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John Lydgate's use of prepositions and adverbs meaning 'between'.

1. Introduction

The present paper focuses on the language of John Lydgate's works. Lydgate was a Late Middle English poet writing in the East Midland dialect and greatly inspired by Geoffrey Chaucer. The specific linguistic issue analysed here is the unique use of the prepositions and adverbs meaning 'between'. The aim of the study is to establish the repertoire of those lexemes employed by Lydgate as well as to provide their etymology, syntax, dialect distribution, as well as temporal and textual distribution. In terms of quantity, the number of the recorded tokens of each investigated preposition and adverb in particular texts will be evaluated. Moreover, the proportion of the application of particular lexemes will be examined in the context of other Middle English preserved texts.

As regards the applied method, historical English dictionaries such as the Middle English Dictionary online (henceforth the MED) and the Oxford English Dictionary online (henceforth the OED) are employed to critically evaluate the origin of the analysed prepositions and adverbs and to construct their tentative dialect and textual distribution. Moreover, corpus linguistics methodology is used to investigate the quantitative aspects of the lexemes under discussion. The selected corpus is the Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse (henceforth CMEPV), which is a part of the Middle English Compendium online supported by the University of Michigan. The corpus consists of 146 texts and text collections of all attested Middle English genres and text types, sometimes presented in two or more preserved manuscripts each ( /c/cme/browse.html; 28 December 2015). The linguistic material collected in the corpus includes ten texts by John Lydgate, which will be the subject of the investigation. Additionally, the analysis is supplemented with seven complete Middle English texts by John Lydgate not included in the corpus and one extra manuscript of a text found in CMEPV. All the examined texts will be searched for all the attested Middle English spelling variants of the discussed prepositions and adverbs. Those spelling variants are retrieved not only from the MED headwords but also from the MED quotations as well as from the OED. Numerous wildcard searches will also be performed in order to include possible spelling options not mentioned by either of the two dictionaries.

2. Recent studies on Medieval English prepositions and adverbs

Medieval English prepositions and adverbs have been recently of interest to scholars. Molencki (2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2008, 2011a, 2011b) devotes his papers to the study of prepositions/adverbs such as after, before, because, forward developing into conjunctions (in the framework of Hopper & Traugott's grammaticalization (2003) and Traugott's subjectification (1989, 1995)) as well as to the analysis of a group of prepositions/conjunctions borrowed from French. For his studies Molencki applies various dictionaries and corpora. Krygier (2011) investigates the preposition till in Old English and pays a special attention to the investigation of its actual etymology in the context of structural borrowing. Iglesias-Rabade (2011) selects for his study a group of twelve Middle English prepositions including aboue, after, at, bi, before, bihinde, biside, in, on, ouer, purgh, and under and studies their attestations in the Middle English part of the Helsinki Corpus. Alcorn (2013) concentrates on the placement of nominal and pronominal objects in phrases including variants of the Old English prepositions by, for, and between found in the York-Toronto-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Old English Prose. Esteban-Segura (2014) investigates the possible historical variation between the prepositions among and amongst motivating their selection in Present-Day English. The Medieval English section of her study is based on the Old and Middle English sections of the Helsinki Corpus. Hotta (2014) discusses the spelling variants of the ME betwixt and between, focusing on their etymology and further competition of different spelling variants. Ciszek-Kiliszewska (2014a) focuses on the Middle English loss of the OE preposition geond 'through, throughout, over, across' as evidenced in the two surviving ME manuscripts of Lazamon's Brut. Ciszek-Kiliszewska (2014b, 2014c, 2014d, 2015) discusses various qualitative and quantitative aspects of the use of the Middle English prepositions and adverbs such as twen(e), emell(e), twix, and atwen on the basis of the Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse comprising 146 Middle English texts and text collections.

3. Linguistic material

The linguistic material subject to the present analysis consists of 17 Late Middle English texts authored by John Lydgate. Ten (1) of them are collected in the Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse, whereas the other seven (2) are recorded by the Middle English Dictionary as including at least one preposition or adverb meaning 'between'.

