
karu            is deaf.

17 niasno'u ke  She does
homo harf       not hear
ivojim/ibogim   that we

18 beror-i tu   Your
akse keru       brother

19 xohor-i tu   Your
xussu (19)      sister

20 pier-i semo  Your
bidoru          father is
21 evi kam       He eats little,
    xuru, ou     drinks little
    hem kam      water as well.

22 demog der     The nose is in
    meyon-i ru   the middle of
    deru         the face.

23 homo duto     We have two
    po dorim,    feet, we have
    de her       five fingers on
    dess-imun    each of our
    penj         hands.

24 miho ber      Hairs grow on
    ser buzurg   the head.

25 zevun ve      The tongue and
    dandunho     teeth are in
    der dohonu   the mouth.

26 bozi-i rost   The right arm is
    ez bozi-i    stronger than
    cap          the left arm.

27 mi diroz ve   Hair is long and
    boriku       thin.

28 xin surxu     Blood is red.

29 ustuxun       Bones are hard,
    siftu,       like stone.

30 mohi cesmho   A fish has e es
    doru, gus    it has no ears.

31 i murge       This bird flies
    osse peru    slowly

32 ru zemin      It sits on the
    dereniu      'round.

33 der bol-i     In its wing it
    xu-s         has black
    perho-i      feathers.
    siyo doru

34 diraxt        The tree has
    barg-i       Tree n leaves
    sauz ve      and bh!
    soxo-i       branches.

35 i murg        This bird has a
    nuk-i tez    shL ) beak and
    ve dum-i     a short tail.
    kuto doru

36 der osyune    In her nest
    ovi          there are white
    tuxmho-i     eggs
    espid hu

37 otes suju,    The fire burns,
    dud u sule   and I see smoke
    u zugol      and blaze and
    vinom        coal.

38 ou der        The water flows
    rudxone      swiftly in the
    zud su       river.

39 moh ez        The moon is
    essoreho     larger than the
    gurditer     stars; it is
    u; ez        smaller than
    oftou        the sun

40 perisev       It rained two
    vorun bame   nights ago.

41 oruj suhb     This morning I
    (22)         saw the
    kastou-ro    rainbow.
    men bedi

42 sau torik     The ni Tht is
    u, ruj       dark, the da is
    rousen u     bri h

43 homo          We speak
    vilayeti     Velayati
    harf         ("Provincial").

44 semo          Do you know
    vilayeti     Veldyati or
    zunid yo     not?

Text II

1. dil-e 'nun gegd ke dust-i mun biyd. xdile vault ndmdide. dil-e mun said.

2. labizo-i Oyi-ro badsom. egerc'e dim-es fro gurg bet, Ovi-rd WO? mat

3. dent-i Ovi-rd ddirom ye bieeldnom. egeree mdr-i der enguaft-i ovi hu, mogire ye meceldna.

4. yod-ro vojom ke dil-e mun u jeviin-ro .'segift vod-ro aql nou, ke jeydn-rd bdvoju heree dil-e mun

My heart desires that my friend come. I have not seen her for a long time. My heart breaks (lit. burns).

I may kiss her lips. Even if her mouth were with [sic] wolf's blood, I would kiss her.

May I grab her hand and squeeze [it]. Even if there were a snake on her finger, I would [still] grab and squeeze [it].

I tell the wind that my heart wants that young person. The wind has no intelligence, so it tells the young man whatever my heart desires.

Text III

1.sunborde ke ez oIem-i vaanpersO ke egir der sahro ber ser-i eame-i beresim we gusl kemi'm ke (miinbegii bekerim), (23) dim-e xamcm-ro be kudam taraf kerim? olem bavOt, dim-i xudun-ro be raxtehO-I (24) xfullin kerid, ke duzd nibera.

2. sunborde, i nefer ver-e tabib bag bavOt, mun xdiM dard ikerite. vagperse, cici-t boxibde? beiniet, nun-i sate. tabib be guleim be'sgve, huqqi dorai eegm-ro bare! merdekii have), mu-ra gikem-em dard ikerii,25 dorai eegm ee mani dord? tabib beigvo, eger to-r5 eegm rousan vobu, sate-rO

3. sunbolt-de ke jam'-i be duo-i voran Sudan ye aUol-i mektebha-Sun-rd vo xilian giineber. zerif-i voegperso ke i veee-ro be kiyo bend? ganbevot, to duo kerin voran biya, Jiro ke iyoho vievamn we duo-i iyoho zid mustejob vobd. zerif (26) bcigvot, egir duo-i veeeho mustejob xaka ye nefer maktaudor ra zemin vOndmanii.

4. gunborde ke merd-i zigtru jan-i xdile qagang docrdeg. (27) raj-i jan-i bcigvot, yaqtetz zanom ke mun u tEl her du behigt kemim ga. jan bcifvo1, ez kiyo vojec? bcilvot, ez ki to saret-i zigt-i mu-ro vine, saur kere, we tnun saret-i qagang-i to-ro vin6m ye gukr kerom. pes yo-i ayohe-i ki saur we gukt-keren der behigt ha.

5. gunbdrde ke merd-i zigtru-i raj-i ber ser-i vtojor vo'issede ba. jan-i pig biteme ye ber rui ovi nigoh-eg ke. honer ki nigoh-i ovi ez hadd bevedagt, merd vogperso. ei jan! ci manzar dori ye eegm ber mun vereddagt, tez her ru mun nigoh kere? jan bagvOt, cesm-i mun oven-e xaile bagki. bamgo ovi-rto aziyyet kerom be a ki vedter ez uto nibu. her Ji vedter ez ato ndmdi ki be ru-i tEl nigoh kerom.

