Joseph Haydn. (Music Reviews).
Joseph Haydn. Arien und Szenen mit Orchester, 1. Folge. Herausgegeben von Robert von Zahn. (Werke, ser. 26, vol. 1.) Munich: G. Henle, 2000. [Frontispiece (facsim. reprods. from autograph); Vorwort, p. vii- xviii; Zur Gestaltung der Ausgabe, p. xix-xx; score, p. 1-181; Anhang (with 1 facsim. reprod.), p. 182-85; Krit. Bericht, p. 187-216. HN 5772 (cloth), [euro]115; HN 5771 (paper), [euro]107.]
Joseph Haydn. Volksliedbearbeitungen Nr. 101-150: Schottische Lieder fur William Napier. Herausgegeben von Andreas Friesenhagen. (Werke, ser. 32, vol. 2.) Munich: G. Henle, 2001. [Frontispiece (facsim. reprods. from Napier's ed.); Alphabetisches Verzeichnis der Uberschriften und Liedanfange, p. vii; Vorwort, p. ix-xii; Zur Gestaltung der Ausgabe, 1 p.; score and song texts, p. 2-87; Krit. Bericht, p. 89-96. HN 5902 (cloth), [euro]65; HN 5901 (paper), [euro]57.]
Joseph Haydn's contributions to music are mainly acknowledged in the instrumental genres, specifically his role as the "father" of the symphony and string quartet and his elevation of these genres to central positions in Western art music. Arguably, this appellation could expand to cover Haydn's keyboard sonatas and piano trios as well. Such hyperbole is not so easily applied to the composer's vocal works, however, which have, with the exception of the Masses and the two late oratorios, taken a secondary or tertiary place within Haydn's oeuvre and within the history of their genres. The repertory in the three recently published volumes of the Joseph Haydn Werke here under review can be counted among the least familiar of Haydn's vocal output: the Italian cantatas with orchestra composed in the 1760s for particular occasions within the Esterhazy princely house, a series of insertion and substitute arias for Haydn's adaptations and enhancements of operas for performance by the Eszterhaza opera troupe; and a gro up of Scottish folk song arrangements published by William Napier in 1795. These volumes also embrace a wide spectrum of contexts and requirements, ranging from virtuoso professionals in the princely chamber and theater to rank amateurs of minimal technical accomplishments performing in drawing rooms.
In the mid-1760s, Haydn began to keep a record of his output in the so-called Entwurf-Katalog (draft catalog; facsim. re-prod. published in Jens Peter Larsen, Three Haydn Catalogues = Drei Haydn Kataloge: Second Facsimile Edition with a Survey of Haydn's Oeuvre, Thematic Catalogues Series, 4 [New York: Pendragon Press, 1979]). As originally planned, this catalog was to be a highly organized affair arranged by genre, with each page containing incipits in the right-hand column and their designations written in the left. Apparently Haydn had not anticipated the extent of his output, and eventually he began to squeeze entries (both with and without incipits) into the left-hand column, often to the point that it becomes difficult to decipher which notations belong together. Haydn further complicated these entries by emending them in later years. Such is the situation with regard to the Italian cantatas of the 1760s. On pages 17 and 18 of the Entwurf-Katalog, six of these works are listed in the left column under t he generic rubric Coro, with incipits and titles for the first three, an incipit for the fourth, and only the designations "quinto" and "Coro [6.sup.to]" for the final two works. As Heinrich Christoph Koch attests, "coro" is certainly one of the most encompassing of designations in use at the time (Musikalisches Lexikon [Frankfurt am Main: August Hermann dem Jungern, 1802; facsim. reprint, ed. Nicole Schwindt, Kassel: Barenreiter, 2001], cols. 315-19, s.v. "Chor"). In Haydn's case, however, these particular compositions are not choral works in a modern sense but rather composite cycles of recitatives, arias, and ensemble pieces. There is considerable inconsistency in how these cantatas are cited in the second volume of Anthony van Hoboken's catalog of Haydn's works (Joseph Haydn: