Job burnout as a mediator for emotional intelligence and managerial effectiveness relationship: an empirical study.
With the impact of globalisation, the corporate world is facing lots of challenges in terms of values, technology, businesses and the like. It is high time for the corporate leaders to realise and understand the reasons for this transition and take the positive steps to move in a right direction.
Managerial effectiveness is one such issue which has caught the attention of theorists, as well as practioners while dealing with the competitive business environment. Mintzberg(1973) put forward ten roles in his effectiveness model, according to which managers can be effective in different ways at different job. Katz (1974) identified three essential skills for managerial effectiveness, viz., and technical, human and conceptual. A review of literature shows that managerial effectiveness has been studied with three perspectives: Traditional/conventional perspective, organizational level competency and individual level competency.
Most studies with managerial stress used the general category "managers" as a unit for their analysis. A few studies look at different managerial levels in terms of junior, middle and top level managers with the aim of identifying or understanding the different causes of stress that act on them (Gemmill and Heisler, 1972; Singh, 1990).
Given emerging interest in the role emotions play in the way individuals appraise and respond to potentially threatening events or situations, attention is turning to the concept of Emotional Intelligence as a moderating variable in the stress process.( Slaski and Cartwright, 2003).
Burnout can be described as "the extinction of motivation or incentive, especially where one's devotion to a cause or relationship fails to produce the desired results," and is a stress-related state.There are several factors that can contribute to burnout, including job-related features, lifestyle factors and personality characteristics. Some companies and industries have much higher rates of burnout than others. Job burnout, termed by some as 'the malady of our age' (Modic, 1989) is a relatively new variable of interest to researchers. Job burnout is characterised by (1) emotional exhaustion; (2) depersonalisation and (3) a decreased sense of personal accomplishment (Cordes and Dougherty, 1993; Maslach and Jackson, 1981; Lee and Ashforth, 1990). Emotional exhaustion involves feelings of being overextended and drained by work duties, helplessness, hopelessness and depression (Pines, Aronson and Kafry, 1981). The second component, depersonalisation, is often associated with a decrease in the awareness of the human attributes of others and a loss of humanity in interpersonal interaction (Pines, Aronson and Kafry, 1981). Depersonalization is a reaction to job related stress that results in workers becoming increasingly detached emotionally from work, co-workers, clients, and treating clients in dehumanizing ways (Maslach, 1976). Finally, the third component of burnout, diminished personal accomplishment is associated with a sense of constant and repeated failures, defeat and hopelessness (Cordes and Dougherty, 1993). Left unchecked, job burnout could lead to self, family, and even work place abuse (Cherniss, 1980). In line with previous studies on job burnout, it is hypothesized in this research that burnout will adversely affect the effectiveness of the manager.
The relationship of emotional intelligence with managerial effectiveness has been investigated in several studies (Jae, 1997; Sipsma, 2000; Sitarenios, 2001) but studies about mediating role of Job Burnout on emotional Intelligence--managerial effectiveness relationship are rather few.
The purpose of the present study is to find out the mediating effect of Job Burnout on Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness relationship.
Emotional Intelligence and Job burnout
Employers and governments have had increasing concern about occupational stress for over twenty years (Le Fevre, Matheny, and Kort, 2003). In the past decade, effects of economic globalization and rapid technological changes have resulted in increased workloads and faster pace in the work place (Dollard, 2003). Modern trends such as organizational downsizing, competition for funding, and high demand jobs have led to rising occupational stress (Dollard,2003).
The cost of occupational stress in the United States is estimated to range between200 and 300 billion dollars annually (Le Fevre, Matheny, and Kort, 2003). One study in the United States revealed that 54 percent of absence from work is estimated to be stress related (Elkin and Rosch, 1990). Another report was that 75 percent to 90 percent of physician visits are estimated to be for stress-related complaints and illnesses. Unmanaged stress for employees can result in short-and-long-term negative health effects including exhaustion, physical pain, depression, sleep disturbances, and even death (Brock and Grady,2002; Le Fevre, Matheny, and Kort, 2003). The popularity of the emotional intelligence during the past decade has led researchers to examine its potency in various areas of human functioning. Thus, it has been found that trait or ability EI are related to life success (Bar-On, 2002), life satisfaction and well-being (Palmer, Donaldson, and Stough,2002), interpersonal relationships (Fitness,2001), occupational stress (Nikolaou and Tsaousis, 2002; Slaski and Cartwright, 2002),work success and performance (Vakola,Tsaousis and Nikolaou, 2004), leadership(Palmer, Walls, Bergess, and Stough, 2000), etc. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in how emotional reactions and experiences affect both physical as well as psychological health. For example, it has been claimed that negative emotional states are associated with unhealthy patterns of physiological functioning, whereas positive emotional states are associated with healthier patterns of responding in both cardiovascular activity and immune system (Herbert and Cohen,1993).