6. ganborde ke gaxs-i ez veski xasis ba, kaug-i nou bdgerit be rOh-i su. hem& ki be yei bdreso ke xor u seng xciile bu, kaug-ro ez po-i xag bdr-eg ke (bdigkend) we be ddmen bagpfeco. ittifOci xor-i be po-i ovi bail, ke ez yo-i bedin ser biran-d ke. bcigvot, xuzifyo gukr, ki kaus ber peo-m naba, ve-illo sarex

7. sunborde ke kar-i sego ki be diden-i bimor bacc. be dil-i xiss ke ke snm ye veopersom ke, sumo cetoura? albette kema vet, xuzeyeo gukr. bad vapersom ke, gaze eiei xare? yactim yoja ke, Rirvo. mun vejom, nag-i on! ye bad vopersom ke hakim-i Sumo ke ha? albette void, mirza felon. Yojom, xuze qadam-d-ro muborek kern'. ean an merd kar eandan nta.fnuft, jevab-i suol-ro ber dil-i xaf mew meld.

to bame her ser-i balin-i bimor ddni.ft, vaiperso ke ei-kor kertd ye ahvol-i hone) eetour ha? bimor ba.fvot, merom. kar bcigyot, xuzelye gukr! abe voifperso, gaZodan eiei bade? bimor bcifvot, zahr-i mcor. kar bagyot, naf-i jan-edan! abe billpersco ke tabib-i sumo ke ha? bci. syot, melix-e hamovet. kar Whet, xuzo qadameg-ro muhorek kern. ito-ro bagyet ye pa ha.

8. gunbcirde ke SaXS-i bo dass-es bei.Not, mien dard kera, ee keronz? ba.Not, mun hem porsol dandan-ern dard geki, beimkend ye xilos vobadom.

9. gunborde azangai nemaz, feyo ye duvo. va.sanpersco ke eiro duve? bavot, vojdn ke oyoz-i mun ez dar xeb,a. duvom to ovoz-i xam-ro ez dar banevom.

10. sunhorde ke dahqon-i der 1o10hon her-i ser6i Xoje Sahibdivon ball yo xojeseroyon bayot, xbje-ro bevelid ke xuzif bar nike vo to kcor doru. xojesere baa bcfgvat. xtije be ihzor-i ovi isore-s

hemei ki delthl vobu, xoje balfermono, to tu xyzo[??]e? bcavo, or vogpersco, eetou xuzo e? basvo. pis ez ito dihro xuzo badom oe bogre xuzo ',adorn ye sere-ro xuzd Worn. navvob-i gums be-zulm uyoho-ro ez mun ciardgiret--xuzo yedell be mun vomend. pes xoje be harf-i ovi bexando ye he'rei ez ovi ba.fgirite ha pes-d do ye 12oz katxudo veba.

11. vojdnd, .faxs-i be xou &WI ki be ovi pil-i soy) deredend ye oW der daitan ikroh-d bu. pil-i tele-ye nuqre xohis Sae. hemei ki ez xou bider yoba, .fezand ke xou badide. pdimon valid ke eiro pil-i siyo-ro derdnegirete. dabore xlig-ro be xtiu zemin-d no (= he xavi babtogo, eagmho-i xa.f-re be hem zemin-d no. (29) dast-d-ro diroz-d ke ke be hamin pil-i siyo rdzi horn, derdid! here(xeMitft-es beke, nabaxgo. xdile xdile afsas-d box& ke eiro pil-i siyo-ro ez eeng-i xus rehos do

12. du jdni der vecte-i davo Bunker. tohid ganneder. her duto-San ver-e gozi baudend ve insof ganega. gozi mirgazab-ro bdgtalabo ve bcifferneno ke i tiff-ro (30) du take ke ye her du jan ddrde! jan-i can i harf-ro baanuft, xomai vamend ye jan-i bedin .rsar u feryod bcfs'ke ke hero xuzo mu-ra du nim maker. egetin jar insof ha, tiff-ro nemega. gozi yaqi:n bciSzane, moder-i tifl heminfi. tiff-ro be ovi vafesporo ye jan-i bedin-ro toziyane-sun bebogo, bepaiin ke.

It has been said (lit. they have said) that a scholar was asked, "If in a desert we arrive at a spring and we desire to perform our ablutions, which direction should we face?" The scholar said, "'Turn your head toward your clothes, so that a thief may not take [them away]."

It has been said: A person went to a physician and said, "My stomach is aching very much." [The doctor] asked, "What have you eaten?" He said, "[Some] burned bread." The physician told his page, "Bring the box of eye medicine." The fellow said, "My stomach is in pain; what do you mean by eye medicine?" The physician said, "If your eye had any sight, you wouldn't eat the burned bread."

It has been said that a group [of people] were going to pray for rain and were taking the school children along. A clever person asked, "Where are you taking these children?" They said, "To pray for rain, for these children are innocent and their prayers will be rewarded quickly." The clever person said, "If the children's prayers were to come true, not one school teacher would remain on earth."

It has been said that an ugly man once had a very pretty wife. One day he told his wife, "I am sure that you and I will both go to Heaven." The woman said, "How do you know?" He said, "For the reason that you see my ugly face and stay patient, and I see your pretty face and am thankful. The place of those who are patient and thankful is in paradise."

It has been said that an ugly man was standing at a market one day. A woman came forward and looked at his face. As she looked a bit too long, the man asked, "0 woman, what do you have in mind in casting your eye at me and looking so sharply at my face?" The woman said, "My eye has committed a terrible sin. I wanted to punish it with something as terrible, and I saw nothing worse than staring at your face."

It has been said that a person was very28 stingy; he [had] bought new shoes and was walking along a road. As soon as he reached a place with lots of thorny bushes and stones, he took the shoes off his feet and wrapped [them] in his skirt. It so happened that a thorn penetrated his foot [so deeply] that it showed from the other side (lit. place) [of the foot]. He said, "Thank God the shoe was not on my foot; else it would have been pierced."