Thematischbibliographisches Werkverzeichnis [Mainz: B. Schott's Sohne, 1971]), the Haydn worklist by Georg Feder in the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (2d ed. [New York: Grove, 2001], 11:209), and the edition at hand. Of the six variously listed works, only three are extant: Destatevi, o miei fidi (Hob. XXIVa:2; no. 2 in the New Grove; perhaps Coro 4 in Haydn's catalog; the first cantata, Kantate in G, in the edition), for Prince Nikolaus's name day on 6 December 1763; Al luo arrivo felice (Hob. XXIVa:3; Coro 2 in Haydn's catalog; no. 4 in the New Grove with title Da qual gioia improvvisa, the first line of the opening recitative [with Al luo arrivo felice regarded as a different, lost cantata now listed as no. 6]; the second cantata, Kantate in C, in the edition), for the return of Prince Nikolaus from Paris and Frankfurt in March/April 1764; and Qual dubbio ormai (Hob. XXIVa:4, perhaps Coro 5 in Haydn's catalog; no. 3 in the New Grove; the third cantata, Kantate in A, in the edition), for the prince's name day in 1764. The Entwurf-Katalog notes the occasion for two of the missing cantatas: Vivan gl'illustri sposo (Hob. XXIVa:1; Coro 1; no. 1 in the New Grove), for the marriage of Prince Anton to Countess Therese Erdody on 10 January 1763; and Dei clementi (Hob. XXIVa:5; Coro 3; no. 5 in the New Grove), for Prince Nikolaus's recovery from an illness. As noted in the introduction to the edition (p. ix), Haydn may have composed Coro 6 for the Prince's name day in 1765, and the cantata possibly survives as a contrafact or pasticcio.
Like the concertante-oriented symphonies of the 1760s, these cantatas, besides being works for specific occasions, provided Haydn with an opportunity to display the abilities of the vocal contingent of the Kapelle as well as those of the Vice-Kapellmeister (i.e., Haydn) himself at the harpsichord. The arias for these cantatas, together with those from the Salve regina of 1756, the oratorio Il ritorno di Tobia (1775), and the opera L'anima del filosofo (1791), are among Haydn's most virtuosic. Streams of vocal coloratura alternate with rapid passage-work for the harpsichord in the aria "Se ogni giorno, Prence invitto" from Qual dubbio ormai. The closing chorus "Sembra che in questo giorno" of Al luo arrivo felice also has fleet interludes for the harpsichord, but nothing to the extent of those in the aria.
Al tuo arrivo felice is the most diminutive of the cantatas, consisting of a soprano recitative followed by a chorus for two sopranos, tenor, and bass. For the celebration of the prince's name day in 1763, Haydn produced his most elaborate cantata, Destatevi, o miei fidi, consisting of three recitative/duet pairs and a concluding chorus in 3/8. In the following year, Haydn acknowledged the prince's name day with a much smaller effort, Qual dubbio ormai, with the structure recitative, aria, recitative, and chorus. In each of the extant cantatas, the opening orchestral introduction to the first recitative is of such a size as to serve as a prelude to the entire piece, even dwarfing the ensuing recitative in the two princely name-day cantatas.
Though a case for the revival of these cantatas is difficult to make due to obsequious texts such as "Great hero, pride of the world, pray receive a pure tribute of duty, respect, and loyalty," or "May Jupiter preserve the sublime Prince for us," the music, particularly that of the name-day cantatas, is first-class Haydn. Note the potent Sturm und Drang arioso in Deslalevi, o miei fidi to the text "Quanti il mar tesori aduna." It is the true ancestor to the future D-minor storm settings "Svanisce in un momento" from Il ritorno di Tobia, the madrigal Der Sturm, Raphael's aria "Rollend in schaumenden Wellen" from The Creation, and the C-minor storm chorus "Ach! das Ungewitter naht" from The Seasons. Though the ferocity of Haydn's music does not seem to be the most appropriate way to confront this text, it is among the most memorable and perhaps the only sublime moment in these cantatas.