H1: Emotional Intelligence will induce a positive effect on Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment and Depersonalization and overall Job Burnout dimensions
In a study, conducted by Salovey, Bedell, Detweiler, and Mayer (1999) it was found that individuals who can regulate their emotional states are healthier because they "accurately perceive and appraise their emotional states, know how and when to express their feelings, and can effectively regulate their mood states".. Indeed, Taylor(2001) argues that if you are emotionally intelligent then you can cope better with life's challenges and control our emotions more effectively, both of which contribute to good psychological and physical health. Moreover, Bar-On (1997) includes stress management and adaptability as two major components of EI, while Matthews and Zeidner (2000) stated that "adaptive coping might be conceptualized as emotional intelligence in action, supporting mastery emotions, emotional growth, and both cognitive and emotional differentiation, allowing us to evolve in an ever-changing world" (p. 460). Dulewicz, Higgs, and Slaski (2003), using relatively small sample of retail managers, examined the role that variables such as stress, distress, morale and poor quality of working life play in everyday life. They demonstrated that EI was strongly correlated with both physical and psychological health.
H2: Emotional Intelligence will significantly and positively influence Managerial Effectiveness
The review of literature clearly highlights that significance of Emotional Intelligence which reveals that managers who are emotionally intelligent are more effective as compared the managers whose emotional intelligence level is low. A study by Shipper, Kincaid, Rotondo, and Richard C Hoffman (2003) on managers from US, U.K. and Malaysia found that there is a positive relationship between Managerial Effectiveness and Self-awareness, component of Emotional Intelligence. Langhorn (2004) conducted a study on pub restaurant managers in the U.K. concerning their Emotional Intelligence. The study observed that EI is positively related to the dimensions like employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction, and profit performance 21percent of the success of managers was due to Emotional Intelligence.
H3: All the three dimensions of Job Burnout will significantly and negatively predict Managerial Effectiveness.
The relationship between the person and organization can be studied through the intellectual standpoint, which emphasizes psychological aspects of behavior. Job burnout, its characteristics and effects on the personnel and organization has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent decades, because in this complex world, organizations are constantly acting in changing and challenging environment. The phenomenon of job burnout happens in different jobs at various levels, and usually causes many side effects in the personnel, family, and organization. The first side effect of job burnout is that the personnel, including managers of organizations, suffer from physical tiredness. Their working strength is reduced, and they feel more tiredness and disability anorexia. Another important effect that decreases organizational performance includes less work, absence from job, frequent delays, various complaints, conflict and strife in work environment, change of position and job, or job quitting. Thus, a manager who has been afflicted with job burnout for any reason, in spite of causing irreparable losses to the organization, will put his psychological health at serious risks.
In this respect, Moorhead and Griffin (1989) express the persons who have higher enthusiasm and strong motivations for working are the first victims of job burnout. They are hurt especially when the organization ignores their innovation. Westman et al. (2001) observe job burnout as a kind of psychological pressure caused by daily chronic stressors.
Many researchers including Masslach and Jackson (1981) and Cherniss (1992) have presented Interactive models for justifying job burnout. According to this, job burnout stems from organizational, Personal, and inter personal sources. The personal factor refers to the level of preparedness, type of Personality, and other personal characteristics. Organizational factors relate to the organization and its variables. Social factors refer to the lack of proper and desirable human relations in formal ranking position as well as the informal structure of the relations between the personnel. In his research, Heydari (1995) considered occupational tension-creating sources and their degree of tension-creation from the viewpoint.
