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Job Stress, Psychological Capital and Turnover Intentions in Employees of Hospitality Industry.

Byline: Namra Rehman and Tahira Mubashar

Employee turnover, a successor of turnover intentions, is a prevalent issue and substantial challenge for employers in hospitality industry worldwide. Substantial amount of research shows that turnover intentions can be abridged by effective management of workplace stressors using positive psychological capacities of employees. The present research investigated moderating effect of psychological capital in job stress, and turnover intentions in employees of hospitality industry. The sample comprised of 200 employees from different hotels of Lahore, Pakistan. Pearson product moment correlation, moderation analysis and multivariate analysis of variance were applied. Findings showed that job stress and psychological capital are positively correlated with turnover intentions. Psychological capital (optimism) moderated relationship in job stress and turnover intentions in employees.

Results also showed that employees in five star hotels experience more stress while four star employee are more hopeful and resilient. In case of management, middle management experience more stress and top management experience more efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Interaction effect show that in middle management employees in three star hotels have high intentions to quit while five star have lower turnover intentions and vice versa for top management. This research has important implications in hospitality industry for improving stress management strategies that may help in reducing turnover intentions.

Keywords. Job stress, psychological capital, turnover intentions, hospitality industry, employees, efficacy, hope, optimism, resilience

Hospitality industry is apparently flourishing with its enchanting and lively environment but the reality contradicts the apparent thrive and represents the other side of the story. Worldwide researches have investigated and suggested that employee turnover which is the ultimate outcome of turnover intentions is among the highest in the hospitality industry (Akgunduz and Sanli, 2017; Glebbeek and Bax, 2004; Hinkin, and Tracey, 2000; Price, 2001). Within the hospitality industry, work stress has been considered as one of the most critical matter mangers are dealing with because amongst other areas of importance, it influences the performance, positive wellbeing and turnover intentions of all levels of employees, including managers as well as the hourly employees (Neill and Davis, 2011; Williams, Konrad, Scheckler, and Pathman, 2001). Considerable research evidence exists that turnover intentions can be reduced by effective management of workplace stressors through employee psychological capital.

This highlights the need to study the role of psychological capital in occupational stress and turnover intentions to better understand dynamics of work stress and to combat high rates of turnover in hospitality industry.

Job stress is a computation of physical and emotional responses, harmful in nature that takes place when the demands of the job do not fit the capabilities, capital and need of workers (Hill, Miller, and Colella, 2006). A high prevalence of stress at work has also been related with increased rate of absenteeism, work place violence, turnover and low morale along with productivity losses associated with exhaustion, poor performance, absenteeism and turnover at employee`s end (Allen, Herst, Bruck, and Sutton, 2000).

Factors that are found to influence turnover intentions in employees directly or indirectly can be grouped in four types as individual variables, organizational variables, external environment and attitudinal variables. Individual variables predicting turnover intention directly or indirectly include both personal/ demographic variables and occupational variables. Organizational variables (e.g. pay and promotion, hierarchy of designations, supervision, peer group relations, organizational star, policies, practices and conditions) may influence through attitudinal variables (Mobley, 1977). Job stress, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction are found as the leading attitudinal factors that are changeable as they have a prominent influence on intention to quit and situational turnover.

Feeling stressful has been found to be a mediating variable affecting job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to leave and also the actual turnover (Bufquin, DiPietro, Orlowski, and Partlow, 2017; Parasuraman, 1989).

The major behavior intention theories which have advanced understanding of such behavior intentions of quitting typically relied on Fishbein and Ajzen`s theory of reasoned action (TRA) and Ajzen`s theory of planned behavior (TPB). Fishbein and Ajzen's theory (1975) assumes that the behavior of a person is the function of his performing intentions to perform that behavior. The underline concept of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) is that all the individuals take their decisions systematically and logically through the information available to them and intentions are anticipated as a consequence of three main factors that are independent. These factors include the attitude of an individual that can be positive or negative; the individualistic norm which reveals the social pressure on an individual, the perceived control of behavior that shows the limit to which the behavior is understood to be under control of choices or preferences (Ajzen, 1991).

Three popular models, namely, Price and Mueller`s causal model, March and Simon's model and Mobley's (1977) expanded model extended turnover process as they represented a broad range of approaches to analyzing turnover. Price and Mueller's causal model (1986) formally reflects the view that turnover is the result of a decision process in which promotional opportunity (upward movement in designation) and satisfaction had a significant influence on intention to stay. March and Simon's model (1958) identified that the decision of employees to give up their job is predisposed by two main factors including employee's perceived easiness of leaving the company and second is perceived preferences of moving out (Morrell, Loan, Clarke, and Wilkinson, 2001).

