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John Christopher Smith's pasticcio oratorios.

John christopher smith the younger is often remembered for his services to posterity in connection with Handel's manuscripts, which he inherited on the death in 1763 of his father John Christopher Smith the elder, Handel's friend and chief copyist. The younger Smith's gift to George III of Handel's autographs, now at the British Library, and his preservation of Handel's conducting scores, most of which ended up in the Staats- und Universitatsbibliothek, Hamburg, are acts that scholars today must be grateful for. Unfortunately, Smith's own compositions, which once formed part of the collection now at Hamburg, were not as well served as those of Handel. A significant number of his operas and oratorios were lost.

It is a pleasure to announce the recovery of some of that lost music: Smith's autograph manuscripts for the oratorios Nabal, Redemption and Tobit, as well as his autograph for Gideon, which has until now been known only through an incomplete copy. His manuscripts have been discovered at the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. How did they get there? In 1856 the Handel scholar Victor Schoelcher bought Smith's large collection of manuscripts from the Bristol book dealer Thomas Kerslake. The collection included the majority of Handel's conducting scores as well as most of Smith's own compositions. Schoelcher sold the Handel scores in 1868 and a good part of Smith's works some years later to the city of Hamburg, but he kept some of Smith's manuscripts for himself. In 1872-3 he donated his own vast collection to the Conservatoire de Musique (F-Pc); it was transferred to the Bibliotheque Nationale (F-Pn) in 1964, and the four oratorio manuscripts have sat there since.(1)

Before discussing the works themselves and some of the issues they raise, it might be useful to have a sense of the composer's life and of the context in which these oratorios appeared. John Christopher Smith (1712-95) had a long and occasionally successful career.(2) The earliest work we know of, the funeral ode 'The Mourning Muse of Alexis', was composed in 1729; his last work, the oratorio Redemption, was probably written in 1774 or later; his career thus spanned some 45 years. Smith was known primarily as a composer and conductor. He enjoyed success as David Garrick's collaborator in the 1750s, and he was undoubtedly the leading conductor of London's oratorios in the 1760s and early 1770s.

Smith's life and career were marked by a close relationship with Handel. By 1725 he was receiving lessons from him, and for a time in 1726 he was one of his copyists, producing volumes for Elizabeth Legh.(3) Around 1752, when Handel's blindness was more or less complete, Smith became his assistant, and he played an active role in the production of Handel's oratorios throughout the 1750s. Following Handel's death in 1759, Smith and John Stanley took over the direction of the oratorios; they continued their collaboration until 1774, when Smith retired to Bath. Throughout Smith's tenure as co-director, oratorios were generally presented, as they had been under Handel, on Wednesdays and Fridays during Lent; a typical season ran to ten or eleven performances.(4) The pasticcios discussed here were produced for those entertainments.

In connection with Smith's productions in the 1760s and '70s, two other points should be noted.(5) The first is that, on Handel's death in 1759, composers such as Smith and Stanley apparently felt encouraged to write oratorios to fill the space left by the departure of that giant. Each produced a new work for the following season - Smith his Paradise Lost, Stanley his Zimri - and Smith went on to create at least five more oratorios in the following decade. However, he was soon to learn (whether to his disappointment or not we do not know) that audiences were much less interested in his music than in Handel's. As Roger Fiske has pointed out, drawing on figures published in The London Stage, for the first night of Smith's Rebecca (4 March 1761) 378 persons were present and the total house receipts were [pounds]114. 16s.(6) Compare that with Judas Maccabaeus on 6 February (1,215 present; receipts of [pounds]371. 16s. 6d.) or Messiah, performed 11 March (1,441 present; receipts of [pounds]473. 7s.).(7) The takings for a night of Handel were of the order of four times those for a night of Smith.

A second point concerns the role of pasticcio in both opera and oratorio composition of the period. In the 1760s and '70s a good number of new oratorio texts were written and set to popular airs and choruses from Handel's works. Samuel Arnold's Redemption of 1786 is merely the most famous example of what was by then a well-established practice. It has been observed that this procedure led to the dominance of miscellaneous concerts by the end of the century.

The facts that Handel's music paid and that Handel pasticcios became popular are surely related. The pasticcios can be seen as a compromise that allowed composers and librettists both to present new works on the stage and to satisfy the apparently insatiable appetite for Handel's music.

Smith had, of course, an extraordinary advantage over his competitors, for it was he who had inherited all of Handel's manuscripts, both autographs and conducting scores, and it was thus he who had access to the richest body of source material for Handelian pasticcios. We shall see in a moment that on at least one occasion he took full advantage of that fact.

Three of the autograph manuscripts found in Paris, Nabal, Gideon and Tobit, are pasticcios that draw heavily on the music of Handel. The fourth, Redemption, is apparently all by Smith. I am not discussing that oratorio here, except to say that it is full of very fine music that might go a long way towards establishing Smith's reputation.

The presence in the pasticcio manuscripts of singers' names in pencil, indications for transposition, insertions, cuts and so forth suggests that all three served as Smith's conducting scores. I now introduce each work briefly and then go on to consider some of the more important issues raised by their rediscovery. For information on the manuscripts themselves, see Appendix I; for the sources of the music in each and the numbering to which I refer below, see Appendix II.

'NABAL' (F-Pc Res. VS 1378)

Thomas Morell's libretto, based on 1 Samuel 35, tells the story of the pagan Nabal's downfall and of David's taking of Nabal's widow, Abigail, as his second wife. At first blush, Nabal may seem an odd choice for the title-role of a biblical oratorio. He is miserly and self-absorbed, devoid of religious sentiment, and chiefly interested in the pleasures of the feast. But therein lies, perhaps, his attraction for the librettist and composer. Nabal's story allows plenty of room for festive music and explorations of pleasure in and of itself, and Smith and Morell did not waste the opportunity. Morell significantly expanded the feast scene described in 1 Samuel: his Part I ends with an air ('Fill, fill, the bowl') and two choruses of celebration ('Gay and light', 'Happy if still we reign'). For Part II, when Nabal refuses David's desperate plea for assistance and turns back to his revelry, Morell wrote an even larger scene, with a further two airs ('With harps new-strung', 'Sing we the feast') and two choruses ('Come, live with pleasure', 'Crown with festal pomp'), all concerned, once again, with the gratifications of the feast.

The story also provides for a strong dramatic contrast between the hedonist Nabal and his virtuous and beautiful wife Abigail (David's role is less significant than those of Nabal and Abigail in this oratorio). Her first appearance in Part II, for example, immediately following the feast scene described above, is with a touching accompanied recitative, 'Thrice happy sheep' (No. 18; see Ex. 1), followed by a prayer to God ('Mind eternal', a parody of 'Menti eterne' from Lotario).