Examining the conducted researches reveals that only limited research has been done in the field of managers' job burnout. However some of the conducted researches in Iran and other countries have studied the causes and extent of managers' job burnout in various departments. In this respect, Asadi Dastjerdi (1997) has demonstrated in his research that various factors are effective in the development of organizational occupational tension, managerial, and situational stress of managers in the Sport Organization, and Programand and Budget Organization as well. Ahmadi and Khaleefe Soltani (2002) concluded that the average job burnout in Isfahan educational managers is at a very low level. Also Arera and Ebrit (1991) in their research reached the conclusion that supervisors of higher levels have experienced job burnout in dimensions of depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment, the main reason of which has been ambiguity in role, and un-harmonized organizational policies. That is why managers have always been exposed to affliction with job burnout, and that has been one of the reasons of in-efficiency (non-competency) of various organizations, as job burnout relates to considerable reduction in the quality and quantity of job performance (Farber, 1985, Naji, 1985).
Considering the subject literature about job burnout and its causes and the ways to confront with this phenomenon, the present research is going to identify the effect of job burnout on managers' effectiveness in organizations.
H4: Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment and Depersonalization will mediate the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness
Figure 1 presents a conceptual model of the hypothesised relationships among the study variables. It is expected that the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and each of the components of Job Burnout will be negative. It is further expected that Emotional Intelligence will positively relate to Managerial Effectiveness. Thirdly, on the basis of the reviewed literature, Managerial Effectiveness should be negatively related to the dimensions of Job Burnout. Finally, it is anticipated that the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness will be mediated by Job Burnout as a composite construct and by each of its individual constituent constructs in Job Burnout.
200 managers belonging to Private Sector Organizations (BPO, Banks and IT Sectors) were the sample for the present study. The employees were males in the 20-60 years of age group, and has spent at least one year in the same organization .Because India is a culturally diverse and large country, we collected the data from North Indian Organizations to control for cultural differences in the work values and physical characteristics of the respondents.
Instrumentation : Three instruments were used in the study to assess Managerial Effectiveness, Job Burnout, and Emotional Intelligence. Managerial effectiveness was conceptualized as dependent variable whereas, Emotional Intelligence as Independent variables and Job Burnout as Mediating Variable. Self-report measures were used to obtain the data. The measures used in this study were borrowed from their original source and adapted from Indian work setting.
Managerial Effectiveness Questionnaire (MEQ): This scale developed by Gupta (1996) consists of 45 items, ranging from always (5) to never (1) was used in the present study. Examples of the items of the scale are: (1) I like to take challenges in assignments and assure their successful completion, (2) I involve other people in order to finish a job. A satisfactory reliability as well as validity was found for this scale. (Gupta, 1996). The Cronbach alpha was found to be .84 for this scale.
Emotional Intelligence (EI): Schuttle et al., (1997) scale of Emotional Intelligence consisting of 30 items ranging from strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1) was used in the present study. Examples of the items of the scale are (1) I have control over my emotions, (2) I easily recognise my emotion as I experience them. The Cronbach Alpha of the scale was found to be .89.
Job Burnout Scale (MBI): The revised Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach,C., and Jackson,S.1981 b) was used to measure the level of professional burnout perceived by the managers. The MBI consists of 22 statements of feelings related to work and involves three independent aspects of the burnout syndrome: emotional exhaustion (9 items), the personal accomplishment (8 items), and depersonalization (5 items). Every item in the Maslach Burnout Inventory is rated on a 6-point Likert type scale ranging from 1 (A Few Times a Year) to 6 (Everyday). A value of zero is scored if the subject indicates that he/she has never experienced the particular feeling or attitude described. Items like: (a)I feel emotionally drained from my relation, (b) I feel used up at the end of the workday were a part of Emotional Exhaustion. Personal Accomplishment consisted of items like I feel very energetic, I have accomplished many worthwhile things in the job. Items like I really don't care what happens to some recipient and I feel some recipients blame me for some of their problems were a part of Depersonalisation.
Methods of Analysis
Descriptive statistics was calculated to describe the main characteristics of the sample. Correlation coefficients were computed to examine the relationships between Emotional Intelligence, Job Burnout and Managerial Effectiveness. A series of regression analysis was employed to test the hypotheses of the study. Judd and Kenny, (1981) and Kenny et al.,(1998) recommended the use of a series of regression models to test the meditational hypotheses. Testing for mediation requires the estimation of three following Regression equations: The first equation requires that the mediator should be regressed on the independent variable; the second step requires that the dependent variable should be regressed on the independent variable and third equation requires that the dependent variable should be regressed on both the independent variable and on the mediator (Baron and Kenney, 1986).