The Mobley's expanded model describes that the quitting or leaving decision process can be explained as a series of cognitive phases beginning with estimating the job process in existence subsequently the emotional condition of dissatisfaction or satisfaction. One main outcome of not getting satisfaction can be the initiation of thought of leaving from the organization (Mobley, 1977).

Employee's intentions to quit influence the wellbeing of employees which in result can impact on many other job related outcomes as job satisfaction, employee commitment and job stress. Avey, Luthans, and Jensen (2009) conducted a research on psychological capital as a positive capital for fighting the turnover and stress of employees. The results concluded a significant negative relationship in positive psychological capital and stress symptoms. The findings indicated that the personal characteristics of a person may expose an individual to stress, limiting different environmental interventions effectiveness as job redesigning or training programs. Karatepe and Karadas (2014) investigated the impact of psychological capital on the work-family conflict, turnover and absence intentions of frontline hotel employees.

The findings suggested that psychological capital including self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience lessens work-family conflict, turnover and absence intentions of employees. Psychological capital also influenced the mentioned employee outcomes indirectly through family-work conflict.

Yim, Seo, Cho, and Kim (2017) evaluated the impact of psychological capital on the association between job stress and turnover intention in nurses. Based on the results, significant relationship was found between job stress, psychological capital and the turnover intentions of employees. The findings suggested that service based organizations need to introduce such stress relieving programs which focus on employees' psychological capabilities to cope with job stress and reduce their intention to quit. Kuo, Jou, and Lin (2012) suggested that the turnover intention increased as the job stress increased.

Abbas, Raja, Darr, and Bouckenooghe (2014) tested for the main effects of perceived organizational politics and psychological capital on turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and supervisor-rated job performance and with a diverse sample (N = 231 paired responses) of employees from various organizations in Pakistan. They also examined the moderating influence of psychological capital in the politics- outcomes relationships. The negative relationship of perceived organizational politics with job satisfaction and supervisor-rated performance was weaker when psychological capital was high. However, the result for turnover intentions was counter to expectations where the politics-turnover intention relationship was stronger when psychological capital was high.

Literature suggested that job stress is likely to influence the psychological resource of hospitality industry employees. An employee experiencing high levels of job stress is likely to exhibit higher level of turnover intentions (Arshadi and Damiri, 2013 ; Wong and Laschinger, 2015), while the lower level of psychological capital is likely to increase the turnover intentions (Tuten and Neidermeyer, 2004). In this way, psychological capital is likely to moderate the relationship in job stress and turnover intentions of hospitality industry employees.

Some demographic characteristics of the employees have also been studied in the previous literature. E.g. pay, promotion, working conditions, relationship with peer and supervisors, job design, organization environment, designation, organization support. In the present research, special interest is on designation and number of stars in hotel industry. As research indicated that optimism can negatively predict turnover intention among low-wage white-collars and this relation is moderated by perceived organizational support (Liu, Huang and Jiang, 2016).

Organization star which refers to the rating of a hotel property according to the quality has a significant effect on the job stress, hope and resilience of employees. In addition, the type of designation including employees from middle and top management had a significant effect on job stress, self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. With the increase in job level as middle or top management employees as well as with the increase of rank as three, four or five star hotel property, a certain increase in job demands and responsibilities comes along. Karasek`s (1989) demand control model represented both job demand and control function in experiencing stress at workplace and suggested that work place demand which is one of the environmental factors or characteristics that cause stress at job. While control is the extent to which associates perceive themselves being able to affect job demand state.

This control can be achieved by improving the psychological capital of employees including self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience that will in turn fulfill the job demands to assist organizational goals.

It has been observed that hospitality industry is regarded as an unpredictable industry because of its high reliance on human capital. Worldwide researches have investigated and suggested that employee turnover which is the ultimate outcome of turnover intentions is among the highest in the hospitality industry (Bohle, Knox, Noone, Namara, Rafalski, and Quinlan, 2017).Turnover intention is used to be considered as a fundamental phase before the actual turnover occurs. There are many psychological and behavioral factors that may influence the decisions of employees to leave their jobs (Brown, Thomas, and Bosselman, (2015). High level of work stress is one of them that may increase the rate of turnover intention. Psychological capital plays an important role in active coping of an employee from job stress. Psychological capital can happen to be one of the essential resources which are required for employees to deal with stressful proceedings or circumstances at work (Avey, Luthans, and Jensen, 2009).