Nabal was performed at Covent Garden on 16 and 21 March 1764.(8) The libretto's dramatis personae lists David (tenor(9)); Nabal (bass); Asaph, companion of David (soprano); Abigail (soprano); and choruses of attendants on David and on Nabal. The composer Smith is not named, nor is the cast listed in the printed libretto.(10) There are, however, indications of two singers' names in the score. For the air 'Gay and light as yonder sheep' (No. 7), sung by an attendant on Nabal, Smith wrote the indication 'For Miss Brent' (gathering 10, f. 2), and her name appears on six other occasions in the manuscript.(11) Mrs Scott is named along with Miss Brent at the duet of Asaph and

[Musical Expression Omitted]

Nabal's attendant, 'Thrice happy pair' (No. 33), and it is possible that she sang the part of Asaph.(12)

A manuscript word-book in Morell's hand, dated 15 February 1764 and signed by John Beard and Priscilla Rich, is in the Larpent collection,(13) and several copies of the printed libretto survive.(14) The music was drawn from a wide range of Handel's works, as the following short list of sources shows:(15) Alceste (HWV 45), Alcina (HWV 34), Arianna in Creta (HWV 32), Ariodante (HWV 33), Belshazzar (HWV 61), Ezio (HWV 29), Faramondo (HWV 39), Floridante (HWV 14), Funeral Anthem (HWV 264), Giulio Cesare (HWV 17), Hercules (HWV 60), Joseph (HWV 59), Lotario (HWV 26), Muzio Scevola (HWV 13), Ottone (HWV 15), Parnasso in festa (HWV 73), Radamisto (HWV 12a), Riccardo Primo (HWV 23), Rodelinda (HWV 19), Scipione (HWV 20), 'Silete venti' (HWV 242), The Triumph of Time and Truth (HWV 71).

'GIDEON' (F-Pc Res. VS 1380, 2151)

Gideon is a pasticcio oratorio arranged from the works of both Handel and Smith. The libretto, adapted by Morell from Judges 6-7,(16) tells the story of the hero Gideon's leading of the Israelites against their oppressors, the Midians. The oratorio was performed at Covent Garden on 10 and 15 February 1769 and revived the following spring at Drury Lane (9 March 1770).(17) Coxe says that it was also given at Carlton House, at the insistence of Smith's pupil the Dowager Princess of Wales.(18) One contemporary report viewed the work unfavourably: the Theatrical Register commented, 'We cannot commend this piece, it being altogether a very tedious and heavy performance'.(19)

The parts listed in the libretto are Gideon (generally a soprano part(20)), Joash (bass), Eliakim (soprano), a Priest of Baal (bass, but soprano in Part III), Oreb (soprano) and a chorus of Israelites. The score has additional parts for an Angel (soprano), a Messenger (soprano) and various narrators called Israelite (soprano, tenor and bass). The libretto names no cast, but the score once again provides assistance in the form of singers' names added by Smith in pencil and ink before various items. Mrs Scott reappears, pencilled in for various recitatives and airs given to Israelites; she also sang the duet 'Sweet peace' (No. 41) with Mrs Weichsell.(21) The final chorus, 'Glorious patron! glorious hero', provides the names of two other soloists, Mr Norris and Mr Champness.(22) Matching these names with the characters listed above is difficult. The bass role of Joash was sung by Champness, and Norris sang a portion of Gideon's role, but the rest cannot be so easily assigned because the singers moved around the parts, apparently taking music for which they or Smith thought they were best suited.(23)

The title-page of the printed libretto credits Handel with the composition;(24) the sources include Aci, Galatea e Polifemo (HWV 72), 'Dixit dominus' (HWV 232), 'Laudate pueri dominum' (HWV 237), the Neun deutsche Arien (HWV 203, 205, 206, 209), La Resurrezione (HWV 47), Rodrigo (HWV 5) and 'Silete venti' (HWV 242) - an interesting selection, to which I return below. Smith also drew on his own Feast of Darius and Issipile.

Gideon is the only one of the Smith oratorios in Paris for which a second copy survives, in the British Library. R.M. 19.b.5. is a tidy full score that was almost certainly copied from the Paris manuscript.(25) The copy is in some respects incomplete. For example, the voice part of two airs(26) is missing and the score names no characters. Nonetheless, the Royal Library copy is important not only for confirming various revisions and cuts seen in Smith's conducting score but also because it provides music not found there. For example, it has the music for the first part of the chorus 'Fear not, be bold' (No. 17), which was cut out of the Paris score and no longer survives in Smith's hand.

Gideon is also the only one of the three pasticcio oratorios with a complicated textual history, no doubt because it was revived on at least one occasion and more than one manuscript survives. These are matters to be sorted out by an editor; however, it may be of interest to explore one of the numerous revisions found in the Paris score. Over the course of its life, the work had at least two different endings. In the original libretto (pp. 22-3), the oratorio concludes with a duet, 'Sweet peace', a recitative, 'Our hearts their confidence repos'd', and the chorus 'Glorious patron! glorious hero!' The three items occupy the regular gatherings 20-24 of the autograph manuscript. In between gatherings 19 and 20 (i.e., preceding the duet 'Sweet peace') is found an insertion of fourteen leaves on different paper ruled with a different rastrum and in the hand of S5 containing the chorus 'Happy nation' (not printed in the original libretto), at the end of which is written 'Finis'.(27) The remaining leaves of the score (gatherings 20-24, including the duet, recitative and final chorus) were sewn together (they have holes in the outer margins complete with remainders of thread), and it is clear that for at least one performance Smith chose to end Gideon with the newly inserted chorus. A printed libretto showing this form of the ending, which survives in the Huntington Library at San Marino, California, proves that this variant was introduced for the second performance (15 February 1769) or the revival (9 March 1770).(28)

The oratorio's conclusion underwent further revisions, whose order is not altogether clear. For example, it is apparent that before the chorus 'Happy nation' was inserted and the rest of the act sewn together, the 'B' section of the duet 'Sweet peace' had already been crossed out in ink and sewn shut to effect a cut. The British Library copy suggests yet another possibility: that the chorus 'Happy nation' was used to end the work but was itself preceded by the duet.

As to why Smith might have revised the ending so drastically, we may note that it was odd to end both Parts II and III with precisely the same chorus, 'Glorious patron! glorious hero!' Perhaps he decided that the experiment was a failure. The revision may also represent a desire to abridge the work, perhaps in response to criticism of its tediousness. Gideon seems a very long oratorio indeed.

'TOBIT' (F-Pc Res. VS 1379)

Based on the book of Tobit in the Apochrypha, the oratorio tells the stories of Tobit, who honourably buries his compatriots (thus defying Sennacherib, King of the Ninevites); of Tobit's blindness being cured; and of his son Tobias marrying Sarah and abolishing the demon occupying her - the demon had killed her seven preceding husbands. The dramatis personae, derived from the score, are as follows: Tobit (tenor), Anna (Tobit's wife; soprano), Tobias (soprano), Sarah (soprano), Raguel (Sarah's father; bass), Raphael (the angel; soprano) and various Ninevites.