Edited by Andreas Friesenhagen and Sonja Gerlach, this volume maintains the high standard we have come to expect in the Haydn Werke and from G. Henle Verlag. A comparison of the incomplete autograph in the Library of Congress of Qual dubbio ormai (Whittall Collection, ML30.8b.H4Q3 (Case)) with the new edition reveals an uncompromising adherence to the composer's text. For performance purposes, this text might require emendations, or one could use Landon's more practically oriented edition (Qual dubbio o[r]mai: Cantata fur Sopran, Chor, Cembalo und Orchester, Hob. XXIVa:4, Diletto Musicale, 200 [Vienna: Doblinger, 1982]) in conjunction with the text of the complete edition. It should be noted, however, that Landon's edition uses a nineteenth-century source for the final chorus, since the complete autograph was not yet then available. In general, Landon takes a more liberal view as to what constitutes a parallel passage and uses dots rather than wedges (Striche). I have only one small complaint about the presen tation of the cantatas in the Werke: they are identified only by key and not title (e.g., Kantate in G), which seems about as helpful a designation as "Symphony in D." Using the opening line is the preferred way of identifying Italian cantatas and would give these works a more precise identity, since Hoboken numbers have not gained the same currency as have, for example, Kochel numbers for Mozart's works.
In 1765, Prince Nikolaus transferred his musical enthusiasm to the baryton, and rather than composing cantatas to celebrate his employer's name day, Haydn now turned out special works, inscribed for the occasion, for the prince's new instrument. A decade later, Nikolaus's musical interests took another turn when he established an opera theater at Eszterhaza, which came to be regarded among the finest in Europe. Haydn the opera conductor was for the next fifteen years now responsible for engaging singers, selecting repertoire, and overseeing productions, until the death of Prince Nikolaus on 28 September 1790. Haydn later suppressed this period of apparent drudgery in his biographical discussions with Georg August Griesinger (eventually published as "Biographische Notizen uber Joseph Haydn," Allgemeine musikalische Zeitungr 11 [1808-9]: 641-49, etc.; also published separately, Leipzig: Breitkopf & Harel, 1810; various reprints) and Albert Christoph Dies (Biographiscise Nachrichten von Joseph Haydn [Vienna: Cam esinaische Buchhandlung, 1810; various reprints]; Eng. trans. of both in Joseph Haydn: Eighteenth-Century Gentleman and Genius, ed. Vernon Gotwals [Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1963; reprint 1968 as Haydn: Two Contemporary Portraits]). Denes Bartha and Laszlo Somfai wrote a new chapter about Haydn's activities at Eszterhaza when they published Haydn als Opernkapellmeister: Die Haydn-Dokumente der Esterazy-Opernsammlung (Budapest: Verlag der Ungarischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1960). Among the revelations were Haydn's often extensive revisions to the repertoire and the series of insertion and substitute arias and scenes composed for the operas he produced. These were first published in 1961-64 by the Haydn-Mozart Presse in full and vocal scores edited by H. C. Robbins Landon (full scores: 13 Arien fur Sopran [13 vols., 1961]; 4 Arien fur Tenor [4 vols., 1964]; 3 Arien fur Bariton (Bass) [3 vols., 1964]; Arien mit Orchester fur Sopran, Tenor, Bass (Bariton) ; vocal scores: Arien, 5 vols. [Sopran, 2 vols., 1961; Tenor, 1964; Bariton (Bass), 1964; Revisionsbericht]). The new volume in the Haydn complete works edited by Robert von Zahn, Arien und Szenen mit Orchester, 1. Folge, includes sixteen such pieces written for operas composed by Pasquale Anfossi (3), Domenico Cimarosa (3), Francesco Bianch i (2), Florian Leopold Gassmann (2?), Giuseppe Gazzaniga, Pietro Alessandro Guglielmi, Giovanni Paisiello, Antonio Salieri, Giuseppe Sarti, and Tommaso Traetta. Haydn composed seven of these arias for soprano Luigia Polzelli, one each for the soprano Barbara Sassi, tenors Prospero Braghetti and Leopold Dichtler, and basses Santi Nencini and Luigi Rossi, and four for unidentified singers.