Developing positive psychological capital of employees and improving stress management strategies will be helpful in reducing turnover intentions in employees. Numerous researches are present studying positive psychological capital, job stress and turnover intention in employees (Arshadi and Damiri, 2013). But in the context of Pakistani hospitality industry, little research work exists. This research will explore the relationship in job stress, psychological capital and turnover intention of employees of Pakistani hospitality industry as well as the role of designation and number of organization stars.

Objectives

The main objectives of the research were:

* To assess the relationship in job stress, psychological capital and turnover intentions in employees.

* To investigate the moderating effect of psychological capital between job stress and turnover intentions of employees.

* To find out the main effect and interaction effect of organization star and type of designation of employees on job stress, psychological capital and turnover intentions of employees of hospitality industry.

Hypotheses

* There is likely to be a positive relationship between the job stress and turnover intentions in employees.

* There is likely to be a negative relationship between psychological capital and turnover intentions in employees.

* Psychological capital is likely to moderate the relationship in job stress and turnover intentions in employees.

* There is likely to be a main effect of designation and organization star on job stress, psychological capital and turnover intentions of employees.

* There is likely to be an interaction effect of designation and organization star on job stress, psychological capital and turnover intention in employees.

Method

Participants

The sample was consisted of 200 employees (148 men, 52 women) of hospitality industry including middle and top management employees (133 middle management employees, 67 top management employees) of three, four and five star hotel categories. Non-probability purposive sampling strategy was used because the data was collected from the employees working at middle and top level management positions of three, four and five star hotels of Lahore who were convenient to contact and were willing to participate. Employees having minimum intermediate level of education were included in the study.

Permanent/regular employees having minimum job experience of one year were included. The employees with any physical disabilities and psychological concerns were excluded from the final sample. The mean age of the participants was 32.86 (SD = 7.28, range = 20-60). The mean job experience of the employees in their current field was 6.96 (SD = 5.77). Most of the participants were highly qualified as 70 % having graduation (n = 140) and 24% having post-graduation (n = 48) while only 6% were having intermediate education (n = 12).

Assessment Measures

In present research following assessment measures were used considering their relevance with operational definitions of the constructs described in the introduction, adequate psychometric properties and free of cost availability for academic research.

Professional Life Stress Scale (PLSS). Professional life stress scale (PLSS) developed by Fontana (1989), was used to measure job stress. The questionnaire consisted of 24 items, out of which 11 were yes/no questions, 2 were self-evaluative questions, 10 questions were multiple choice and one question consisted of 22 sub questions which were based on common features of life events and the individual has to agree or disagree with each statement. The range of score was from 15 (mild stress), 16-30 (moderate stress), 31-45 (high-stress is a clear problem) and 45-60 (very high-stress is a major problem). The psychometric properties of the questionnaire were determined; the reliability calculated through Cronbach alpha calculated by author was .63 and in the current research the value was .61.

Although the Cronbach alpha is less than 0.7 but it's close to 0.7 as different authors supported 0.6 as acceptable value of reliability to conduct research (Moss, Prosser, and Costello et al., 1998; Hair, Anderson, Tatham, and Black, 2006).

Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ). Psychological capital questionnaire by Luthans, Avolio, and Youseff (2007) was used to measure the psychological capital (efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience). The questionnaire consisted of 24 items. The responses were taken on 6-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 6 (Strongly Agree). This scoring was valid to all the items in the questionnaire excluding items 13, 20 and 23, which were scored in the reversed manner. The reliability of psychological capital measure calculated through Cronbach alpha given by author was [alpha]=.83 and calculated in the current study was [alpha]=.86.The reliabilities of subscales given by the author were; self-efficacy [alpha]=.83, hope [alpha]=.81, resilience [alpha]=.69, optimism [alpha]=.67; and calculated in the current research were self-efficacy [alpha]=.80, hope [alpha]=.78., resilience [alpha]=.63, optimism [alpha]=.62.

Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire (MOAQ). The turnover intention of employees was measured by using Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire (MOAQ) developed by Camman, Fichman, Jenkins, and Klesh (1982). The responses were taken on 5-point Likertscale ranging from 1(Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree). No item was scored in the reversed manner. The range of score was from 1 to 5 and higher score indicated the higher turnover intentions. The value of Cronbach alpha given by author was 0.83 and calculated in the present research was .75.