The libretto was written by Morell (see below); the music is all by Handel, as the following short list of sources shows: Alessandro (HWV 21), Alexander Balus (HWV 65), Ariodante (HWV 33), Athalia (HWV 52), Deborah (HWV 51), Esther (HWV 50a), Faramondo (HWV 39), Giulio Cesare (HWV 17), Hercules (HWV 60), Joseph (HWV 59), L'Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato (HWV 55), Orlando (HWV 31), Poro (HWV 28), Rodelinda (HWV 19), Semele (HWV 58), Sosarme (HWV 30), Susanna (HWV 66), Tamerlano (HWV 18), Theodora (HV 68).

Smith was one of those admirable (or just plain stubborn) composers who continue to write music whether or not it is performed or published. For example, there were apparently no performances of his oratorios The Feast of Darius, Jehosaphat, Judith and Redemption.(29) No performance of Tobit is recorded, and no printed libretto survives; however, at least one rehearsal and/or performance seems to have taken place, since Smith's manuscript exhibits evidence of use as a conducting score. For example, the 'B' section of the air 'Thy pleasing face' (No. 14) is crossed out, and the names of the singers Mrs Scott and 'The Boy' are written in pencil at the duet 'Cease thy anguish' (No. 15). Tobit may have been one of the works performed at Carlton House, if we can trust Coxe on this point (see n. 18, above).

Although no performance dates are known, it may still be possible to date this oratorio. The watermarks and rastra of Smith's manuscript are the same as those found in his Nabal of 1764 (see Appendix I).(30) Secondly, the binding of the two volumes is identical - the later works Gideon and Redemption share a different binding. This may be significant, because conducting scores were often bound early on to facilitate their use at the keyboard. Finally, the pasticcio techniques seen in Tobit and Nabal are the same - they differ from those in Gideon (see below). For these reasons, I believe that Tobit was probably written c. 1764.(31)

ASPECTS OF THE PASTICCIO PROCESS IN SMITH'S ORATORIOS

To begin with, we may observe that recitatives and accompanied recitatives were all presumably composed by Smith. In Nabal and Tobit, the airs and duets were almost invariably taken over from Handel's operas; Morell was thus required to write parody texts.(32) Curiously, the choruses in these two works were taken over wholesale (both text and music) from Handel's oratorios.(33) This procedure is obviously a time-saving measure; the selection may also reflect particular favourites, whether of the authors or of their public.

Gideon shows a different approach. First, Smith used some of his own music, taken chiefly from The Feast of Darius. Second, the Handel choruses were all parodied. This is not surprising, since many of the model choruses were written to Latin texts. A third difference is seen in the choruses 'Great Jehovah shall reward thee' (No. 17) and 'Happy nation' (No. 42). In each case, Smith created a four-part chorus using materials from Handel's duet 'Tanti strali' (HWV 197), along the lines used by Handel himself to create choruses from duets in Messiah.(34)

As Ex. 2 shows, in some cases Smith simply added new lines to accompany the originals in parallel thirds or sixths (see, for example, the tenor line in bars 56 ff. in Ex. 2a). Elsewhere, the thinking is more complex. Smith's chorus shows considerable reordering and remixing of elements from Handel's original. For example, in bars 1821 (modelled on Handel's bars 3-6), the strings' accompaniment figure is taken from a correspondingly later point in the duet (Handel, bars 22-5: Ex. 2b). Along similar lines, Smith created a new sixteen-bar opening ritornello using materials from 'Tanti strali' (Ex. 2c): he adjusted the rhythm of the opening phrase (bars 3-4 in both Smith and Handel), added harmony to the suspension figure of bars 4 ff. (derived from bars 28 ff. of the original), and provided a new idea for bars 9-10. Smith added still more music to the original, thus considerably expanding its overall length: between bars 73 and 76 he extended by two bars the bass pedal on D (Ex. 2d). He apparently liked this idea, for later on he added eight more bars of similar material over a pedal (bars 98105). The choruses 'Happy nation' and 'Great Jehovah shall reward thee' (about which similar observations could be made) are no mere orchestrations: they contain new music and must be considered new compositions by Smith.

Finally, with Gideon Smith and Morell appear to have consciously set out to utilize almost exclusively 'unknown' music by Handel. As the short list of sources given above shows, they relied heavily on Handel's Italian period: 'Dixit dominus', 'Laudate pueri', Rodrigo and so forth. On this occasion Smith took full advantage of his position as inheritor of Handel's manuscripts. In fact, this would have been the first time London audiences had heard much of this music. Like Edward Toms, whose 1764 pasticcio Israel in Babylon drew on Handel's anthems, operas and concertos, Smith and Morell set out to create what can fairly be called a 'new' Handel oratorio.(35)

Given the closeness of Smith and Morell to Handel,(36) and the almost exclusive reliance on Handel in the music itself (except for recitatives and accompagnatos, Nabal and Tobit are pure Handel; Gideon is about three-quarters Handel), we might logically ask: to what extent do these manuscripts provide information on Handel's own practices? In an attempt to throw some light on this question, I now briefly explore three issues that the Paris manuscripts raise: performance practices; the relationship of the Smith

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manuscripts to Handel's own conducting scores; and the parody process. I then conclude with a brief consideration of pasticcio in general.

PERFORMANCE PRACTICE

The Smith scores prompt consideration of three performance practice issues. The first concerns the cutting of 'B' sections of da capo arias. There are numerous examples of this in these manuscripts, generally effected by crossing out the 'B' section in ink and/or sewing appropriate pages shut. In Tobit three airs come in for such treatment, in Nabal five and in Gideon no fewer than seven.(37)

There is, of course, nothing new in this. Handel himself occasionally cut 'B' sections of da capo arias in both opera and oratorio. What the Smith manuscripts do is to provide more evidence that this was a common and acceptable practice, even if, for us today, such cuts may be problematic.

As to why airs might have been trimmed in this manner, the obvious explanation would be to shorten the length of an evening's entertainment. The large number of 'B' section cuts in Gideon (seven of the da capo or dal segno arias) would seem to confirm this. We might also note that the da capo aria was going out of fashion by the 1760s, even in conservative England. This would also help to explain the increased number of such cuts in Gideon. By the time of Redemption (1774 or later), Smith had ceased using the da capo aria altogether: there is not a single one in the whole score.

A second performance issue concerns the use of oboes. In the treatment of them in choruses, there is a notable difference between the Gideon score in Paris and the copy in London. In more than half the choruses, the latter has additional staves and music for the oboes not found in the Paris manuscript from which it was presumably copied. The copyist created oboe parts that more or less consistently double the top two parts of the chorus throughout in six of the oratorio's eleven choruses.(38)

Smith could have dispensed with writing out oboe parts in his conducting score for the majority of the choruses if he could expect the copyist(s) of parts and/or of R.M. 19.b.5 to create doubling parts for him. The question is: was this a normal practice? It is worth noting that the Foundling Hospital Messiah oboe parts were similarly created out of thin air, as it were, in the 1750s: basically, they double the top two parts of the chorus.(39) The Gideon copy suggests the possibility that this practice of lending support to the boys who sang the upper parts in choruses may have become more common in the following decade, although more work on this question is certainly called for.