The CMEPV contain two longer works (the first two) and eight shorter poems:

The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man (MS Cotton Vitellius c.13 (1475), MS Cotton Tiberius A.7 (1475), and MS Stowe 952 (1500)); Reason and Sensuality (MS Fairfax 16 (1450));

S. Edmund undFremund3 (MS Harley 2278 (1450) and MS Ashmole 46 (1500));

S. Giles (MS Harley 2255 (1460));

Life of Saint Margaret (MS Durham-U Cosin V.2.14 (1475)); Stans Puer ad Mensam (MS. Harley 2251 (1475)); Lyke the Audience, so Uttir thy Language (4) (MS Harley 2255 (1460), MS Univ. Lib. Camb. Hh. 4. 12 (c.1475) and MS Additional 34,360 (1500)); Debate of the Horse, Goose and Sheep (MS Harley 2251 (1475) and MS Lansdowne 699 (1500)); Horns Away (MS Laud Misc. 683 (1475));

John Lydgate, Song against Flemings (MS Lambeth 84 (1479)).

The other seven complete texts selected on the basis of the MED information are the following five sizeable works (the first five on the list) and the two smaller poems:

Fall of Princes (MS Bodl. 263 (1439)); Troy Book (MS Cotton Augustus A.4 (1425)); Siege of Thebes (MS Arundel 119 (1450)); Secreta Secretorum (MS Sloane 2464 (1450)); Temple of Glass (MS Tanner 346 (1450)); Praise of Peace (MS Harley 2255 (1460)); Aesop's Fables (MS Trin. Coll. R. 3.19 (599) (1500)).

Moreover, I have added to the scope of the analysis yet another manuscript of the text included in the CMEPV, i.e., Stans Puer ad Mensam, in which the MED records the use of the adverb bitwene (MS Lambeth 853 (1450)).

4. Repertoire of Lydgate's words meaning 'between', textual distribution, and the number of tokens

The examined Lydgate's works yield as many as six different types of prepositions and two types of adverbs meaning 'between'. Those include the prepositions bitwen(e), twen(e), atwen, bitwix, atwix, and twix as well as the adverbs bitwen(e) and atwen, attested in texts in various spelling variants.

Regarding the etymology of those Middle English lexemes, bitwen(e) and bitwix(t)(en) are well-established already in Old English. The other analysed words, i.e., atwen, atwix, twen(e), and twix are native Middle English creations, structurally and semantically connected to bitwen(e) and bitwix(t)(en) respectively. While twen(e) and twix are aphetic forms of correspondingly bitwen(e) and bitwix(t)(en), atwen and atwix are formed from the preposition a and twen(e) or twix (cf. OED and MED; for more details concerning the etymology of atwen, twen(e), and twix see Ciszek-Kiliszewska 2014b, 2014d, 2015).

In terms of the number of tokens representing particular types and their textual distribution in John Lydgate's works, Table 1 below presents the search results obtained for each lexeme type:

In order to better understand the results presented in Table 1, a general Middle English situation concerning the use of prepositions and adverbs meaning 'between' needs to be briefly presented. The two best-established Middle English words were bitwen(e) and bitwix(t)(en). They both go back to Old English, when they produced a significant number of occurrences. The Dictionary of Old English records c. 500 instances of betweonan, the ancestor of bitwen(e), and c. 900 of betwux, the ancestor of bitwix(t)(en). Similarly, in Middle English bitwen(e) dominated in terms of frequency. Bitwix(t)(en) came second, while the other prepositions and adverbs meaning 'between' were of rather minor use.