Ethical Considerations

While conducting this research, a number of ethical considerations were kept in mind. Permission from the authors of questionnaires/scales was taken to use in the present study. The permission was taken from the concerned authorities of hotel properties. The informed consent was taken from the participants and the nature of the study was described to them before the administration of questionnaire. The participants were told about their right to withdraw from participation and terminate at any time they wish. The participants were insured that the information required from them will be held confidential and will not be used for any other purpose other than this research. Accurate reporting of data was done. All material was rephrased and cited properly.

Procedure

Prior to collection of data, permissions were taken from the authors of questionnaires used in the present study. The official permissions were taken from the concerned authorities of hotel properties. The data was collected in the office setting and the resource person introduced the researcher to the employees. Employees were well guided about the purpose of the research and details about the participation procedure. Informed content was taken from the participants.

The questionnaire was distributed to the willing participants. The participants were given the right to withdraw at any point of the participation. Instructions were given to the employees and queries of the employees were answered properly. Participants were given 30-35 minutes to complete the questionnaire. The participants were thanked after collecting data. Statistical analysis used included descriptive statistics and psychometric analysis of demographic data and scales, Pearson product moment correlation analysis to analyze the relationship between job stress, psychological capital and turnover intention, moderation through regression analysis to assess the moderating role of psychological capital in job stress and turnover intention of employees and Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to assess the main effects and interaction effects of organization star and type of designation of employees on job stress, psychological capital and turnover intentions of employees.

Results

The present research was conducted to assess the relationship of job stress and psychological capital with turnover intentions in the employees of hospitality industry. The data analytic strategy involved; (i) Descriptive statistics and reliability analysis was used to assess psychometric properties of the scales; (ii) Pearson product moment correlation analysis was applied to investigate the relationship of job stress and psychological capital with turnover intentions; (iii)Moderation through hierarchical regression analysis was employed to determine the moderating effect of psychological capital in job stress and turnover intention of employees; (iv)Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to investigate the main effects and interaction effects of organization star and type of designation of employees on job stress, psychological capital and turnover intentions of employees of hospitality industry.

Pearson product moment correlation analysis was employed to analyze the relationship of job stress and psychological capital with turnover intentions in employees.

The results are given in table 1.

Table 1 Relationship in Job Stress, Psychological Capital and Turnover Intention in Employees of Hospitality Industry

Variable###M###SD###1###2###3###4###5###6###7###8###9###10###11###12

1.Gender###-###-.27**###-.01###-.02###.03###-.15*###.07###.05###.02###.10###.17*###.09

2.Age###32.86###7.28###-###-.05###-.08###.17*###.76**###-.19**###.12###.14*###.10###.08###.02

3.Qualification dum1###-###-.39**###-.23**###-.12###.09###-.06###-.07###-.05###-.02###.02

4.Qualification dum2###-###-.18*###.08###.12###-.13###-.15*###-.09###-.18**###-.13

5.Designation###-###.13*###-.31**###.24**###.22**###.17*###.14*###-.07

6.Job Experience###6.96###5.76###-###-.10###-.01###-.04###-.01###-.05###-.15*

7.Job Stress###15.94###5.48###-###-.31**###-.33**###-.22**###-.24**###.19**

8.Self-Efficacy###27.58###4.28###-###.68**###.61**###.53**###.29**

9.Hope###28.37###4.25###-###.57**###.53**###.33**

10.Resiliency###26.64###3.58###-###.51**###.35**

11.Optimism###24.56###2.73###-###.19**

12.Turnover Intention###10.46###2.61###-

The results indicated a significant negative correlation between job stress and psychological capital of employees. The findings also showed a significant positive correlation between job stress and turnover intentions in employees of hospitality industry. The results have also suggested a significant positive correlation between psychological capital (efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience) and turnover intention.

Moderation analysis through regression analysis was conducted to assess the moderating role of psychological capital. The results are given in table 2.