The following are the four conditions for establishing mediation : ( 1) The independent variable significantly affect the dependent variable; (2) The independent variable significantly affect the mediator; (3) The mediator significantly affect the dependent variable; (4) The effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable shrinks upon the addition of the mediator to the model. If the independent variable does not affect the dependent variable upon dependent variable being regressed on both the independent variable and on the mediator, then full mediation is established. If otherwise, the test supports partial mediation.
This method has been used in previous studies to test the mediating effects of various constructs in Social Research (Jawahar and Hemasi, 2006; Rhoades et al., 20001; Yousef, 2000).
To ascertain the uniformity in the analysis of various dimensions, the mean scores were converted on a five point scale (Table1, Column 3).Table I shows that that the correlations between Independent variable (Emotional Intelligence) and the dependent variable (Managerial Effectiveness) are positive and significant. It is clear that Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment and Depersonalisation are significant correlates of Managerial Effectiveness. Overall Job Burnout which is a composite construct of the three dimensions of burnout was negatively correlated with Managerial Effectiveness. In all, the pattern of correlations was consistent with the hypothesised relationships between variables.
To test the hypotheses, this study employed mediated regression analysis. The results of regression analysis are summarised in Table II.
Regression analysis with Emotional Intelligence as an Independent Variable and Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment, Depersonalisation and Overall Job Burnout as dependent variables demonstrated that all four equations (Equation 2a, 2b, 2c and 2d respectively) were significant at .05 levels. Emotional Intelligence explained 31percent of variance in Emotional Exhaustion (Adj [R.sup.2] =.312), 35percent of variance in Personal Accomplishment (Adj [R.sup.2] =.354), 21percent in Depersonalisation (Adj [R.sup.2] =.212) and 41percent of variance in Overall Job Burnout (Adj [R.sup.2] = .406).Thus, the first hypothesis H1, which predicted that Emotional Intelligence would induce positive effects on components of Job Burnout, is fully supported.
Under Equation 1a, in Table II, Emotional Intelligence explained 40.4percent of variance in Managerial Effectiveness. Thus, the second hypothesis H2, which predicted that Emotional Intelligence will significantly and positively influence Managerial Effectiveness, is also supported by the findings.
Four Regression Equations (Equations 3a, 3b, 3c and 3d) tested the relationships between components of Job Burnout and Managerial Effectiveness. Simple regression analysis in these equations indicates that Emotional Exhaustion explains 52.3percent of variance in Managerial Effectiveness (Adj [R.sup.2] =.523, F=228.216), Personal Accomplishment explains 56percent of variance in Managerial Effectiveness (Adj [R.sup.2] =.55.6, F=270.318), Depersonalization explains 59percent of variance in Managerial Effectiveness (Adj [R.sup.2] =.592, F=293.263),while overall Job Burnout accounted for 61percent of variance in Managerial Effectiveness (Adj [R.sup.2] = .612, F=302.44). Consistent with the results of correlation analysis in Table II,beta coefficients in each of the four equations were negative and significant at .05 levels. Thus, as predicted the third hypothesis H3, that all the three dimensions of Job Burnout will significantly and negatively predict Managerial Effectiveness, is fully supported.
Mediated Regression Analysis
In this study it was proposed that components of Job Burnout mediate the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness. Thus, Emotional Intelligence is the Independent variable; components of Job Burnout are the mediating variables and Managerial Effectiveness as dependent variable. In Table 1, bivariate correlation demonstrated that the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (Independent Variable) and Managerial Effectiveness (Dependent Variable) was significant. Also, in Table II the regression equation relating Managerial Effectiveness to Emotional Intelligence was significant (Adj [R.sup.2] = .404, F=322.326,p<0.01). Thus, the first condition for mediated relationships is attained.
The second condition of mediation was tested by regressing facets of Job Burnout and overall Job Burnout on Emotional Intelligence (equations 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d respectively). Simple regression analysis shows that Emotional Exhaustion (F=196.324, p<0.01), Personal Accomplishments (F= 104.128, p<0.01) Depersonalization ((F=90.126, p<0.01), and Overall Job Burnout (F=138.234, p<0.01) are significantly correlates of Emotional Intelligence. The positive beta in these equations demonstrates that an increase in Emotional Intelligence is associated with a decrease in Job Burnout Dimensions. Thus, the second condition for mediation is met.