It has been said that a deaf man wanted to visit a patient. In his mind he imagined it thus: I shall go and ask, "How are you?" Surely he will say, "Thanks be to God." Then I shall ask, "What do you eat?" Surely he will say, "Soup." I shall say, "Enjoy your meal!" Then I shall ask, "Who is your doctor?" Surely he will say, "Mirza so-and-so." I shall say, "May God make his arrival lucky." Because that man was deaf his ears could not hear much [sic]; he was rehearsing the answers to the [likely] questions in his memory (lit. heart).

As soon as he came and sat down by the patient's bed, he asked, "How are you doing and how is your health?" The patient said, "I am dying." The deaf man said, "Thanks be to God!" Again he asked, "What has your food been?" The patient said, "Snake venom." The deaf man said, "Enjoy your meal!" He asked again, "Who is your doctor?" He said, "The Angel of Death." The deaf man said, "May God make his arrival lucky." He said it and got up.

It has been said that a person said to his friend, "My eye is sore, what should I do?" [His friend] said, "I understand. Last year I had toothache; I pulled it and felt relieved."

It has been said: A muezzin was saying prayers and running. He was asked, "Why are you running?" He said, "They say that my voice is pleasant from afar. I am running so that I hear my own voice in the distance."

It has been said that a lord (dehqan) in Isfahan went to the door of the house of Khwaja Sahebdivan. He told the servants, "Tell Khwaja that the Lord is sitting outside [and] wishes to see you." [A] servant went and did so. Khwaja wanted him to be brought to his presence. As soon as he came in, Khwitja commanded, "Are you the Lord?" "Yes," he said. "How are you the Lord?" he asked. "Before this," he said, "I was the lord of the village and the lord of the garden and the lord of the mansion. Your deputy confiscated these from me by force--'Lord' was all that was left to me." Then KhwiIja laughed and gave him back everything he had taken from him. He then became an overlord again.

It is said: A man dreamed that he was given (lit. they are giving him) [some] copper coins but was reluctant to take [them]. He was asking for gold and silver coins. As soon as he woke up he realized that he had been dreaming (lit. has dreamed). He regretted that he had (lit. has) not taken the money. Then he closed his eyes, pretending to sleep. He stretched out his hand, [saying,] "I am happy with this very copper coin; give [it]!" No matter how he begged, it was no use. He regretted very much that he [had] let the cash escape his hand.

Two women were fighting over a child. They had no witness. They both went to the judge and asked for justice. The judge called for the executioner and commanded, "Split this child in two halves and give [one half] to each woman." One of the women (lit. a woman) remained silent as she heard the talk, and the other woman began lamenting and cried out, "For God's sake, don't cut my child in two halves. If this is justice, I don't want the child." The judge learned for sure that this one was (lit. is) the child's mother. He entrusted her with the child, and they whipped the other woman and dismissed her.

Text IV

1. axevi giram, o (31) Rebbi-ro maraz edorsam. evvelo, selomet bid. soniyo her-go juyo bebid ez lull, selometi-i ye diger koglz-i selemeti-i gemo bireso. xic.fhol vobudom. insoollo semo xuaho1 ye setfirez [den her du jihon bid.

2. bobet-i pil umid &tom viss taman bereit-ro ddredundode ha. umid jinseho dunbdrute ha. tevaffuh bakerid, her ee vomende boiralid. bozjins-i xeb-i peido bekerom, jand-edan resenim. hol ito bdste be tavassut-i Mullo Solum dciirit. siret-a ez in qararfi. ...(32)

3. be jan-i ifemo, yoho ziyodter lemur: fbade. mun mulohize-i 3.-emo bamke. bc3z eger fedi' icedun be-resell& viss si tiiman ez yoho xarinom, resinom vase-i gem& zid 10-rd bdriesid. fins-i xeb-1 hem peido vonebapeido vobu, xarinom.

4. ye diger, axevi jan, jihet-i /case mis Ye douri ye qadak, resenom jihet-i mist that-jam bid! xohtf darom, mutuvaffih bid, zidi xurderizo-ra barusid.

5. boz mun pey-i jins km. ei xeb-i gir ya, be her hol pil diredom, xarinom. jdni in mousem haeee peido vonebu. veli to have' xeb yobii, jins-i hasabi xarinom, resenom.

6. hame hefte du kelime kagez mun-ro yod kerid. arz-e selorn-i mun be per-edan biresenid. mutevajjeh per-earn hid, egeree Icszim nou ki mu vonevisom jihat-e Semo. be herhol, (to kor-i bekerid ki per-ediin ez sumo rozi bu. per ki ez genre, rozi ha, xuzo ez Semo rozi u. hol ziyeidef her in arz-i nedarom geir ez selemeti-i gerna

Dear brother, Mr. Rabbi, to whom I am reporting. First of all, may you be flourishing. Then, should you kindly be inquiring, I am well. And then, the letter [informing me] of your well-being was received. I became happy. God willing, may you be happy and glorious in both worlds.

As to the money, I should only hope that you have paid the twenty-tuman commission. I hope you have (lit. had) sold the merchandise. Be careful to sell whatever is left over. Should I find good commodities, I shall send [them] over to you. Now you should receive two boxes via Mulla Shalom. Here is the inventory. ...

I swear to your soul that these are worth more. I made an exception for you. If you sell [them] all again, I shall buy some 20-30 tuman worth of these and shall send ]them] over to you. You [should] sell these quickly. No fine merchandise was found--should any become available, I shall purchase it.

And more, my dear brother, for the copper bowl(s) and plate(s) and basin(s), I shall send [them] for the wedding ceremony. Have no doubt. I beg you to be aware that you [should] sell the smaller pieces quickly.

I shall go after merchandise again. If something fine comes available (lit. into my grip) I shall give the money and purchase [it] no matter what. Of women(?) this season nothing can be found. But by the time the weather turns fine, I shall buy and send some valuable goods.