Table 2 Moderation Analysis through Regression, Predicting Turnover Intentions in Employees (N = 200)

Predictor###Block 1###Block 2###Block 3###Block 4

###[beta]###SE###[beta]###SE###[beta]###SE###[beta]###SE

Constant

Gender###.13###.43###.09###.42###.06###.39###.05###.38

Age###.38**###.04###.27*###.04###.29*###.04###.25*###.04

Marital Status###-.02###.40###.02###.38###-.01###.36###.04###.36

No. of Dependents###-.01###.10###-.01###.09###-.02###.09###.01###.09

Monthly Income###.06###.00###.00###.00###.07###.00###.07###.00

Total Job Experience in###-.45**###.04###-.34**###.05###-.34**###.04###-.27**###.04

current field

Self-Efficacy###.04###.06###-.02###.06###-.01###.06

Hope###.16*###.05###.18*###.06###.18*###.06

Resilience###.23*###.06###.23*###.06###.23**###.06

Optimism###-.08###.08###-.05###.07###-.05###.07

Job stress###.37**###.03###.34**###.03

Job stress xEfficacy###.11###.01

Job stress xHope###-.04###.01

Job stress xResilience###.02###.01

Job stress xOptimism###.21*###.02

R2###.09###.20###.31###.37

F###3.36**###4.61**###7.51**###7.08**

R2###.09###.10###.10###.06

Moderation analysis through hierarchical regression was applied. First, independent variable (job stress) and moderators (efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience) were centralized. In block I, control variables were entered. In block II, moderators (efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience) were entered. In block III, independent variable (job stress) was entered. In block IV, the product of independent variable (job stress) and moderator s (efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience) was entered.

The results indicated that age of the participant, total job experience in the current field, job stress, resilience and hope are the significant predictors of turnover intentions in the employees. The results also showed that psychological capital (hope, resilience) has a main effect on turnover intentions in employees. Results have also shown an interaction effect of job stress and optimism on turnover intention.

Simple slope analysis for job stress and optimism was conducted from Jeremy Dawson simple slope analysis file (Dawson, 2013). The interaction plot of job stress and optimism is given as below:

The analysis showed that job stress leads to higher turnover intentions in employees when they experience high and low optimism. However this relationship is stronger in case of high optimism.

Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was applied to assess the main effect and interaction effect of organization star and type of designation of employees on job stress, psychological capital and turnover intentions. Organization type included three levels (three star, four star, five star) and type of designation consisted of two levels (middle management, top management). The sample distribution in each category is given below.

Table 3 Descriptive Statistics of Organization Type and Type of Designation

Organization Type###Type of Designation

###Middle Management###Top Management

Three Star###21(35)###9(6.25)

Four Star###83(33.25)###40(16.25)

Five Star###29(30.4)###18(19.1)

The findings suggested that organization star has a significant main effect on job stress F (2,194) =15.03, p <.05; hope F (2,194) = 6.06, p <.05 and resilience F (2,194) = 3.18, p <.05 of employees. Post hoc analysis indicated that five star employee experience more stress and this stress level decrease as the number of stars decrease. Significant differences for hope are found between four star and five star employees. Four star employee are more hopeful than five star employees. While significant differences for resilience are found between three star and four star employees and four star employees are more resilience than three star employees.

The results also suggested that the type of designation has a significant main effect on job stress F (1,194)= 19.18, p<.05; self-efficacy F (1,194)= 17.00, p<.05; hope F (1,194)= 10.43, p<.05; optimism F (1,194)= 4.68, p<.05 and resilience F (1,194)= 7.41, p<.05. Middle management experience more stress than top management while top management experience more efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience than middle management.

The analysis also indicated an interaction effect of organization star and type of designation on turnover intentions F (2,194) = 6.12, p<.05 of employees. The interaction plot is given below.

The interaction plot has shown that in the middle management employees, three star hotel employees have shown high intentions to quit and the employees of five star hotels have shown lower turnover intentions. In the top management employees, five star hotel employees are found to have higher intentions to quit and lower turnover intentions are found in three star hotel employees.

Discussion

Hiring competent managers, supervisors, and staff for hospitality industry isn't always easy. The harder part, however, is retaining good employees once you have them. Unfavorable conditions at work leads to develop work related stress, poor wellbeing and reduced organizational commitment of employees (Arshadi and Damiri, 2013). Using theories and models of turnover as the theoretical under-pinning, the present study explored the relationship of job stress and psychological capital with turnover intention in the employees of hospitality industry. The results revealed that most of the hypotheses are supported.

The findings suggested that job stress is positively related with the turnover intention and negatively related with the psychological capital of the employees. This can be explained as when the level of stress increases, employees' intentions to leave also increase but the positive psychological capital (self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience) of employees lessen down as a result. Literature has also supported a significant positive relationship between job stress and turnover intention and indicated that a high level of stress results in an increased employees' intentions to quit and by lowering down the level of stress, employees can be retained and their intentions to quit can be reduced (Arshadi and Damiri, 2013 ; Wong and Laschinger, 2015).