More generally, Smith's pasticcio manuscripts may be informative on matters of detail such as tempo, dynamics, continuo figurings and articulations. It should be remembered that Smith worked with Handel in a variety of capacities (copyist, organist, co-conductor and even co-composer(40)) for years and had an acquaintance with Handel's music and his practices that may well be unequalled. We could learn a thing or two from his experience.

Where his tempos differ from those provided by Handel, as they occasionally do, they may reflect the benefit of practice; at least they can suggest to performers a shading in one direction or another. Where Handel's articulations are unclear (is that slur over two or three notes?), Smith's interpretations may provide guidance: they do show us what Handel's partner thought was appropriate. We should also bear in mind that Smith probably had access to and used performing parts that no longer survive.

SMITH'S ORATORIOS AND HANDEL'S CONDUCTING SCORES

The second principal issue concerns the possible effects of Smith's arrangements on Handel's own conducting scores. Smith, of course, continued to use and revise Handel's manuscripts after the latter's death, and it is very likely that he copied from them for his pasticcios.(41) This raises the possibility that the Smith manuscripts might help editors and other scholars to interpret directions (cuts, transpositions and so forth) in Handel's conducting scores that are otherwise inexplicable. One prospect can be suggested at this time.

The elimination of the soprano solo at the beginning of the chorus 'Happy, if still they reign' in the 1757 conducting score of The Triumph of Time and Truth is undated in Hans Dieter Clausen's catalogue.(42) The chorus was used in 1764 in Smith's Nabal with the slightly modified text 'Happy, if still we reign' (No. 9). Smith's version lacks the soprano solo, and it is possible that this cut, about which we have no further information, was indicated in Handel's conducting score when Smith was planning his use of the chorus in 1764.

I do not think there are many other cases like this because the texts of the pasticcios rather closely parallel the original Handel texts, at least as they are given in Chrysander's Handel-Gesellschaft edition.(43) Nonetheless, editors of the works used as sources by Smith should consider his pasticcios when they encounter modifications or directions they cannot explain.

THE PARODY PROCESS: THE 'TOBIT' LIBRETTO

The third issue concerns parody. The Tobit score contains a manuscript word-book for Part III that is most informative about the pasticcio, or at least the parody, process. The word-book, in the hand of Thomas Morell,(44) provided Smith with complete information on how to adapt the new texts to the source music. Morell accomplished this by providing detailed information about text underlay and by writing out the entire text with all its repetitions.

As an example of the process, we may consider the air 'My son how happy' (No. 25), adapted from 'Mio caro bene' in Rodelinda, HWV 19 (34a) (see Pl. I & Ex. 3). Morell has carefully indicated how his text is to be fitted to the music of Handel's aria. The series of hyphens in the word 'more' (Pl. I, line 5, two-thirds of the way down the first page) shows that the melisma of the original voice part, beginning at bar 15, is to be placed here. Similarly, the semicircles above words in the libretto indicate slurs. For example, compare the last syllable of the second line of text, 're-turn', which has a slur in the libretto, with the score (P1. II, bar 13). Smith originally wrote two separate quavers here. He was no doubt looking at the original, which has separate notes for the word 'pene' (Ex. 3, bar 13). Finally, compare the articulation on each iteration of 'no' in the libretto (Pl. I, line 5) with the setting in Smith's score (Pl. III, bar 18).

This example illustrates how Morell worked out the text-setting in advance of Smith's actual writing out of the music. In essence, Morell gave Smith all the information he would need. In order to do that, he also had to write out fully the text repetitions in each number. The complete and detailed layout of the trio 'More chearfull appearing' (No. 29, modelled on 'Consolati, o bella' in Orlando, HWV 31 (16)) illustrates this. Morell's text covers two full pages, and he went to some pains to provide a visual sense of exactly how the words were to be distributed among the three singers (Pl. IV).

More revealing is the air 'May true joy and every blessing' (No. 28, adapted from 'Dal fulgor' in Giulio Cesare, HWV 17 (32)). In his libretto, Morell mistakenly wrote the 'B' section of the text, beginning 'Dread no foe', immediately following the 'A' section (see Pl. V). He then placed an 'NB' at the end of the 'A' section, wrote out in full the

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repetitions of that section below, and marked the 'B' section as '2d', indicating that it should follow. It is quite clear that this revision was written on a later occasion. What it shows, I believe, is that writing out the text in full constituted an important part of the parody process, to the extent that Morell apparently had to go back on a second occasion and write out the repetitions of the 'A' section, perhaps before Smith could copy the music.

The Tobit word-book may be the only working (compositional) eighteenth-century pasticcio libretto to survive. It is thus of considerable general interest. More specifically, we must ask whether this word-book reflects Handel's practice. I think it does. Morell and Smith worked closely with Handel in the 1750s doing just this sort of thing: adapting new texts to previously composed operatic music. We occasionally find the new texts written into Handel's conducting scores,(45) but very often there is no trace of them in the sources. In those cases, it seems likely that a similar procedure obtained.

Could Nabal, Gideon or Tobit be performed today? After all, why have Handel pie when one can have chateaubriand? Perhaps Smith's pasticcio oratorios have only historical interest. On the other hand, perhaps there is art in the selection and adaptation of the music, and in the creation of new stories around those pre-selected airs and choruses.

Reinhard Strohm and Curtis Price have both stressed the importance of pasticcios in eighteenth-century musical life, and both have argued that such compositions should be judged, as they were at the time, no differently from newly composed operas and oratorios.(46) That singers and composers took the genre seriously can hardly be questioned. One of the more striking illustrations of that fact is the concern shown by the singer Gasparo Pacchierotti that Metastasio's dramatic irony in the duet 'Se mai turbo il tuo riposo/Se mai piu saro geloso', performed in the 1779 London pasticcio Alessandro nell'Indie, should be reflected by the music.(47)

A second issue with pasticcio is the problem of authorship. Who 'composed' these oratorios? Do the words 'author' or 'composer' have any meaning in the case of pasticcios such as these? In my opinion, they do, and I would say that Smith and Morell must be considered equal partners in the creation of these works. Smith probably selected the music. Although there is no proof of this, it is particularly likely in the case of Gideon, for which some of the music could only be found in Handel's autographs, which were in Smith's possession. Morell had the job of making the selection coherent, of creating the drawing, to use John Brown's analogy,(48) to which Smith's colours could be applied.

It may fairly be said that the eighteenth century was an age in which men admired not originality, but cleverness in the manipulation of given materials.(49) If that is so, there is all the more reason for us to consider Nabal, Gideon and Tobit as works of art that stand or fall on their own merits.

APPENDIX I

The Manuscripts

NABAL

F-Pc Res. VS 1378

3 vols., oblong quarto, 30.5 x 24 cm.; bound in calf.

The covers have panels of red leather with gilt tooling and lettering that read: 'Nabal / An / Oratorio / Part I [or II or III]'. Pasted spine labels in Schoelcher's hand read: 'Nabal / an Oratorio / 1ere [2e or 3e] Partie'. There are no title-pages.