Every week think of me [by sending me a] letter of a few words. Convey my regards to your father. Look after your father, though it is not necessary for me to write [this] to you. At any rate, do something that will make your father content with you. Should Father be satisfied with you, so too is God. Now I have nothing more to state but [the hope for] your well-being.

Text V

1. evvelo arz vobii be xidmet-i: semo: sand post b11ss koqiz diremda, gemn Wee mahall-eddn nena mun ke .vilof-i be xidmet-i aemo ndmkerde; nezdnom sebeb-i kem-iltifati-i Sem[degrees] be mun

hol mun Inde cear muattal-i pil-om. semo itto xtrde pil vase mun beresenid. ki mun ito sevi vase veto verdarwm. erviih-i mane, it?) Myr ten-i veeo derii misl-i mulammo.

2. hol-ro--rizo-i xuder--eger xtidun pil nedorid, bard ver-e boxosil-em. he feee nevojid ke mun kergez vase gaze deremdede. bevelid be boxasil-ern: i nefer bedin vase mun voSnevate ha ki ziintod-ediin tiara ez ve.fki;nerd. veeeho-.s luxcen.

3. hol semo hef-es' tiiman pil derdid. mun beresenom jihet-i zamod-ediEn ki xeili oni ha. heeee be besot-eSl nou. to ito bdrre beiferirte,so bd.fxitrde. eger gurno halo be evi rahm nekerfd, ke bekeru? S'urnj qoul dirdid ke diredid, mun baom. mun to jancle,om ye jandegdni tthrom, duogfr-i Sono horn.

4. ziyode ber in arz-i nedarom. intizer-i kiigez-i gemo hom, to beinom edi vocifinneviste. toze krihne, ki qebil-i arz ha neilarom--geir ez 1o1Rtni-i

First, it must be brought to your attention: Several letters I have mailed to you, [but] you have paid no attention. Since I have done you no misdeed, I don't know what the reason for your ignoring me is.

Now, here I am waiting for money. You [should] send some money to me, so that I may sew a shirt for the children. [I swear] to the soul of Mother, the shirt[s] covering the children's bodies are like rags.

Now, for God's sake, if you have no money yourself, go to my father-in-law. Say nothing that [may suggest] I have sent (lit. given) a letter to you. Tell my father-in-law: Someone else has (lit. had) written to me that your son-in-law is dying from hunger. His children are naked.

Now, give [some] seven-eight tumans. I shall deliver it to your son-in-law: it is very urgent. Nothing is in his possession. Up until now he has sold a lamb and has eaten (i.e., he spent the money to feed his family). If you have no mercy on him now, who will? Give your promise that you will give [the money, then] I shall go. As long as I am alive and I have a life, I shall be praying for you.

I have no more statements to make. I look forward to your letter and to seeing what you [will] have written. New or old--something worthy of saying--I have none, save [the wish for] your well-being.

Text VI: Sipak xinia (35)

1. ita ruj jevund-ye &nun gunegd zun-ban keji ke az hame ydhd deiddrtar o pahlevuntar ki[??]u

2. berd i kdr jam gardddan. ifunbevii, har keji ke baju az hame delirtar o xeby, itcl tarik beSu ru itd sipak-e xayle xayle god-i, ita mix-e tevile jer-e pelleha hekubu, itd satl-e ow haM baru bald.

3. it'd jevun-e xayle gord kad ke begu i kare-ra bekeru biu. ita law hame jevona bamedaniblimedan begodan. ovie pahlevun-e hiz'ma ham bar) je.

4. vaxtike mixe-ra gekufa, xode bang-e baland avaz-el xund. amok vaxtike legs biu bar, beldid ke ita keji dumen-es-a nia-g dade o vele nikeru. (37) hace xaheg-es beka oy (38) dumen-eg-a vel-es neka.

5. pahlevun-e hamli ham az tars az-hal be.go. vaxtie i swat bedin dus-as xode eereiyig begodan ru sipak, gunbedid ke oy-i (39) ke oy (40)begkufte dim duman-e xo-g o az hal begode.

One day the youth of Kashan wished to know who was the most courageous and athletic among them.

For this reason they got together and said, "Whoever claims he is the bravest and best of all must go into a very big (deep?) qanat outlet in the dark of night, and he should hammer a big nail under the stairway and bring up a bucket of water as well."

A very hardy (36) young man accepted to perform this task and return. One night all the young men came [together] and went there. Our hero then descended.

While he was pounding the nail he sang in a loud voice. But when he attempted to come out, he saw that someone had (lit. has) held onto his skirt and wouldn't let go. Whatever he requested, he didn't let go of his skin.

Our hero then fainted from fear. When an hour later his friends went into the qanat with a light, they saw that he had (lit. has) nailed down his own skirt and passed out.

Text VII

1. iiv exoran

2. daran vinan

3. ce kar ekere?

4. to mon dadan lodan vajar

5. das-e doz-es-a da:bas

6. har kiir ekeran mase da:nebandiu

I am drinking water.

I am seeing.

What are you doing?

As I was going to the market.

He tied the thief's hands.