The third mediation condition was tested by regressing Managerial Effectiveness on facets of Job Burnout (Equations 3a, 3b and 3c).Beta coefficients in all the three equations were significant and negative. Thus, the third condition for mediation effects was achieved.
The fourth condition of mediation effects was tested by simultaneously regressing Managerial Effectiveness on Emotional Intelligence and each of the dimensions of Job Burnout. The results in equations 4a,4b, and 4c show that in the presence of components of Job Burnout, the relationships between the independent variable (Emotional Intelligence) and the dependent variable (Managerial Effectiveness) become weaker.
It is clear that the beta coefficient for Emotional Intelligence in equation 4a (beta=.032) is weaker than the beta coefficient in equation 1a (beta = 0.52, p<0.01).Also in equation 4b, the beta coefficient for Emotional Intelligence (beta=0.26) is weaker than the beta coefficient in equation 1a (beta = .52, p<0.01) and in equation 4c, beta coefficient for Emotional Intelligence (beta=0.34) is weaker than the beta coefficient in equation 1a (beta=.52, p<0.01). The significant reduction in beta coefficients when Emotional Intelligence and each of the three components of Job Burnout are introduced in the equations, suggest that Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment and Depersonalization partially mediate the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness. Thus, the fourth hypothesis, H4, which predicated that Emotional Exhaustion, Personal Accomplishment and Depersonalization will mediate the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness, is supported by the study results. To test whether Overall Job Burnout mediates the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness, this study compared beta coefficients for Emotional Intelligence (beta=.52) and Equation 4d (beta = 0.02).This comparison demonstrates that in the presence of overall Job Burnout variable, Emotional Intelligence becomes insignificant in predicting Managerial Effectiveness. Thus, whereas the three components of Job Burnout partially mediate the relationship, overall Job Burnout fully mediates the relationship.
Discussion and conclusion
The study attempts to find out the impact of Emotional Intelligence on Managerial Effectiveness and investigate mediating impact if/any of Job Burnout between the two. For the purpose, a sample of 200 managers was selected to examine the postulated hypotheses. Findings of the study suggest a strong support of the hypotheses set in the study. The outcome of the study suggests that Emotional Intelligence would induce positive effects on components of Job Burnout, finds indirect support in the works of Salovey, Bedell, Detweiler, and Mayer (1999) which found that individuals who can regulate their emotional states are healthier because they "accurately perceive and appraise their emotional states, know how and when to express their feelings, and can effectively regulate their mood states".
Moreover, evidence concerning Emotional Intelligence having significant and positive influence Managerial Effectiveness is furnished in the study. The findings of the study coincides with a study done by Langhorn,(2004) who opined that main predictors of manager's performance are self-awareness, social responsibility, interpersonal relationships and optimism. Another study done on managers from US, U.K. and Malaysia by Shipper, Kincaid, Rotondo, and Richard C Hoffman (2003) indicated positive relationship between Managerial Effectiveness and Self-awareness, component of Emotional Intelligence.
Third hypothesis that all the three dimensions of Job Burnout will significantly and negatively predict Managerial Effectiveness is also proved by our results. The results are finding support with the studies done earlier. Arera and Ebrit (1991) in their research reached the conclusion that supervisors of higher levels have experienced job burnout in dimensions of depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment, the main reason of which has been ambiguity in role, and un-harmonized organizational policies. On the whole, the obtained results indicate that management is one of the professions that involve high levels of job burnout for various reasons. That is why managers have always been exposed to affliction with job burnout, and that has been one of the reasons of in-efficiency (non-competency) of various organizations, as job burnout relates to considerable reduction in the quality and quantity of job performance (Farber, 1985, Naji, 1985).
As expected, the study findings confirm the mediating role of Job Burnout dimensions in the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness. A survey of literature revealed no study that has previously assessed in the mediating effect of Job Burnout on the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness. The findings of this study suggests that Managers who score low on Emotional Intelligence will face more Occupational stress (Job Burnout) in their work areas which will ultimately lead them to be ineffective.
contribution of the current study
This study adds to researcher's efforts to understand the mediating effect of Job Burnout on the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness in Private sector organisations. The study is the first of its kind to relate the mediating effect of Job Burnout to Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness relationship. The study contributed new directions in the research of management by opening up a debate on the importance of Personality dimensions on Managerial Effectiveness. The fact that statistically significant correlations and regression results are indicating that personality dimensions has a significant impact Managerial Effectiveness.