The manuscript has no modern foliation, but Smith's original gathering numbers survive (two bifolia or four leaves per gathering): Vol. 1 has 12 gatherings; Vols. 2 and 3 have 14 gatherings each.(1)

Watermarks:(2) Ha, Hb, F2e.

Rastra:(3) 2 x 5 @95 except Vol. 2, gatherings 7-8, and Vol. 3, gatherings 12-15, which are 6 x 2 @24.

GIDEON

F-Pc Res. VS 2151(1-2) (Parts I & II); Res. VS 1380 (Part III)

3 vols., oblong quarto, Vol. 1:30.5 x 23.5 cm.; Vol. 2:30 x 23 cm.; Vol. 3:31 x 24 cm.; boards covered in marbled paper with leather corners, leather spines with traces of pasted labels; only Vol. 3 has a full label, written by Schoelcher: 'Gideon / an Oratorio / Acte Troisieme'.

All three covers have original paper labels with manuscript titles that read: 'Gideon / an / Oratorio / Act First'; 'Gideon an / Oratorio / Second / Part'; and 'Gideon / an Oratorio / 3d part'; there are no title-pages.

Vols. 1 and 3 have Smith's original gathering numbers (two bifolia or four leaves per gathering) almost throughout; Vol. 2 has only a few. Vols. 1 and 2 have modern foliation in pencil: Vol. 1, 70ff.; Vol. 2, 72 ff.; Vol. 3 is unfoliated (24 gatherings).

Watermarks: He except for an inserted gathering in Vol. 3 between gatherings 19 and 20, which is Cu (and perhaps Vol. 1, f. 69, which may be Hb).

Rastra: Vol. 1:2 x 5 @95 mm. except ff. 54-63, which are ruled 2 x 5 @93 mm.; Vol. 2:2 x 5 @93 except ff. 4-15, which are ruled 2 x 5 @95 mm.; Vol. 3:2 x 5 @93 mm. except the inserted 14 leaves which are ruled with a 10-stave rastra: 1 x 10 @198 mm.

The insertion in Vol. 3 is in the hand of S5.

TOBIT

F-Pc Res. VS 1379

3 vols., oblong quarto, 30.5 x 24 cm.; bound in calf.

The covers have panels of red leather with gilt tooling and lettering that read: 'Tobit / An / Oratorio / Part I [or II or III]'. Pasted spine labels in Schoelcher's hand read: 'Tobit / an Oratorio / 1ere [2e or 3e] Partie'. There are no title-pages.

The manuscript has no modern foliation or pagination, but Smith's original gathering numbers survive (occasionally only a part of the digit survives), and they generally proceed regularly: Vols. 1 and 3 have 15 gatherings each; Vol. 2 has 18 gatherings. The final gathering of each volume consists of two leaves.

Watermarks: Hb except Vol. 3, gathering 1, which is F2e.

Rastra: 2 x 5 @95 except Vol. 2, gatherings 16-18, and Vol. 3, gatherings 11-12, which are ruled 6 x 2 @24.(4)

APPENDIX II

Musical Sources

Most of the following identifications were supplied by Anthony Hicks. The rest were furnished by the author, Andrew McCredie (Gideon), Thomas Morell (Tobit, Part III), John H. Roberts and Barbara Small. All simple and accompanied recitatives were presumably composed by Smith; I have listed (and numbered) only the incipits of the accompanied recitatives here. Where no comment is made, the movement is essentially the same as that found in Chrysander's edition of Handel's works (HG).(1) References to HG follow the format volume/page/system/bar; that is, the volume and page numbers within the volume are followed by a reference to the system (always counting down from the top of the page) and then the bar number within that system (beginning with the first full bar).

NABAL

PART I

Ouverture: 'Silete venti' HWV 242 (1) with newly composed ending; Menuet: Smith?

1 Chorus 'The Righteous shall be had in everlasting remembrance' Funeral Anthem HWV 264 (7)

The final section is abbreviated: the chorus ends with minims and rests in all parts at HG xi/63/i/5.

2 Accompagnato 'Have mercy on us, Lord'

3 Air 'Food they asked'

= 'Prigioniera ho l'alma in pena' Rodelinda HWV 19 (17a)

'A' section only; tempo Andante (vs. Allegro in HG).

4 Air and Chorus 'The Lord our guide'

Air = 'Lungo pensar' Muzio Scevola HWV 13 (1)

Chorus = 'Thus one with every virtue crown'd' Joseph HWV 59 (27)

5 Air 'Free from discord'

= 'Dolci aurette' Scipione HWV 20 (9)

Ends with a cadence on E[flat], at HG b. 15 beat 3

6 Air 'Fill, fill the bowl'

= 'Finche lo strale' Floridante HWV 14 (9)

Lacks viola part; shows slight recomposition

7 Air and Chorus 'Gay, and light'

= 'Sciolga dunque' Parnasso in festa HWV 73 (12)(2)

Air in G major (vs. E flat in HG)

8 Accompagnato "Tis Carmel's annual holiday'

9 Chorus 'Happy, if still we reign'

= 'Happy, if still they reign' The Triumph of Time and Truth HWV 71 (9)(3)

Some changes in the words

PART II

10 Air 'Great creator'

= 'Vieni o figlio' Ottone HWV 15 (16)

'A' section only; in G major (vs. E major in HG)

11 Chorus 'O God who in thy heav'nly hand'

Joseph HWV 59 (30)

Some changes in the words

12 Air 'Grateful hearts'

= 'Verdi prati' Alcina HWV 34 (26)

13 Accompagnato 'Peace to thee'

14 Air 'With harps new strung'

= 'Se un bell'ardire' Ezio HWV 29 (7)

'A' section only

15 Air and Chorus 'Come, come live with pleasure'

The Triumph of Time and Truth HWV 71 (4)

Smith adds a repeat sign for the last 16 bars

16 Air 'Sing we the feast'

= 'Bella sorge' Arianna in Creta HWV 32 (30b) (air only)

17 Chorus 'Crown with festal pomp'

Hercules HWV 60 (16)

18 Accompagnato 'Thrice happy sheep'

19 Air 'Mind eternal'

= 'Menti eterne' Lotario HWV 26 (16)

'A' section only

20 Accompagnato 'Fell monster'

21 Air 'Fury in all thy terrors'

= 'Gia che morir non posso' Radamisto HWV 12a (14)

In D minor (vs. C minor in HG)

22 Accompagnato 'On me, my Lord'

23 Air 'Mercy thou heav'nly cherub'

= 'Ben che mi sia crudele' Ottone HWV 15 (31b)

'A' section only; in G minor (vs. A minor in HG)

24 Accompagnato 'Blessed by the Lord'

25 Chorus 'All creatures upon God depend'(4)

= 'All empires upon God depend' Belshazzar HWV 61 (11)

PART III

26 Accompagnato 'Ah whence this sudden dread?'

27 Air 'Oh! who can tell the terrors'

= 'Al sen ti stringo' Ariodante HWV 33 (44)

28 Chorus 'By slow degrees'

Belshazzar HWV 61 (20)