Bearing in mind the general predominant Middle English use of bitwen(e) followed by that of bitwix(t)(en), the quantitative results presented in Table 1 are quite unexpected. Bitwen(e) and bitwix(t)(en) are completely absent from nine out of the 17 Lydgate's works and in the remaining eight texts they produce only a comparatively low number of tokens, i.e., 20 and 31 respectively. The lexemes dominating in terms of frequency are atwen, recorded 222 times, twen(e), attested 117 times, and atwix, found 70 times. Among those tokens prepositions constitute the majority. Apart from them there are altogether only 13 cases of the adverbs atwen and bitwen(e), nine of which (atwen) are equally distributed in three different manuscripts of one text, i.e., The pilgrimage of the life of man. The number of the tokens of the adverbs seems too low to draw any firm conlusions concerning the Lydgate's preference for either atwen or bitwen(e), though.

Yet another interesting observation is that the use of some types of prepositions and adverbs meaning 'between' in many Lydgate's works stays unnoticed by the Middle English Dictionary online. Those word types are marked by the bold type in Table 1.

5. Syntax

Regarding the function of the investigated lexemes, all of them except for twen(e) could generally be used as both prepositions and adverbs in Middle English. Twen(e) is recorded exclusively as a preposition. However, it has to be noticed that the main function of all the examined words is that of a preposition. It can be concluded not only by comparing the number of texts listed by the MED as including the prepositions and the adverbs but also the huge disproportion in favour of the prepositions that can be seen in the Lydgate's works. In the texts included in Table 1 there are only three adverbs atwen against 16 prepositions atwen in each manuscript of The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man and two adverbs atwen against seven prepositions in Troy Book as well as one adverb bitwen(e) against five prepositions bitwen(e) in Troy Book and one adverb bitwen(e) in Stans Puer ad Mensam (MS Lambeth 853 (1450)). In the examined Lydgate's works twen(e), atwix, bitwix, and twix are attested exclusively as prepositions. The overall number of the tokens of prepositions compared to that of adverbs in the analysed works (see Section 4 above) is even more illustrative of the dominant function of prepositions performed by the analysed lexemes. Examples 1 and 2 instantiate the use of atwen as an adverb (see also (12) below). For the use of bitwen(e) as an adverb see also (6) below.

(1) But the heg wych stood atwen, Departyd yt (men myghte sen), And the passage ek devyde: The ton was set on the ryht syde; (Pilgrimage of the Life of Man (all MSS), ll. 11,239-11,242)

(2) And zit o ping I dar afferme and seyne, hat pe menyng of pis ilke tweyne Ne was nat on, but wonder fer atwene; For al pat sche trew[e]ly gan mene, Of honeste pinkyng noon outerage, Liche a maide Innocent of age. (Troy Book, Book I, ll. 2,943-2948)

As for the position of the discussed prepositions in the prepositional phrases, they are all attested in the preposition. No cases of the postposition are recorded.

When the attention is shifted to the types of the complements that these prepositions take, it can be argued that in Lydgate's works it is not so much that the prepositions allow for some range of complements but that certain complements are very carefully matched with specific preposition(s). Such a pattern is most visible in the context involving the numeral tweyne/two/too 'two', where Lydgate very systematically uses the preposition atwen, as for example in:

(3) Sent his message to the cedre tre, That his sone myhte weddid be To his douhter; al-thouh in substaunce Atwen hem too was a gret discordaunce. (Fall of Princes, p. 273) (5)

(4) Al this he ganne/to reuolue aboute, Ay in his herte/hauyng a maner doute, A-twene two/hangyng/in balaunce where he shulde/maken an aliaunce A-twene his doghtren/and the knyghtes tweyn. For on thyng/ay/his herte gan constreyn, (Siege of Thebes, p. 64)

(5) Queen of vertues/as lady souereyne, That suych a meene/be set atwen hem tweyne. (Secreta Secretorum, ll. 818-819)

The other preposition meaning 'between' which is very frequently used in the Lydgate's works, i.e., twen(e), is hardly ever recorded with the numeral 'two'. The careful and regular application of atwen in the context of numeral 'two' is especially visible in the following passage from Stans Puer ad Mensam retrieved from two different manuscripts, i.e., MS Lambeth 853 from 1450 and MS. Harley 2251 from 1475. In the earlier manuscript (6) there is no numeral tweyne/two/too 'two' and bitwen(e) functions as an adverb. However, since in the later manuscript the fragment (7) is paraphrased so that it includes the numeral tweyne 'two', bitwen(e) is accordingly changed into atwen.