The study gives a view that Job Burnout acts as a mediating agent between two important variables i.e. Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness .Therefore, the Management need to realize that the environment of the organization should be such that the mangers perceive it as supportive in order to face less Job burnout. Attention of scale Job burnout can help strengthen link between Emotional Intelligence and Managerial Effectiveness. It helps Emotionally Intelligent Managers more effective. To increase Managerial Effectiveness, managers are encouraged to enhance its negative correlate identified in the study.
Limitations of the study
The results of this study should be viewed with a small number of limitations. The sample size is not sufficient enough to reflex the factual image of the Private organisations in context with effectiveness. The method used in the present study to collect the data is very common as the questionnaire method was used. A comparative study between Managers of Public and Private sector organisations should have been given a better picture of impact of personality dimensions on Mangers' effectiveness.
Directions for Future Research
Longitudinal studies to establish the causal relationship between the variables could be included. To enhance external validity, future research efforts should obtain a representative sample from more organisations. More personality dimensions should be used to assess Managerial effectiveness with increased statistical power. Measures with few items are more prone to unreliability than summated measures with greater no. of items. (Spector, 1992). Only Male managers were considered for the present study. A further research can be done to compare the gender differences for the study variables.
Brock, B.L., & Grady, M.L. (2002). Avoiding burnout: A principals' guide to keeping the firealive. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin press.
Cherniss, C. (1980). Staff burnout: Job stress in the human services. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Cordes, C.L., & Dougherty, T.W. (1993). A review and an integration of research on job burnout. Academy of Management Review, 18(4), 621-656.
Dollard, M.F. (2003). Introduction: context theories and intervention. In M.F. Dollard, A.H.Winefield, & H.R. Winefield (Eds.), Occupational stress in the service professions (pp. 269-276), New York: Taylor & Francis.
Elkin, A.J., & Rosch, P.J. (1990). The person environment fit approach to stress, recurring problems, and some suggested solutions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11, 293-307.
Fitness, J. (2001). Emotional intelligence and intimate relationships. In J. Ciarrochi, J.P.Forgas, & J.D. Mayer (Eds.), Emotional intelligence in everyday life: A scientific inquiry (pp.98-112). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology press.
Gemmill, G., & Heisler, W.J. (1972). Fatalism as a factor in managerial Job satisfaction, Job strain and mobility. Personnel Psychology, 25, 241-50.
Herbert, T.B., & Cohen, S. (1993). Depression and immunity: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 472-486.
Jae, J. H. (1997). Emotional intelligence and cognitive ability as predictors of job performance in the banking sector. Unpublished Master's Thesis. Abstract retrieved feburary 4,2005 from http://www.emotionalintelligencemhs. Com/ EI
Judd, Charles M., & David A. Kenny (1981). Process analysis: Estimating mediation in treatment evaluations. Evaluation Review, 5 (5), 602-19.
Katz, D. & Khan, R. (1978). The social psychology of organisations. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Le Fevre, M., Matheny, J., & Kort, G. (2003).Eustress, distress, interpretation in occupational stress. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18, 726-744.
Lee, R.T., & Ashforth, B.E. (1990). On the meaning of Maslach's three dimensions of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75. 743-747.
Maslach, C., & Jackson, S.E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behaviour, 3, 99-113.
Maslach, C. (1976). Burned-out. Human Behavior, 5(9), 16-22.
Mintzberg H. (1973). The Nature of managerial work. Newyork: Harper and Row.
Modic, S.J. (1989, Feb. 20). Surviving burnout. Industry Week, 29-34.
Multi-Health Systems Short Technical Manual. Bar-On, R. (2002). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory. Toronto: Canada.
Nikolaou, I., & Tsaousis, I. (2002). Emotional intelligence in the workplace: Exploring its effects on occupational stress and organizational commitment. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 10, 327-342.
Palmer, B., Walls, M., Burgess, Z., & Stough, C. (2000).Emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22, 5 -11.
Pines, A., Aronson, E., & Kafry, D. (1981). Burnout: From tedium to personal growth. New York: The Free Press.
Salovey, P., Bedell, B.T., Detweiler, J.B., & Mayer, J.D. (1999). Coping intelligently: Emotional intelligence and the coping process. In C.R.Snyder (Eds.), Coping: the psychology of what works (pp.141-164). New York: Oxford psychology press.