29 Air 'When beauty sorrow's livery wears'

The text is the same as in Hercules HWV 60 (19), but the music differs

30 Air 'Lovely beauty'

= 'Semplicetto! a donna credi?' Alcina HWV 34 (12)

31 Air 'Come ye smiling hours'

= 'Caro, vieni a me' Riccardo I HWV 23 (15)

32 Accompagnato 'Guardian angels'

33 Duet 'Thrice happy pair'

= 'Caro, piu amabile belta' Giulio Cesare HWV 17 (43)

34 Solo and Chorus 'Still caressing and caress'd'

Alceste HWV 45 (4)

Some changes in the words

35 Duet 'Thoughts sublime'

= 'Vado e vivo' Faramondo HWV 39 (22)

36 Chorus 'O glorious prince'

Belshazzar HWV 61 (39b)

GIDEON

PART I

Ouverture, Menuet

= Ouverture from Smith's Feast of Darius (McCredie)(5)

1 Chorus 'Comfort us, O Lord'

= 'Dominus a dextris tuis', 'Dixit dominus' HWV 232 (6)

First part only, to 'Judicabit' (HG xxxviii, p. 93). The continuation of Handel's chorus is used in No. 30, below.

Smith's manuscript has Andante (vs. Allegro in HG)

2 Accompagnato 'No wonder that ye fly'

3 Air 'Trembling with horror'

= 'O voi dell'Erebo' La Resurrezione HWV 47 (6)

4 Chorus 'Lord, we seek thy blessing(16)

= 'De torrenti in via bibit', 'Dixit dominus' HWV 232 (7)

Begins piano in Gideon

5 Accompagnato 'By doubt and shame'

6 Air 'Rise with furious emulation'

= 'Se impassibile immortale' La Resurrezione HWV 47 (28)

Solo violoncello replaces Handel's solo viola da gamba

7 Air 'Thou light of Israel'

= 'In mano al mio sposo' Rodrigo HWV 5 (7)

8 Accompagnato 'Let the command suffice'

9 Chorus 'Immortal God'

= 'A solis ortu usque ad occasum', 'Laudate pueri dominum' HWV 237 (3)

10 Air 'Mighty Belus'

= 'Date serta', 'Silete venti' HWV 242 (5)

'A' section only

11 Air "Tis time my sons'

= 'Now tune with joy' Feast of Darius

12 Duet 'Sweet is conquest'

= 'Dolce, chiodi' La Resurezzione HWV 47 (10)

13 Trio 'Like a bright cherub'

= 'Placed on a cloud' Feast of Darius

14 Air 'May kind angels'

= 'Care luci' Issipile

15 Chorus 'Hail, enlivener of our cause'

'Hail, enlivener of the heart' Feast of Darius

PART II

16 Air 'How sweet the rose'

= 'How happy is the hermit's lot' Feast of Darius

17 Chorus(7) 'Fear not, be bold/Great Jehovah shall reward thee' = 'Dixit dominus' HWV 232 (4)/'Dunque annoda', 'Tanti strali' HWV 197

18 Air 'Israel's guardian'

= 'Susse stille' Neun deutsche Arien HWV 205

19 Air 'Hark how the winds'

= 'Fermati, non fuggir', 'Arresta il passo' HWV 83 (1)

20 Chorus 'Destroy these idols'

= 'From Time and Envy' Feast of Darius

21 Accompagnato 'Not these imperfect rites'

22 Air 'O glorious mortal'

= 'Das zitternde Glanzen' Neun deutsche Arien HWV 203

23 Accompagnato 'No more thus loud'

24 Trio 'From the mountain's brow'

= 'Provera lo sdegno' Aci, Galatea e Polifemo HWV 72 (11)

Smith adds a crotchet B in the bassi to start things off (vs. rests in HG)

25 Air 'Sons of Israel'

= 'Singe, Seele' Neun deutsche Arien HWV 206

26 Air 'Return. Tumultuous ruin shun'

= 'Can words the human breast control' Feast of Darius

27 Accompagnato 'Furious revenge'

Accompaniment idea possibly inspired by that of 'Qui ti sfido' in Arianna in creta HWV 32 (26a)

28 Solo and Chorus 'All glory be to thee'

= 'Laudate pueri dominum' HWV 237 (1)

29 Chorus 'Glorious patron'

= 'Gloria Patri', 'Laudate pueri dominum' HWV 237 (8)

Smith adds a two-bar plagal cadence at the end for all parts

PART III

30 Chorus 'Let Jehovah now by miracle'

= 'Judicabit in nationibus', 'Dixit dominus' HWV 232 (6); HG xxxviii, pp. 93-103, i.e., the middle part of this chorus. For the first part, see No. 1, above.

31 Accompagnato 'Thou sacred, high, unutterable name'

32 Accompagnato 'Once more, my God' 33 Chorus 'Great and wondrous'

= 'Gloria Patri', 'Dixit dominus' HWV 232 (8)

All the vocal parts in Gideon are designated 'Solo' up to HG xxxviii/109/ii/3

34 Air 'Let the trumpet's sound'

= 'Sibilar l'angui d'Aletto' Aci, Galatea e Polifemo HWV 72 (5)

35 Air 'Tho' now fall'n'

Newly composed?

36 Air 'From your idol gods returning'

= 'In den angenehmen Buschen' Neun deutsche Arien HWV 209

37 Air 'In notes of joy'

Newly composed?

38 Air and Chorus 'Sing and rejoice'

= 'Hear and rejoice' Feast of Darius

39 Accompagnato 'Ye see, that God his Israel secures'

40 Duet 'Sweet peace'

Newly composed?

41 Chorus 'Glorious patron'

= 'Gloria Patri', 'Laudate pueri dominum' HWV 237 (8)

42 Chorus 'Happy nation'

Motifs from the duet 'Tanti strali' (HWV 197) turned into a four-part chorus by Smith

TOBIT

Ouverture = Overture to Tamerlano (HWV 18)

PART I

1 Chorus 'Hear us O Baal'

= 'Cheer her O Baal' Athalia HWV 52 (10)

2 Air 'O Lord, whom we adore' and Chorus 'Hear from thy mercies(8) seat' Athalia HWV 52 (6a)

3 Duet 'To steal a grave'

= 'As steals the morn' L'Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato HWV 55 (39)

4 Air 'Boistrous winds'

= 'Combattuta da due venti' Faramondo HWV 39 (18)

5 Chorus 'Tyrants may a while presume'

Esther HWV 50b (16)

6 Accompagnato 'Ah, wretched Sarah!'

7 Air 'Paid be my adoration'

= 'Rendi'l sereno al ciglio' Sosarme HWV 30 (4)

8 Air 'The Lord sends his thunders'

= 'Ah, canst thou but prove me' Athalia HWV 52 (19)

9 Chorus 'All pow'r in Heaven above' Theodora HWV 68 (11)

PART II

10 Accompagnato 'Alas! to what variety of ills'

11 Air 'In great Jehovah'

= 'Dove sei' Rodelinda HWV 19 (7a)