Whatever I do, the yogurt does not get firm.


abe again, other

dberi dignity

aft an sun

akse, adise sneeze

ambin sack

angist finger

art flour

aruj today

au (YT ow) water

d'wrt (Pers. axund) mulla

dvi (YT ovi, oy) (pron.) he, she, that

avir pregnant

avun sin--viavun sinless, innocent

bahaje grandfather

balg, barg leaf

barre lamb

bdxdsil father-in-law

bdzi arm

bedin other, next

beh&r spring

belile (Pers. aftaba) ewer

for (EY bar) door

her, bar (adv.) out. outside

her (prep.) on

berar brother

bibi grandmother

bidar awake

cesm, casm eye

ci thing

cisi, cici what

culm nasal mucus, snot

dan, dohan mouth

der (prep.) in

dess/dest hand

dim face

dim (YT) (prep.) on

dux (EY dot) daughter

duti girl (in dutie the girl)

du, diita two

emseu tonight

engi such, this way

esbe (EY) dog

espid white

essare star

evi (pron.) he; this (masculine)

gildu socks

girye weep

go(r)d (YT) big, powerful; gurditer


guhe cat

gurg wolf

hama (pron.) we

i (pron.) this

idha, yaha (pron.) these, they

(nde, ende (adv.) here

ltd (pron.) this (very); up to now

it& (YT) one

jan (EY jen) woman

jandam hell

jande alive

jandeguni life

je(r) (YT) under, below

kastou rainbow

kaus shoe

keji (YT) one, someone

kelij small finger

kcrk hen

kid (adv.) where

kindrenj elbow

kur blind

larj tremble (in tabe-larj high fever)

mar, mane mother

mekari muleteer

mi hair

mu(n), men (pron.) I--mu(n)ra

(accusative form)

nia (YT) look

orisi wedding

ovi, oy * avi

pali (prep.) by. near

periruj day before yesterday

perisev night before last

pesade (p.p.) decayed

pier, per father

pile eyelid

pis skin

pisuj lantern

pur (EY, HS pir) son

reh way, road

ri face

ru (prep.) on, in

ruj day

saur patience

sauz green

sek dog

sid black

sipak (YT) stairway of a qanat

suhb morning

sau, sev night

semcL suma (pron.) you

Sevi shirt

Si, Sit husband

solum! well-being

taje fresh

tajiune whip

te bottom

tej, tez sharp

tenir oven

tile sek poppy

tu (pron.) you

u (pron.) that

uta (pron.) that very

uya (adv.) there

uyaha (pron.) those, they

va, ba (prep.) with

vad wind

vafr snow

vajar market

varun rain

vase (prep.) for

vcce child

ved bad

vehter better

vejik, vijik small

ver(-e) (prep.) at, by, near

verahne naked

veski (adv.) so much

veski hunger

vi- without (* avun)

viss twenty

vister more

vive widow

x&h&r, xar sister

xdu sleep

xeb good

xin blood

xinid outlet of a subterranean canal


xirde bit

xode (YT) (prep.) with

xu-(YT xo-)self

xuza God

yd place

ydha * iaha

ye(jfc) one

yeda separate

zevun tongue

zid fast

zumdd groom


(y)a-: timed-(v.i.) come--bure!; bi-a-m, biu that 1, he come; yam, ye, yu I, you, he come(s); b-amed-om I came, bame he came (irreg.), YT balamed-an they came; amed-om I was coming; b-amede bum I had come II der--enter--der-amu (41) he came in II bar -exit--bar yam I come out, YT gegh biu bar he wanted to come out

(y)ar-: ard-(v.t.) bring--b-ar-om that I bring; dr-om I bring; YT b-ar-u that he bring; ba-m-ard I brought; m-e-ard I would bring; ba-m-arde I have brought, .fun-b-arde they have brought; ba-m-arde bu I had brought II her--berf-yar-om I take out

asnou-: afnoft-(v.t.) hear--be-anev-om that I hear; ni-a.fnou-u he hears not; be--afnoft he heard; ni-anuft he didn't hear

b-: bu(d)-II (vci--) become [right arrow] [section]3.9.3

bag-: belga-(v.t.) hit--banglbehem,e-bag-om I call/ put together, harfj-bag-im we talk; ber-hem ba-mbaga 1 put together, ba-f-bags he hit, be-baga they hit; panbe (ne-)bagate (un)beaten cotton

bend-: bass-II dar--(v.t.) close; tie--dar-bend! darbend-om that I close; dar-e-bend-om I close, EY da:-ne-band-i-u it doesn't coagulate; dar-om-bass I closed, oelm derembess I closed eyes; dar-m-e-bess I would close, EY -es da:-bas he tied; dar-em-besse I have closed; dar-em-besse bu I had closed

her-: berd-(v.t.) carry--be-be! be-ber-om that I carry, ne-ber-u that he not carry; ber-om, -id I, you carry; ba-m-be I carried; m-e-be 1 would carry, Sun-e-ber they would carry; ba-m-berde I have carried; barnberde bu I had carried

biz-: bixt-II (vd--) (v.t.) sieve, sift--va-biz-om that I sieve; ba-m-bix I sieved; ba-m-bixte I have sieved; bambixte bu I had sieved

d-: dad-II der--(v.t.) give--dar-d-e! dar-d-id! dere-d-om, -id, -end I, you, they give; der-emleg-da I, he gave; der-em-dade I have given; deredundade bu you had given

dar-: da(r)d-have--maruz e-dar-om I propose, umid dar-om I hope, ne-dar-om I have not, ei manzur dare? what do you mean? mahi camha dar-u a fish has eyes, dar-u mer-u it is dying, hdma duta pa dar-im we have two feet; da rd-e.'s it had, Sahed sun-ne-dare they had no evidence, EY datd-fin sod-an I was going; YT dcide he has held--[right arrow] [section]3.10

darz-: daft-Idarzad-II ver--(v.t.) sew--ver-darz-om that I sew; ver-ed-dest you sewed; EY va:-darz-i-a was sewn

duv-: duvad-(v.i.) run--duv-om, -e, -u I, you, he run(s); duvi-0 he was running

espar-: esparad- II va- (v.t.) entrust - vii-s-espdra he entrusted

gard-: garddd- II va- (v.i.) return - va-gard!; va- gard-om that I return; va-gard&d-om I returned; va- garddde homlbudom I have/had returned. YT jam gardcid-an they gathered.