(6) As tyme requirip schewe out pi visage,

To glad, ne to sory, but kepe pee euene bitwene For los or lucre or ony case sodene. (Stans Puer ad Mensam, ll. 75-77 (MS Lambeth 853))

(7) As tyme requyrithe, shewe out thy visage, To gladde ne to sory, but kepe atwene tweyne, For losse or lucre or any case sodayne. (Stans Puer ad Mensam, ll. 75-77 (MS. Harley 2251))

A similar pattern can be observed in Secreta Secretorum (MS Sloane 2464; 1450), where one can find the two passages below, which contain very similar phrases. However, the fragment in (8) includes a 'Noun + and + Noun' phrase, which attracts twen, while (9) includes a numeral tweyne, which prefers atwen.

(8) Set a good mene/twen yong and Old of age. Excellent prynce/this processe to Compyle Takith at gre/the Rudnesse of my style. (Secreta Secretorum, ll. 19-21)

(9) Queen of vertues/as lady souereyne, That suych a meene/be set atwen hem tweyne. Secreta Secretorum, ll. 815-819)

Yet another instance of the careful use of the preposition atwen with the numeral tweyne 'two' is attested in the three manuscripts of Lyke the Audience, so Uttir thy Language. Even though the prepositions atwen and twene are used in that particular poem exchangeably while preceding 'Noun + and + Noun' phrases, atwen is preserved in the context of the numeral 'two':

(10) Attwen thes tweyne/a greet comparysoun: yng Alisaundir/he conqueryd al; (Lyke the Audience, ll. 81-82, MS Harley 2255; 1460)

(11) A-twene theis tweyn a gret comparison: kyng alysaunder, he conquerryd all; (Lyke the Audience, ll. 81-82, MSS Camb. Hh. 4. 12; c.1475 and Add. 34,360; 1500)

Moreover, I have also found a few instances of the preposition atwix used with the numeral 'two' in the analysed Lydgate's texts, e.g.,

(12) Strongly armyd in the purpoynt Off pacience, to sustene The strok, when they wer leyd atwene The hamer and the Styth also, And a-twyxe bothe two, The grene laurer off victorie, And the crowne ek off her glorye, (The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, (all MSS) ll. 7490-7496)

(13) Whan the play I-ended was Atwex hem two, thus stood the cas: (Reason and Sensuality, ll. 5901-5902)

(14) And pus sche henge euen atwixe two, pat sche ne wist what was best to do;

(Troy Book, ll. 2249-2250)

Regarding the pronominal complements such as hem 'them', us or you, for example, are most frequently recorded with the preposition atwen:

(15) And whan thys parlement was do, As ye han herd, atwen hem,

And Moyses ek dyned hadde With hys seruantys good & badde,

(The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, (all MSS) ll. 3,977-3,980)

(16) I wille hir haue sothely to my wyfe, Loue and cherysshe for her grete beaute, As it is skyle, duryng al my lyfe, That atwene vs ther shal be no strife (S. Margarete, ll. 135-138)

There are also a few instances of atwix used in the context of personal pronouns without the numeral two or with the numeral.

'Noun + and + Noun' phrases, on the contrary, are almost always found as complements of twene in Lydgate's works, e.g.:

(17) I meene, in sooth, twen Ing[e]land & Fraunce, His purpos was taue had a pes fynall, (Fall of Princes, MS Bodl. 263; p. 168)

(18) Set a good mene/twen yong and Old of age. Excellent prynce/this processe to Compyle Takith at gre/the Rudnesse of my style. (Secreta Secretorum, ll. 19-21)

(19) In this mater mak a comparisoun Twen Alisaundre and Diogenes: (Fall of Princes, MS Bodl. 263; p. 177)

Sporadically, atwen and atwix are also used with 'Noun + and/nor + Noun' phrases, sometimes with exactly the same phrases as twene (cf. (21)-(23)).