Polzelli (1750-1831) received the plenitude of attention with new and reworked arias by Haydn not because of her Outstanding musical gifts--she was considerably less than a stellar talent--but because during her time in the Esterhazy employ from 1779 to 1790, she was also the Kapellmeister's (i.e., Haydn's) mistress. One of her sons, Antonio, may have been Haydn's, an assertion openly made by Antonio's daughters on various copies of their father's engraved portrait (reproduced in Hugo Botstiber, "Haydn and Luigia Polzelli," Musical Quarterly 18 : 208-15). After nine months in the prince's service, both Polzelli and her violin-playing husband were dismissed on 25 December 1779. Haydn must have intervened, and the prince reinstated both of them at the lowest of salaries. In these arias and adaptations, Haydn wrote pieces for Polzelli that enhanced her limited abilities, and he may have deliberately orchestrated her accompaniments more elaborately. Her 1787 aria for act 1, scene 5 of Gazzaniga's L'isola di Alcina, "Sono Alcina," for example, has a ritornello with rich wind scoring alternating almost kaleidoscopically with the strings that continues in the vocal sections. Besides the seven ascribed arias, Landon also thinks that Haydn may have written Giannina's aria "La moglie quando e buona" for Cimarosa's Giannina e Bernadone for Polzelli.
As for the other singers, the scena for Braghetti, "Ah tu non senti amico," is one of Haydn's most striking efforts. In this case, the Esterhazy Kapellmeister composed a replacement for the opening scene of Traetta's Ifigenia in Tauride. After a dramatic recitativo accompagnato stimulated no doubt by Coltellini's musically pictorial text and Traetta's figurations that Haydn presents in up-to-date garb, the aria in F minor at times anticipates Giuseppe Verdi. A soprano counterpart for Braghetti's piece is "Infelice sventurata," composed for an unknown singer performing the role of Beatrice in Cimarosa's I due supposti conti. Here Haydn interrupts the opening, serenely diatonic adagio with the high drama of measured tremolo, sweeping scales, dotted rhythms, and sudden changes in dynamics. The ensuing allegro, like that for Braghetti, is mainly declamatory, emphasizing syllabic and neumatic text settings. Less pretentious, but no less accomplished, is the wonderful little bass aria "Dice benissimo chi si marita " for Rossi, the Lumaca in Salieri's La scuola de' gelosi. Using minimal means (strings with a pair of horns) and a simple ternary form, Haydn produced the best-known and most thoroughly satisfying of all these arias. Dichtler, the long-time tenor in the Esterhazy employ, had but one insertion aria, "Se tu mi sprezzi, ingrata" for Sarti's I finti eredi, which in contrast to the piece for Braghetti, is remarkable for its fioritura. The pieces for the soprano Sassi ("Vada adagio, signorina" for Guglielmi's La quahera spiritosa) and bass Nencini ("Un cor si tenero" for Bianchi's II disertore) seem less profiled, although Sassi's aria reveals a singer with a flexible throat and a solid high B[MUSICAL NOTES NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. In the opening andantino, Haydn employs an unusually galant idiom for 1787, which may also speak to the particular nature of her voice. Nencini's piece has something of the ambience and charm of Rossi's aria.