gir-: girit-lgiret-lgit-lgira- (v.t.) seize--yadlbagalje-gir~om I learn/hold; y&dem giret I learned; m-e-gira I would get. yad m-e-girc' I would learn; ba-S-girite bit he had gotten, yad-cm be-girite bu I had learned II der-tda--seize--da-ir-it! da-ir-om lhat I get; der-eS-giret he got; der-es-ne-girete he hasn't gotten; da-it-an to get II wr--pick up--vegi!; ver-gir-om that I pick up; ver-e-gir-om I pick up; ver-e-mgire' I picked up; ver-m-e-gire' I would pick up; ver-em-girite I have picked up; veremgirite bu I had picked up

gu-: gd-(modal) want; must [right arrow] [section]3.11

(h)-: bu(d)-be II dar-'-be in [right arrow] [section]3.9

* issdd-II vd--(v.t.) stand--vd-iseede bu he had stood, he was standing

jeg-: jass-(v.i.) jump--be-jeg-om that I jump; jeg-om, -u I, he jump(s); jass-om I jumped; jaste budom I had jumped

jumb-: jumbad-(v.i.) move--jumb-om that I move; he-jumbild-om, -[empty set] I, he moved

jus-: jusad-(v.i.) boil

jugen-: jugendd-(v.t.) boil

k-: ket-II dar--(v.i.) fall--dar-k-e!; dar-k-om that I fall; der-e-k-om I fall; dar-ket-om I fell; der-e-ketom I would fall; dar-kete budom I had fallen. HS da:ketan (infinitive); HS da:-ket-a(n), da:-ket-e, da:-kat, da:-ket-i(m), da:-ket-i(d), da:-ket-an I fell, etc.

* ken-: kend-(v.t.) pluck--ba-m-kend, ba-g-kend 1, he plucked

ker-: kerd-lka:d-(v.t.) do--(rne-)ke! (ba-lbe-)ker-id!--ker-om that I do, peyddlnigah be-ker-om that I find/look, (be-)ker-u that he do, (be-)ker-im that we do, ne-ker-id that you do not, ker-en that they do--ker-em, -e, -u I, you, he do(es), dice-ker-om I melt, peydd (ne-)ker-om I find (not), nigdh e-ker-e you look, dardj-ker-u it aches, girye ker-u he cries, EY e-ker-an I do, EY ce kar [??] e-kere what are you doing? YT (?) he doesn't let go, HS ker-d(n), -e, -u. -i(m), -i(d), -an I do, etc.--ba-m-ke I did, dv,,em be-ke I melted, ba-g-ke, -31 be-ke he did, nigah-es ke he looked, peydd-m (ne-)ke I found (not), YT xahel-es be-ka he requested, YT qabil-es kard he accepted, YT vel-es neka he didn't let go--dard g-e-ke it was aching, gun-e-ker they would do--nam-kerde I have not done--kem-im ke we shall do HS ka:dan to doll vd--open--vii-ke!; vd-ker-om that I open; va-m-ke I opened; vaz m-e-ke I would open; vd-m-kerde bu I had opened II ber--ber [??] e- ker-om I throw out; bar-el ke he threw out

kub-: kuft-lkufa-(v.t.) pound--YT be-kub-u that he nail, YT, f-e-kufd he was hammering, be-g-kufte he has pounded

mer-(v.i.) die--mer-om I die; ni-mer-u it dies not

mun-: mend-II vd--(v.i.) stay--va-ne-mun-u that it not remain; vet-mend-[empty set] it remained; vdmende (p.p.)

na- (v.t.) put--zemin-d nt, he put it down, -dun ne-na you did not place

nevis-: nevigt-II va--(v.t.) write--va-nevis-om that I write; vd-g-nevigte he has written, vd-dun-nevigte you have written

ni- (42): nigt-II da(r)--(v.i.) sit der-e-ni-u he sits; da-nigt-0 he sat; nigte (p.p.)

pej-: pux-Ipejad-II (va--) (v.t.) cook--be-pej!; bepej-om that I cook; vd-pej-om I cook; ba-m-pux I cooked; m-e-pejd I would cook; ba-m-pejade I have cooked; bampejade bu I had cooked

pers-: persdd-II vd--(v.t.) ask--vd-pers! va-pers-om I ask; vi-ml.flgun-peresd I, he, they asked, va-m-epersci I would ask, vd-m-persade I have asked, va-mpersade bu I had asked

* pes-: pesdd---pestide (p.p.) decayed

pij-pijad-II (va--) (v.t.) twist--be-pij!; va-pikom I twist; ba-m-pijii I twisted; m-e-pijd I would twist; ba-m-pijdde I have twisted

pus-: pugdd-(v.t.) put on--be-pugl; be-pug-om that I wear; pug-om I wear; ha-g-pugti-0 he wore; m-e-pugd I would wear

pugen-: pugetzad-(v.t.) cover--be-pugen!: be-pugenom that I cover; pugen-om I cover; ba-m-pugend I covered; m-e-pugena I would cover; ba-m-pugdnde I have covered; bampugdnde bu I had covered

res-: resdd-(v.i.) arrive, reach--be-res-im that we arrive; be-resell) he arrived

resen-: resnod-(v.t.) deliver -be-resen-id!; resen-om that I deliver; -dun be-restzd you delivered

* rij-: rit-(v.t.) pour--EY mun-be-rit we poured

rus-: (he)rut-(v.t.) sell--ba-rug-id!; ba-g-erute he has sold; die-ba-rute bu you had sold; HS herutan (infinitive); HS ba-m-erut, ba-d-erut, ba-g-erut, mun-ba:rut, dun-ba:rut, gun-ba:rut I sold, etc.