(20) As off gruchchyng, but atwen ioie and smert Thanke God off all, and euer be glad off hert. (Fall of Princes, p. 95)

(21) Souereyn lord, plese to your goodlyheed And to your gracious Royal magnyficence To take this tretys, which a-twen hope and dreed Presentyd ys to your hyh excellence!

(S. Edmund und Fremund, Regio, MS Harley 2278; 1450) (22) O myn a-vowe which callyd art seyn Gile, Tween hoope and dreed moost meekly I requere: Thynk on thy man, that labourid to compile This litil ditee of hool herte and enteere! (S. Giles, ll. 361-364)

(23) Assemblyd wem, fully purposyng To seeke the body of ther holy kyng. And compleyned atwixen hope and dreed Whan they hadde his blissid body founde, (S. Edmund und Fremund, Book II, ll. 874-877; MS Ashmole 46; 1500)

(24) Nor, kan nat dyscerne A-ryght ffor ygnorance & lak off syht At-wexen helthe & malladye; Nor, a-twen the meselrye Grettest, smallest, and the mene; He kan no dyfference atwene Newe syknesse nor the olde. (The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, (all MSS) ll. 2437-2443)

Occasional 'Noun + and + Personal Pronoun' complements are almost exclusively matched with the preposition atwix, e.g.,

(25) And told the cause (yiff ye be wys,) Off my komyng A-mong thys pres, A-twyxe yow & Moyses, And sette me ek (yt ys no fable,) (The Pilgrimage of the Life of Man, (all MSS) ll. 4564-4567)

The only use of the preposition twix attested in Lydgate's works is to be found in context with the numeral two in Song against Flemings:

(26) The pees purposyd at Araas in soothnesse, Whan our embassatourys, of hool affeccioun, Cam goodly thedyr, dyd ther bysinesse, To haue concluded a parfyt vnyoun Twyxt to reavmus, for ful conclusioun, (Song against Flemings, stanza 4; MS Lambeth 84)

The case of the complements of any of the prepositions cannot be specified as dative or/and accusative due to the Late Middle English dating of the manuscripts.

6. Temporal and dialectal distribution

Neither the temporal nor the dialectal distribution of the Lydgate's most frequent prepositions/adverbs meaning 'between', i.e., twen(e), atwen, and atwix is very extensive. Regarding the time of occurrence, none of the discussed lexemes is recorded in Old English (see section 4 above). Furthermore, the MED and my CMEPV search results show that there are only three Early Middle English texts which contain twen(e) and/or atwix, i.e., Holy Rood (1175), which includes the earliest attested instance of twen(e), Genesis and Exodus (1325) and Guy of Warwick (MS Auchinleck, 1330) containing the first recorded example of atwix. The other texts employing the analysed words are preserved in the Late Middle English manuscripts. Among them there is the MS St. John's College H.1 (204) of John Trevisa's translation of Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden maonachi Cestrensis from 1387 including the earliest case of atwen. Interestingly, the Middle English Dictionary provides the later text of John Lydgate's Troy Book from 1425 as the original source of atwen. The latest attested Middle English appearance of each examined word comes from 1500.

Regarding the dialectal provenance, the collected data demonstrate that atwen is recorded exclusively in East Midland texts, while twen(e) prevailingly occurs there as well. Atwen is recorded in seven East Midland texts included in the MED and in the CMEPV, while twen(e) in five. Apart from that, twen(e) can be found only in one extra text from the South West and one from the North (for more details see Ciszek-Kiliszewska 2014b and 2015). Moreover, atwix is attested in 11 East Midland texts, including only two written by Chaucer. The results of the analysis focusing on the number of tokens of the investigated lexemes in those texts shed some more light on the proportion of use of the twen(e), atwen, and atwix by Lydgate and by some other authors. More specifically, the number of those three Lydgate's most frequent words meaning 'between' calculated in all other texts listed by the MED and included in the CMEPV are inversely proportional to the number of tokens calculated in the analysed Lydgate's texts. Altogether, there are 21 tokens of twen(e), 23 of atwen as well as 116 of atwix. Hence, Lydgate's abundant use of those three lexemes and especially of twen(e) and atwen are unique when compared to the general tendency observed in the Middle English texts.