While Avey, Luthans, and Jensen (2009) investigated a negative relationship between positive psychological capital and stress symptoms and also indicated that the personal characteristics of a person may expose an individual to stress, restricting the effectiveness of different environmental interventions as redesigning of job or training programs.

Interestingly, and contrary to most of the existing literature, we found a significant positive relationship between psychological capital and turnover intentions. In retrospect, it is possible that individuals with high psychological capital, being more skillful and confident, think of leaving their jobs if they perceive high stress. They might want to seek better working environment and start looking for better options in the job market. For example, it has been suggested that high performers would be more likely to quit when salaries and promotion policies are not aligned (Allen and Griffeth, 1999). Moreover, research on employability suggests that an organizational environment that does not foster its members' development and employability, increases employees' turnover intentions (Nauta, van Vianen, van der Heijden, van Dam, and Willemsen, 2009).

Our findings suggest that psychological resources function the same way, equipping individuals with the cognitive and emotional resources necessary to push them away from a threatening stressful workplace.

Secondly, the results indicated that the psychological capital (optimism) had a moderating effect between job stress and turnover intention in employees. Employee with high level of optimism and stress have lessen intentions to quit. Fishbein and Ajzen`s theory (1975) assumed that the behavior of a person is the function of his performing intentions to perform that behavior. Hence the attitudes are presumed to have a direct impact on behavior operating through their more immediate influence upon behavioral intentions. An optimist individual has the capability to get better from problem, failure or even seeming overpowering positive changes and to sustain a motivational state that has three main elements as goal, agency and pathways. Therefore, optimism helped the hotel employees in managing their level of stress and reduced their intentions to quit (Coutu, 2002; Snyder, 2000).

In addition, it was also determined that the age of the participant, job experience of the participant in the current field, job stress, resilience and hope were significant predictors of turnover intentions in the employees. Mobley (1977) identified four types of variables influencing turnover intentions of employees including individual variables, organizational variables, external environment and attitudinal variables. Individual variables predicting turnover intention directly or indirectly suggested both personal/ demographic variables (e.g. age, tenure, education, interest, personality, aptitude). While describing organizational / external environment variables, he stated that an individual's expectancy of getting an acceptable another position or post was found to be having a positive relationship to the turnover intention but not to the actual turnover.

He mentioned job stress, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction as the leading attitudinal factors that have a prominent influence on intention to quit and situational turnover. Feeling stressful has been found to be a mediating variable affecting job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to leave and also the actual turnover.

An interaction effect of organization stars and type of designation was found on turnover intentions of employees. The interaction plot suggested that in the middle management employees, three star hotel employees had shown high intentions to quit and the employees of five star hotels had shown lower turnover intentions. In the top management employees, five star hotel employees were found to have higher intentions to quit and lower turnover intentions were found in three star hotel employees. Neill and Davis (2011) supported the interaction effect found in current study by determining if there were differences in the types and frequency of work stressors by the type of job (i.e., managers versus non-managers), marital status and gender. The findings of the study suggested that hotel managers (top management) were found significantly experiencing more stressors than hourly employees (middle management).

Limitations and Suggestions. The participants were drawn from one city of Pakistan i.e., only from Lahore, therefore, the sample was small in diversity and this factor may limit the generalization of results. It is advised to conduct researches by including hotel industries of different cities of Pakistan taking employees with diverse backgrounds to assess the relationship of job stress, psychological capital and turnover intention in hospitality industry of Pakistan. Data was collected from three, four and five star hotels only. Data should be collected from different hospitality industries other than hotels e.g. restaurants, cafes, fast food chains, guest houses etc. Scales used in this study were not indigenous. Indigenous scales should be developed and used to assess job stress, psychological capital and turnover intentions in future researches to avoid the influence of cultural gap. Behavioral observations were not included in the research.

Behavioral observations should be included in the research in order to validate information provided by employees.

Implications. Data from a diverse sample of management employees across different types of hospitality industries suggested that psychological capital (the positive resources of self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience) can be the main reason to better understanding the change in perceived symptoms of stress, as well as intentions to quit and job search behaviors in employees. Thus improving stress management strategies will be helpful in reducing turnover intentions in employees. Training programs can be developed for employees as well as employers helping them to deal with psychological stressors, psychological resources of employees and to reduce down turnover intention in employees in hospitality industry that will help in improving employee efficiency as well as organizational productivity.

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Publication:Journal of Behavioural Sciences
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Dec 31, 2017
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