suj-: sut-(v.i.) burn--suj-u it burns; sute (p.p.); pi-suj (pres. part. form) lantern

s-: sud-(v.i.) go--be-g-om, -u that I, he go, g-om, -u I, he go(s); be-hid-0 he went, YT bego id., be-gud-en they went, YT begodan id., EY dad& god-an I was going; YT begode has gone; kem-im gud we shall go; HS godan to go

tanj-(v.i.) drink--tanj-u he drinks

tav-: tabad-(vs.) twist--be-tdv-om that I twist; tavom I twist; be-m-taba I twisted; m-e-tabd I would twist; be-m-tabade I have twisted; bemtdba de bu I had twisted

vaj-: vat-(v.t.) say--be-vaj-id!; be-vaj-u that he say, YT baju id.; vakom, -e, -u I, you, he say(s), harf,ivaj-im we talk, vapan(d) they say; be-lba-g-va(t) he said, gun-be-vat they said, YT sun-be-vd id.; g-e-va he would say; kem-u vat he will say

vaz-: vazad-labax- (43) II dar--(v.t.) lose--bebaz! darvaz-om that I lose; der-em-vaza, !ninth& I lost, derern-e-vazd, meba'x I would lose; der-em-vazade I have lost; dar-em-vazade bu I had lost

* velar-: vedagt-(v.i.) pass--ba-vedagt he passed

vin: did-(v.t.) see--be-in-om that I see; vin-om, -e you see, EY diiran vinan I am seeing; na-m-di I saw not, ba-g-di he saw, YT begdid id., YT gun-bedid they saw, men bedi I saw (irreg.?); na-m-dide I haven't seen, ba-g-dide he has seen; did-en to see

xand-: xandad-(v.i.) smile--xand-u he smiles; bexanda-[empty set] he smiled

xarin-: erit- (v.t.) buy--xarin-om I buy; be-m-erit I bought

xun-: xund-(v.t.) read--YT avaz-eg xund he was singing

xur-lxar-: xurd-(v.t.) eat--be-xuil; tekun [??] e-xur-om, -e, -u I, you, he move(s), EY dv_e-xordn I am drinking water; tekun-em be-xu I moved, afsus-a boxdr he regretted; tekun m-e-xu I would move, ni-da-e-xu you, he would not eat, dun-ni-xu you would not eat; -t be-xurde you have eaten, ba-.[section]-xurde he has eaten

xus-: xuss-II der--(v.t.) throw--ba-xuss!" der-xusom that I throw; der-e-xus-om I throw; der-em-xuss I threw; der-em-e-xuss I would throw; der-em-xusse I have thrown; der-em-xusse bu I had thrown

xuss-(v.i.) sleep--xuss-u he sleeps

yuz-: juss-II va--(v.t.) search--vd-yuz-om that I search; va-m-juss I searched; vd-m-juste I have searched

* za-: zd(nd)d-(v.t.) bear--be-za de, -.[section] be-zandde she has given birth to, Wide vdbu (imitated from the Persian form) he was born

zun-: zundd-(v.t.) know--(ne-)zun-om, -u, -id I, he, you know(s) (not); YT zun b-an that they know ([section]3.9.1); be-g-zund, S'-e-zund (preterit and imperfect) he knew, he got to know


again abe

alive jande

arm bdzi

arrive res-: resdd-

ask vd-pers-: persdd-

at ver(-e)

awake biddr

bad ved

be (h)-: bu{d)-

bear *z.d-: zd(nd)d-

become (vd-)b-: bu(d)-

below je(r)

better vehter

big go(r)d

bit xirde

black sid

blind kur

blood xin

boily'M.v-: jusdd-: jusen-: jusendd-

bottom te

bring (y)dr-: drd-

brother berdr

burn suj-: sut-

buy xarin-: m'f-

by ver(-f); pali

carry ber-: berd-

cal gube

child vece"

close dar-bend-: bass-

come (y)a-: amed-

cook va-pej-: pux-lpejdd-

cover pusen-: pusendd-

daughter dutldot day ruj

day before yesterday periruj

decay pfs-: pesdd-

deliver resen-: resndd-

die mer-

dignity dberi

do mer-

dog esbe, sek

door berlbar

drink fan/-

eat xur-lxdr-: xwrd-

elbow kindrenj

enter aVr-(y)a-: amed-

entrust va-espar-: espdrdd-

ewer be/de

eye cesmlcasm

eyelid pile

face dim; ri

fall dar-k-: ket

fast zid

father pier/per

father-in-law bdxdsil

finger angist

flour art

for vase

fresh tdje

girl duti

give der-d-: dad-

go s-: sud-

God vuza

good xeb

grandfather bdhdje

grandmother bibi

green sauz

groom zumdd

hair mi

hand dess/dest

have dar-: dd(r)d-

he dvi; evi

hear asnou-: asnqft-

hell jandam

hen kerk

here indelende

hit bag-: bagiit-

hunger veski

husband Si/su

I mu(n)fmen

in den tu

innocent viavun

jump jeg- Jass-

know zun-: zunad-

lamb barre

lantern pisuj

leaf balgibarg

life jandeguni

looking nia

lose dar-vaz-: v&zad-lbax-

market vajar

more vister

morning suhb

mother mar/mane

mouth danldohan

move jumb-: jumbad-

muleteer mekari

mullah a'un

must gu-: gd-

naked verahne

near ver(-e); pall

next bedin

night saulsev

night before last perisev

on ber; dim; ru

one ye(k); ila

open va-ker-: kerd-

other abe; bedin

out(side) berlbar

oven tenir

pass *vedar-: vedast-

patience sawr

pick up ver-gir-: girit-lgiret-lgit-l


place yd

pluck *ken-: kend-

poppy tile sek

pound kub-: kuft-lkufa-

pregnant avir

put na-

put on pus-: puscid-

qandt's exit xinia

qandt's stairway sipak

rain varun

rainbow kaStou

reach res-: resad-

read .xun-: xund-

return vd-gard-: garddd-

road reh

run diiv-: duvdd-

sack ambin

say vdj-: vdf-

search vd-ynz-:juss-

see vin-: did-

self xu-lxo-

sell rus-: (he)rut-

separate yeda

sew ver-darz-: dast-ldarzdd-

sharp tejiez:

shirt sevi

shoe kaus

sieve vd-biz-: bixt-

seize (der-lda-)gir-: girit-/giret-/git-/gird-

sin avun

sister xdhdr/xdr sit da{r)-ni-: zi/jfr-skin pis

sleep xaw; mss-

small vejiklvijik

small finger keliy

smile xand-: xanddd-

sneeze akseladise

snot culin

snow vafr

so much vesfci

socks gilau

someone keji

son purlpir

spring behar-

stand va-iss&d-

star essare

stay vd-mun-: mend-

such engi

sun aftau

that u; dvi

that very uia

there uya

these idhd/ydhd

they idhd/ydhd; uyaha

thing ci

this i; evi

this (very) ita

those uyaha

throw der-xus- xuss-

tie dar-bend-: bass-

today dnij

tongue zevan

tonight emseu

tremble larj

twenty viss

twist va-pij-: pijdd-; tav-: tdbdd-

two d? ow'rd

under je(r)

want gu-: ga-

water du

way reh

we hama

wedding orisi

weep girye

well-being solum!

what cisi/cici

where kia

whip tajiune

white espid

widow vive

wind vdd

with vd/bd; xode

without vi-

wolf gurg

woman jan/jen

write va-nevis-: nevist-

you tu; Sema/sumd


adv. = adverb

Av. = Avestan

CPD = Central Plateau Dialect

EY = E, Yarshater (see References)

HS = H, Sahim (see References)

IO = indirect object

Ir = Iranian

MP = Middle Persian

MWIr. = Middle West Iranian

NP = early/classical New Persian

OIr. = Old Iranian

OP = Old Persian

Pers. = modern Persian

PIE = Proto-Indo-European

pl. = plural

p.p. = past participle

prep. = preposition

pron. = pronoun

Pth. = Parthian

sg. = singular

v.i. = verb intransitive

v.t. = verb transitive

VZ = V.A. Zukovskij (see References)

YT = Y. Tabari (see References)

> = diachronic development

[right arrow] = see

[??] connects two distinct words or morphemes that are pronounced together

: stands between the present and past stems

Author's note: I would like to express my thanks to the anonymous reviewers of this article for their valuable suggestions and comments.

Text III is from Latifa o zarifa, Tehran, 1299/1881; Mirza Mohammad-Shaft' GashtAsb (Mirza M. Schafi Gachtasb), Majmd al-tamthillDictionnaire mofid persan-arabe-russe-francais, St. Petersburg, 1869.


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(1.) The past stem nevat-(cf. Pers. nevegt-) ('write'), used by Babal ben Farhad, does agree with the JudeoKashani form, but this is of minor importance. Baba'i ben Lotf's 'umd, i.e., umad, which is the colloquial form of the standard Pers. amad ('he came'), stands in contradistinction with Judeo-Kashani Mine ('he came'), which does not allow the phonological shift from * a to u.

(2.) The sources of these three texts, as Zukovskij remarks in the first volume of his book (pp. xv--xvi), are as follows: Text I is from Peter Lerch, Forschungen iiber die Kurden and die iranischen Nordchaldiier, St. Petersburg, 1857: 1-4. Text II is the beginning of a Finnish poem, taken from Bacmeistersche Sprachproben (see Christensen).

(3.) The concave subscript (as in ber e) connects words or morphemes that are pronounced together.

(4.) The agent marker is repeated.

(5.) Text II has no masculine pronoun, and the assumption is that the speaker imagines his beloved as female.

(6.) YT's forms are as diverse as ovie, oiy, and uyi, which probably reflect the two interchangeable forms ovi and oy.

(7.) An analytical passive is constructed with the verb 'become' ([section]3.9.3).

(8.) For the use of the durative marker e-, see [section]3.4.2.

(9.) See [section]3.5 for examples in the negative.

(10.) V2 has the first and third singular forms only. HS lists the following set: lui(n), he, hu, hi(m), hi, han.

(11.) From YT.

(12.) See [section]3.5 for conjugations in the negative.

(13.) Stilo 2008b, 108.

(14.) The qanat outlet is called darkand or mazhar in Persian (Wolff, 252; Bonine, 146).

(15.) I owe this etymology to an anonymous reader of this paper.

(16.) Texts Ito V are from Zukovskij, Text VI from Tabari, and Text VII from Yarshater.

(17.) For doxtare in the Persian text.

(18.) For Pers. u yak sal o do mah pit-az-in zayida .hod.

(19.) For Pers. xwahar-e to mixwabad. Cf. xwahida ast ('she is sleeping').

(20.) For Pers. muyhCz bar sar bozorg milavandlamal miCzycind.

(21.) For Pers. gonda.

(22.) Corrected for stab.

(23.) A translation of Pers. xtvalam gosl konim.

(24.) I.e., raxtha-i.

(25.) A bad translation of the formal Pers. mars .fekam dard mikonad.

(26.) Corrected for zertfi.

(27.) Corrected for dordat.

(28.) For "so much that."

(29.) An awkward translation from Pers. casmha-ye xod-ra baham gortigt.

(30.) Corrected for ti/fi.

(31.) o is a contracted form of .aciti ('Mr.').

(32.) The text is interrupted in the source.

(33.) The word "post" is obviously misused.

(34.) besrute?

(35.) See [section]D 15 (I) for the meaning of this term.

(36.) For gord, which is supposed to mean 'big', but is translated into Persian as the homonym gord ('brave').

(37.) Probably vel,e-ni-ker-u ('he doesn't let go').

(38.) Corrected for oiy.

(39.) Normalized for uyi.

(40.) Corrected for oiy.

(41.) Cf. bame ('he came'), above.

(42.) Or eni-.

(43.) The past stem btu-takes no preverb.

(44.) baxus?

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Date:Jan 1, 2012
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