Lydgate's extensive use of twen(e) could in theory be accounted for on the basis of a metrical analysis of his poems. Bearing in mind the fact that twen(e) was an aphetic form of bitwen(e), one would expect twen(e) to be a stressed monosyllabic word meaning 'between'. However, the examination of Lydgate's cases of the preposition reveals an opposite phenomenon. As illustrated in (8),

(17), (18), (19), and (22) above, twen(e) occurred in a verse unstressed position.

Hence, the poet could easily preserve the semantic load of the preposition bitwen(e) and use its monosyllabic equivalent twen(e) whenever he needed an unstressed position of his iambic pentameter to be filled in.

7. Conclusions

The aim of the present study was to investigate the use of the prepositions and adverbs meaning 'between' in John Lydgate's works. Aspects such as the types of lexemes, their etymology, syntax, temporal, dialectal and textual distribution as well as the number of tokens were examined. 17 texts by the author, with some of them preserved in more than one manuscript, were selected for a closer analysis. The MED online, the CMEPV, and the OED online were used as the databases.

Regarding the types of the analysed lexemes, I have found six types, i.e., bitwen(e), twen(e), atwen, bitwix, atwix, and twix. As for their etymology, bitwen(e) and bitwix were well established already in Old English, while the other four lexemes were derived from the former respectively in Middle English. The latest Middle English occurrences of all all those lexemes are recorded by the MED in 1500. All six types were employed in Lydgate's works with the function of prepositions, whereas two of them, i.e., bitwen(e) and atwen additionally functioned as adverbs. The analysis demonstrated that Lydgate deliberately avoided the use of the best established prepositions, i.e., bitwen(e) and bitwix, and employed atwen, twen(e), and atwix in gross numbers instead. He preferred to carefully use the preposition atwen prevailingly with the numeral 'two' and also with personal pronouns, while the preposition twen(e) was dominant with 'Noun + and + Noun' phrases. Atwix was employed in all those contexts as a secondary type. In Lydgate's works under analysis I have found 222 tokens of atwen, 117 of twen(e), and 72 of atwix, which results, when compared to those obtained for the whole set of Middle English texts included in the MED and the CMEPV, i.e., 23, 21, and 116 respectively, makes Lydgate's use of the lexemes meaning 'between' unique in the whole history of the English language. Lydgate's frequent use of twen(e) seems to have been motivated by his treatment of twen(e) as a verse unstressed, rahther than stressed, equivalent of bitwen(e).

doi: 10.1515/stap-2016-0014



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Faculty of English, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan

* Faculty of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, al. Niepodleglosci 4, 61-874 Poznan, Poland, e-mail:

(1) There is one more text by Lydgate, i.e., Against Millers and Bakers (1460) included in the CMEPV but it does not yield any prepositions or adverbs meaning 'between'.

(2) Actually, the MED lists one more short poem by Lydgate containing the preposition twen(e), i.e., Saints Alban and Amphibal (1500) but the author of the paper had no access to the text.

(3) The MED labels the text as Banner of Saint Edmund. The dictionary does not list the text as including any preposition meaning 'between', though.

(4) The MED labels the text as Consulo quisque eris.