'A' section only; in G major (vs. E major in HG)

12 Chorus 'Impartial Heav'n'

Susanna HWV 66 (34)

13 Chorus 'O Baal, monarch of the skies'

Deborah HWV 51 (20)

14 Air 'Thy pleasing face'

= 'Il mio crudel martoro' Ariodante HWV 33 (30)

15 Duet 'Cease thy anguish'

Athalia HWV 52 (23)

16 Chorus 'The clouded scene'

Athalia HWV 52 (24)

17 Air 'To nobler joys aspiring'

= 'L'amor che per te sento' Alessandro HWV 21 (35)

18 Air 'Let songs of varied measure'

= 'Voli colla sua tromba' Ariodante HWV 33 (8)

19 Chorus 'Now love that everlasting joy'

= 'Now love that everlasting boy' Semele HWV 58 (28)

20 Chorus 'Happy, happy shall they be'

= 'Happy, happy shall we be' Semele HWV 58 (55)

PART III

21 Accompagnato 'Still am I persecuted'

22 Air 'Cease your pride'

= 'Serbati a grandi imprese' Poro HWV 28 (25)

'A' section only

23 Chorus 'Tremble, guilt'

Susanna HWV 66 (17); HG i, p. 90, i.e., the final section (bb. 88 ff.) of the chorus 'Righteous Heav'n', which begins at HG i, p. 82

24 Accompagnato 'Henceforth through all the changing scenes'

25 Air 'My son how happy'

= 'Mio caro bene' Rodelinda HWV 19 (34a)

26 Chorus 'Let none despair'

Hercules HWV 60 (11)

27 Accompagnato 'Blest be the God of Heav'n'

28 Air 'May true joy'

= 'Dal fulgor di questa spada' Giulio Cesare HWV 17 (32)

29 Trio 'More chearfull appearing'

= 'Consolati, o bella' Orlando HWV 31 (16)

30 Chorus 'Swift our numbers'

Joseph HWV 59 (15)

31 Accompagnato 'O Ninevah!'

32 Chorus(9) 'Ye servants of th'eternal King'

Alexander Balus HWV 65 (38)

In the original this is a solo and chorus; Smith uses only the chorus (from HG xxxiii/208/ii/2)

Earlier versions of this material were read at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Baroque Music at Birmingham in July 1996 and at the National Meeting of the American Musicological Society at Baltimore in November 1996. The research for, and writing of, this article were supported at various times by the Calgary Institute for the Humanities, the Handel Institute, the Music & Letters Trust and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, to whom I wish to express my gratitude. I thank also Donald Burrows, John H. Roberts, Barbara Small and Eva Zollner, who read earlier drafts of this material and offered helpful corrections and suggestions, and particularly Anthony Hicks, who provided ideas, information and inspiration at practically every stage of this study.

1 For information on Schoelcher's collection, see Richard G. King, 'The Fonds Schoelcher: History and Contents', Notes, liii (1996-7), 697-721; and idem, 'New Light on Handel's Musical Library', The Musical Quarterly, lxxxi (1997), 109-38.

2 For biographical details, I rely on Philip H. Highfill Jr., Kalman A. Burhim & Edward A. Langhans, A Biographical Dictionary of Actors, Actresses, Musicians, Dancers, Managers, and Other Stage Personnel in London, 1660-1800, Carbondale, Illinois, 1973-93, xiv. 151-3; and Roger Fiske, 'Smith, John Christopher', The New Grove, xvii. 414-16.

3 Winton Dean, 'The Malmesbury Collection', Handel Collections and their History, ed. Terence Best, Oxford, 1993, pp. 33-4.

4 Simon MeVeigh, Concert Life in London from Mozart to Haydn, Cambridge, 1993, p. 28.

5 Both points have been made by Roger Fiske and Simon McVeigh, among others. See Fiske, in The Blackwell History of Music in Britain, iv: The Eighteenth Century, ed. H. Diack Johnstone & Roger Fiske, Oxford, 1990, pp. 212-13; and McVeigh, op. cit., pp. 28-31, 173-5.

6 The Blackwell History of Music in Britain, iv. 214-15.

7 The London Stage, 1660-1800, Part 4, ed. G. W. Stone Jr., Carbondale, Illinois, 1962, pp. 842, 849.

8 Ibid., pp. 1045-6; the first performance is there mistakenly said to have been given at Drury Lane.

9 The vocal ranges here and elsewhere are derived from the score.

10 The title-page does credit Handel and, indirectly, Morell as follows: 'The words adapted, by the author of Judas Macchabeus, to several compositions of the late George Frederic Handel, Esq.'

11 Charlotte Brent, later Mrs Thomas Pinto (d. 1802), was a popular singer at Covent Garden throughout the 1760s; see Highfill et al., A Biographical Dictionary, xii. 4-7.

12 She was Isabella Scott, nee Young, a mezzo-soprano who performed in Handel's oratorios between 1755 and 1759 and then sang in the 1760s under Smith and Stanley: ibid., xvi. 351-2.

13 Larpent MS 233; see Dougald MacMillan, Catalogue of the Larpent Plays in the Huntington Library, San Marino, California, 1939, p. 40.

14 For example, F-Pc Res. VS 931; London, British Library (GB-Lbm), 162.m.22; Princeton University Library (USPRu) XB83.0252.

15 Most of these identifications, and those for the other two oratorios, were supplied by Anthony Hicks. For precise references, see Appendix II.

16 Morell claims authorship in a letter printed in Otto Erich Deutsch, Handel: a Documentary Biography, London, 1955, p. 852.

17 The London Stage, Part 4, pp. 1384, 1385, 1460.

18 'She was fond of [Smith's] musical compositions, and several of them, particularly the oratorio of Gideon, were performed at Carlton House.' [William Coxe], Anecdotes of George Frederick Handel and John Christopher Smith, London, 1799; repr. New York, 1979, p. 54.

19 The London Stage, Part 4, p. 1384.

20 Tenor for the accompanied recitative 'Furious revenge' (No. 27) and the air 'From your idol gods' (No. 36).

21 The soprano Fredericka Welchsell, nee Weirman, was a popular singer at Vauxhall Gardens who was occasionally active in the theatres. In 1769 she also sang in the annual performance of Messiah at the Foundling Hospital. See Highfill et al., A Biographical Dictionary, xv. 331-2.

22 The tenor Thomas Norris (1741-90) and the bass Samuel Champness (d. 1803); ibid., xi. 57-8; iii. 149-51.

23 This practice seems to have been common in oratorio performances in the 1760s: see, for example, The Blackwell History of Music in Britain, iv. 217.

24 Copies of the printed libretto include F-Pc Res. VS 845; Gb-Lbm 1344.n.13; and US-PRu (Ex) XB83.0251 (photostat copy).

25 R.M. 19.b.5 corresponds to the Paris score, not to the libretto, for many small variants in the text. It also reflects Smith's directions for transposition. For example, in his conducting score he wrote 'A note lower' for the recitative and air that open Part II - both are written a whole step lower in the copy (Vol. 2, f, [1.sup.r, v]).