Singh, S. (1990). Organizational Stress and Executive Behaviour. New Delhi: Sri Ram Centre for Industrial Relations and Human Resources.
Sipsma, L. (2000). Emotional intelligence and team effectiveness of postgraduate management students in self-managed workteams. (Unpublished mini-dissertation). University of Rhodes, South Africa. Retrieved February 2, 2005, from the Multi Health Inc Website.
Sitarenios, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence in the prediction of sales success in the finance industry. Retrieved February 2,2005, from the Multi Health Inc Web site.
Slaski, M., & Cartwright, S. (2003). Health,performance and emotional intelligence: An exploratory study of retail managers. Stress and Health, 18, 63-68.
Taylor, G.J. (2001). Low emotional intelligence and mental illness. In J. Ciarrochi, & J.P. Forgas (Eds.), Emotional intelligence in every day life: A scientific enquiry (pp. 67-81), Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.
Tripathy, N.(2010). Expiration and Week effect: Empirical Evidence from the Indian Derivative Market. Annual London Business Research Conference 12 to 14 July 2010, London, United Kingdom.
Associate Professor, Jaipuria Institute of Management, Noida.
Table--I Means, Standard Deviations, Reliabilities, and Correlations Among the Variables (N = 200) Variables Mean Scale SD EI EE (No. of Mean Items) EI (30) 54.63 1.82 2.24 .89 EE ((9) 28.12 3.12 2.28 43 ** .86 PA (8) 22.36 2.79 2.14 47 ** 32 ** DP (5) 17.26 3.45 1.64 42 ** 34 ** Overall JB 67.74 3.071 2.02 49 ** .36 ** (22) ME 146.18 (45) 3.24 13.16 .52 ** -.38 * Variables PA DP Overall ME (No. of JB Items) EI (30) EE ((9) PA (8) .78 DP (5) .48 ** .75 Overall JB .42 ** .48 ** .79 (22) ME -.43 ** -.48 ** -.64 ** .87 Note: ** p < 0.01; * p < 0.05 Coefficient alphas are reported as diagonals. EI = Emotional Intelligence, EE = Emotional Exhaustion PA=Personal Accomplishment, DP=Depersonalisation, JB=Job Burnout, ME = Managerial Effectiveness Table--II Mediated Regression Analysis Equation Criterion Variable Predictor Variable 1a Managerial Effectiveness Emotional Intelligence 2a Emotional Exhaustion Emotional Intelligence 2b Personal Accomplishment Emotional Intelligence 2c Depersonalisation Emotional Intelligence 2d Overall Job Burnout Emotional Intelligence 3a Managerial Effectiveness Emotional Exhaustion 3b Managerial Effectiveness Personal Accomplishment 3c Managerial Effectiveness Depersonalisation 3d Managerial Effectiveness Overall Job Burnout 4a Managerial Effectiveness Emotional Intelligence Emotional Exhaustion 4b Managerial Effectiveness Emotional Intelligence Personal Accomplishment 4c Managerial Effectiveness Emotional Intelligence Depersonalisation 4d Managerial Effectiveness Emotional Intelligence Overall Job Burnout Adj Equation Criterion Variable Beta [R.sup.2] F 1a Managerial Effectiveness 52 ** .404 322.326 ** 2a Emotional Exhaustion 43 ** .312 196.324 ** 2b Personal Accomplishment 47 ** .354 104.128 ** 2c Depersonalisation 42 ** .212 90.126 ** 2d Overall Job Burnout 49 ** .406 138.234 ** 3a Managerial Effectiveness -.38 ** .523 228.216 ** 3b Managerial Effectiveness -43 ** .556 270.318 ** 3c Managerial Effectiveness -.48 ** .592 293.263 ** 3d Managerial Effectiveness -.64 ** .612 302.44 ** 4a Managerial Effectiveness 32 ** -12 ** .256 110.324 ** 4b Managerial Effectiveness .26 ** -.18 ** .204 94.126 ** 4c Managerial Effectiveness 34 ** -.22 .196 89.263 ** 4d Managerial Effectiveness .02 .62 ** .610 298.26 ** Note: ** p < 0.01; * p < 0.05
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2013|
|Previous Article:||A study on investors' opinion on motives behind stock splits by companies in India.|
|Next Article:||India's foreign trade and burgeoning trade deficit: a study in the perspective of India's foreign trade policy.|