(5) Page numbers refer to the editions used by the CMEPV. All quoted instances of atwen are put in bold type [my emphasis].
Table 1. Number of tokens of Lydgate's words meaning 'between'

John Lydgate's text       twen(e)   bitwen(e)    atwen

Fall of Princes (1439)      65         --          93
  (MS Bodl. 263)
Secreta Secretorum          15         --          8
  (1450) (MS Sloane
Praise of Peace (1460)       2         --          6
  (MS Harley 2255)
Horns Away (1475) (MS        1         --
  Laud Misc. 683)
Aesop's Fables (1500)        3         --          6
  (MS Trin. Coll. R.
  3.19 (599))
Debate of the Horse,         1          4          2
  Goose and Sheep (MS
  Harley 2251) (1475)
(MS Lansdowne 699)           2          3          2
The Pilgrimage of the
  Life of Man
(MS Cotton Vitellius         1          2       16+3adv.
C.13)(1475) (MS Cotton       1          2       16+3adv.
A.7)(1475) (MS Stowe         1          2       16+3adv.
  952) (1500)
S. Giles (1460) (MS          3         --          3
  Harley 2255)
Lyke the Audience, so
  Uttir thy Language
(MS Harley 2255)             3         --          1
(1460) (MS Univ. Lib.        3         --          1
Hh. 4. 12) (c.1475)
(MS Additional 34,           2         --          2
  360) (1500)
S. Edmund und Fremund
(MS Harley 2278)             7         --          4
(MS Ashmole 46) (1500)       7                     4
  Stans Puer ad Mensam
(MS Harley 2251)            --         --          1
(MS Lambeth 853)                     1 adv.
  (1450) Life of
  Saint Margaret (1475)
(MS Durham--U Cosin         --         --          1
  V.2.14) Reason and
  Sensuality (1450)
(MS Fairfax 16) Troy        --          1          6
(MS Cotton Augustus         --       4+1adv.     9+2adv
  A.4; 1425) Siege of
(MS Arundel 119; 1450)      --         --          14
  Temple of Glass
(MS Tanner 346) John        --          1          --
  Lydgate, Song
against Flemings (1479)     --         --          --
  (MS Lambeth 84)

Total                       117        20         222

John Lydgate's text       atwix   bitwix   twix

Fall of Princes (1439)      8       8
  (MS Bodl. 263)
Secreta Secretorum          3
  (1450) (MS Sloane
Praise of Peace (1460)     --       --      --
  (MS Harley 2255)
Horns Away (1475) (MS      --       --      --
  Laud Misc. 683)
Aesop's Fables (1500)      --       --      --
  (MS Trin. Coll. R.
  3.19 (599))
Debate of the Horse,       --       --      --
  Goose and Sheep (MS
  Harley 2251) (1475)
(MS Lansdowne 699)         --       --      --
The Pilgrimage of the
  Life of Man
(MS Cotton Vitellius       14       5       --
C.13)(1475) (MS Cotton     14       5       --
A.7)(1475) (MS Stowe       14       5       --
  952) (1500)
S. Giles (1460) (MS        --       --      --
  Harley 2255)
Lyke the Audience, so
  Uttir thy Language
(MS Harley 2255)           --       --      --
(1460) (MS Univ. Lib.
Hh. 4. 12) (c.1475)
(MS Additional 34,         --       --      --
  360) (1500)
S. Edmund und Fremund
(MS Harley 2278)            3       --      --
(MS Ashmole 46) (1500)      3       --      --
  Stans Puer ad Mensam
(MS Harley 2251)           --       --      --
(MS Lambeth 853)
  (1450) Life of
  Saint Margaret (1475)
(MS Durham--U Cosin        --       --      --
  V.2.14) Reason and
  Sensuality (1450)
(MS Fairfax 16) Troy        2       -       --
(MS Cotton Augustus        12       3       --
  A.4; 1425) Siege of
(MS Arundel 119; 1450)      4       2       --
  Temple of Glass
(MS Tanner 346) John        1       3       --
  Lydgate, Song
against Flemings (1479)    --       --      1
  (MS Lambeth 84)

Total                      72       31      1
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Author:Ciszek-Kiliszewska, Ewa
Publication:Studia Anglica Posnaniensia: international review of English Studies
Article Type:Critical essay
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Sep 1, 2016
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