Zahn's editorial work for the volume is exemplary. Conveniently for singers and conductors, Landon's separate editions of this repertoire were in full scores, vocal scores, and orchestral parts. Performers using Landon's materials would be rewarded by consulting Zahn's editions in the Haydn Werke and the detailed critical reports for possible alternative readings. It is regrettable that these arias are not better known; although some have been recorded, live performances are unfortunately seldom encountered. We will probably never experience the stylistic dissonance created by Haydn's revisions of other composers operas, but singers today are bypassing some wonderful music by not performing these now orphaned arias.
Leaving the cultivated world of eighteenth-century Italian vocal music, the third volume of the Haydn Werke considered in this review shifts to the vernacular music of national folk song, whose propagation in eighteenth-century Britain was a remarkable phenomenon. Though British publishers did enlist native composers to arrange some of the material, they also sought German and Austrian composers for these settings (as odd as this may seem to us today), including Haydn, who made around four hundred such arrangements over a period of some thirteen years from 1792 to ca. 1805. Haydn's continuous production of this series of minor efforts was for remunerative reasons-now on a fixed pension, he was eventually paid handsomely by the British publishers during a period of rampant inflation. In later years, Haydn had no compunction farming out some of this work to pupils such as Sigismund Neukomm and Frederic Kalkbrenner.
Edited by Andreas Friesenhagen, the new volume presents Napier's third installment of Scottish folk song arrangements and the second collection of arrangements by Haydn (Nos. 101-50) published in London in July 1795 as A Selection of Original Scots Songs in Three Parts. (Napier's first collection, A Selection of the Most Favourite Scots Songs, Chiefly Pastoral, published in 1790, did not involve Haydn.) The first hundred folk song arrangements (Napier's second installment issued in 1792) were published in the Werke (ser. 32, vol. 1) forty years previously in an edition by Karl Geiringer, one of the first musicologists to give serious attention to this byway of Haydn's output in his article "Haydn and the Folksong of the British Isles" (Musical Quarterly 35 : 179-208). The third volume in this series of the Werhe (ser. 32, vol. 3 ) is devoted to arrangements of Scottish folk songs made for George Thomson (Nos. 151-258). Forthcoming are the arrangements of Welsh and Irish folk songs made for Willia m Whyte.
Unlike the Italian cantatas and arias, the musical texts of Haydn's folk song arrangements are transmitted only through a single (printed) source; there are no extant manuscript versions. Besides citing the few differences between the readings in Napier's print and the new edition, Friesenhagen also notes the songs when they appear in Napier's source for the songs The Scots Musical Museum (issued in six volumes by the Edinburgh publisher James Johnson between 1787 and 1803), Haydn's later arrangements of some of the same materials for Thomson and Whyte, and, when available, the author of the text and the composer of the melody. Throughout, editorial intervention is minimal, and Henle's luxuriant presentation makes this volume of the Haydn Werke an ideal edition for performance, preferable perhaps to Napier's original publication.
Haydn's arrangements for Napier were less creatively demanding than those made later for Thomson. There are no writtenout "symphonies" (i.e., introductions), the violin acts as an accompanying instrument often moving in thirds or sixths with the melody, and a figured bass suffices for filling in the harmony. As detailed in the preface to the first volume of his Scotch songs, however, Napier's presentation of Haydn's arrangements allows for further emendation in performance (as cited in Geiringer's preface to the first volume of arrangements in the Werke, p. xi):
Where, with a fine voice, is joined some skill in instrumental music, the air, by way of symphony or introduction to the song, should always be first played over and, at the close of every stanza, the last part of the air may be repeated as a relief to the voice. In this symphonic part the performer must show his taste and fancy on the instrument, by varying it ad libitum....
Thus, Napier's full title for this publication, A Selection of Original Scots Songs in Three Parts: The Harmony by Haydn, is an accurate reflection of the publication's contents and Haydn's contribution to it-and just how much individual circumstances could determine how amateur British musicians might have actually rendered these pieces.
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|Author:||Brown, A. Peter|
|Article Type:||Book Review|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2003|
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