26 'Hark how the winds around' (No. 19) and 'Sing and rejoice' (No. 38).

27 For the paper and rastra, see Appendix I. The text of the inserted chorus is as follows: 'Happy nation who this treasure / Labour grateful to improve / Every comfort every pleasure / Springs from harmony and love.'

28 Shelf-number K-D 413. Apart from some slight differences in the title-page, the libretto is identical to the original in every respect save the final page, which gives the abbreviated form of the work. I thank Barbara Small for bringing this libretto to my attention.

29 See Highfill et al., A Biographical Dictionary, xiv. 152; The New Grove, xvii. 415.

30 I thank Donald Burrows and Barbara Small for their assistance with the watermarks and rastra of the Smith manuscripts.

31 However, Barbara Small considers that it was written earlier.

32 In Nabal the only exception is No. 15 (air and chorus from The Triumph of Time and Truth). In Tobit, No. 8 is the only oratorio air; the duets are taken from L'Allegro and Athalia.

33 Morell made occasional small adjustments to the words to make them germane to the subject at hand. For example, in Tobit, No. 30, the third line of Handel's Joseph chorus 'Asenath with Zaphnath's joined' became the more neutral 'Blessings on the pair now joined'.

34 For information on the Messiah choruses, see Jens Peter Larsen, Handel's Messiah: Origins, Composition, Sources, 2nd edn., New York, 1972, pp. 71-5, 81-4; and Donald Burrows, Handel; 'Messiah' ('Cambridge Music Handbooks'), Cambridge, 1991, p. 62.

35 On Toms's aims and methods, see Eva Zollner, 'Israel in Babylon or The Triumph of Truth? A Late Eighteenth-Century Pasticcio Oratorio', Consort, li (1995), 108.

36 Smith's relationship with Handel has been described above. Morell wrote the texts for Judas Maccabaeus, Alexander Balus, Jephtha and probably The Choice of Hercules, as well as the 1757 adaptation The Triumph of Time and Truth. He was also remembered in Handel's will. See Donald Burrows, Handel ('The Master Musicians'), Oxford, 1994, p. 451.

37 The 'B' section cuts occur as follows: in Tobit, Nos. 11, 14 and 22; in Nabal, Nos. 3, 10, 14, 19 and 23; in Gideon, Nos. 3, 10, 16, 19, 22, 34 and 37 (see Appendix II).

38 Nos. 4, 9, 15, 17, 30 and 33. These oboe parts are not found in the model movements, which were mostly taken from 'Dixit dominus' and 'Laudate pueri'.

39 See Watkins Shaw, A Textual and Historical Companion to Handel's 'Messiah', London, 1965; repr. with corrections, Sevenoaks, 1982, pp. 91, 95-6, 99-100.

40 See Anthony Hicks, 'The Late Additions to Handel's Oratorios and the Role of the Younger Smith', Music in Eighteenth-Century England: Essays in Memory of Charles Cudworth, ed. Christopher Hogwood & Richard Luckett, Cambridge, 1983, pp. 147-69.

41 The words given in the printed librettos differ occasionally from those found in the scores. Since in these cases Smith's manuscripts generally follow the original Handel text, not that of the pasticcios' librettos, he in all likelihood relied on the Handel scores in his possession when copying out the pasticcios. Moreover, some of the sources for Gideon could only have been found in Handel's manuscripts.

42 Handel's Direktionspartituren ('Handexemplare'), Hamburg, 1972, p. 246.

43 G. F. Handel's Werke: Ausgabe der Deutschen Handelgesellschaft, ed. Friedrich Chrysander & Max Seiffert, Leipzig & Bergedorf bei Hamburg, 1858-94, 1902.

44 My thanks to Anthony Hicks, who recognized Morell's handwriting.

45 For an example, see A. Hyatt King, Handel and his Autographs, London, 1967 (repr. 1979), Pl. X.

46 Reinhard Strohm, 'Handel's Pasticci', Essays on Handel and Italian Opera, Cambridge, 1985, pp. 164-211, at p. 165; idem, 'Pasticcio', The New Grove, xiv. 288-9; Curtis Price, 'Pasticcio', The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, ed. Stanley Sadie, London, 1992, iii. 907-10; idem, 'Unity, Originality, and the London Pasticcio', Harvard Library Bulletin, new ser., ii/4 (Winter 1991), 17-30.

47 See Curtis Price, Judith Milhous & Robert D. Hume, Italian Opera in Late Eighteenth-Century London, i: The King's Theatre, Haymarket 1778-1791, Oxford, 1995, pp. 224-6.

48 See Brown's thoughts on pasticcio in A Dissertation on the Rise, Union, and Power, the Progressions, Separations, and Corruptions, of Poetry and Music ..., London, 1763, pp. 223-4.

49 J. R. Mulder has observed this of the seventeenth century: see The Temple of the Mind: Education and Literary Taste in Seventeenth-Century England, New York, 1969, p. 151.

1 In Vol. 3, the gatherings are numbered 1-8 and 10-15. There is no gathering 9, but comparison with the libretto suggests that nothing is missing. Smith may simply have misnumbered them.

2 Watermark designations are taken from Hans Dieter Clausen, Handels Direktionspartituren ('Handexemplare'), Hamburg, 1972. I thank Donald Burrows and Barbara Small for their generous assistance with the watermarks and rastra for all three manuscripts.

3 Rastra measurements are to be read as follows: the first number indicates how many strokes of the instrument were made on the page; the second digit, the number of staves in the instrument; and the third, the total span (the distance between exterior stave lines) of the rastrum. The first measurement given here thus indicates that ten-stave pages were produced by two strokes of a five-stave rastrum with a total span of 95 mm.

4 The rastrum here is the same as the 6 x 2 @24 used in the Nabal manuscript.

1 G. F. Handels Werkt: Ausgabe der Deutschen Handelgesellschaft, ed. Friedrich Chrysander & Max Seiffert, Leipzig & Bergedorf bei Hamburg, 1858-94, 1902.

2 'Sciolga dunque' also appears in Il pastor fido HWV 8c (35); however, Smith's model was probably the Pamasso in festa version which begins, like his, with a violin ritornello lacking in Il pastor fido.

3 The same music appears as 'Viva e regni fortunato' in Lotario, HWV 26 (10), but it seems more likely that Smith would have used the Triumph chorus as model because the text is similar to the one supplied by Morell.

4 The word-book has 'All nations upon God depend'.

5 For Andrew McCredie's identifications, see his 'John Christopher Smith as a Dramatic Composer', Music & Letters, xlv (1964), 27, Nos. 8-14.

6 The word-book has 'Lord, in pray'r we seek thy blessing'.

7 The first part of this chorus, 'Fear not, be bold' (see the word-book, p. 10), was cut out of the Paris score and survives only in R.M. 19.b.5.

8 'Hear from thy mercy seat' in HG.

9 A symphony preceding this chorus is indicated in the libretto, but none is found in the score.
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