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Japanese gardens as texts and contexts.

Why teach Japanese gardens and philosophy?

In an earlier essay, I outlined reasons for teaching Japanese aesthetics. Many of these reasons apply to the teaching of Japanese gardens as well. (1) Since Japanese gardens give direct experience of the culture, they contribute uniquely to students' experience and lives.

An enormous amount of what one needs to know to understand gardens takes place automatically through our bodies. Since so much of gardens' meaning and value come from what they do to and for our bodies, and with reference to the specific climate in which they are situated, (2) we can understand much of any garden's meaning and value without reading and studying and by just being in the environment; this experience can then be applied to other aspects of Japanese culture. Although there is an enormous amount to be learned about gardens from reading, experiencing them first hand depends upon our bodies and the multi-sensuous processing that accompanies our physically being in an environment. Such an experience gives students an extraordinary chance to learn the culture first-hand. With gardens we avoid the myriad problems of language translation between Japanese and English.

Gardens provide an unparalleled first-hand experience of Japanese culture that one can appreciate directly. By this I do not suggest that guidance is not needed to be able to comprehend what is seen and experienced immediately. But by being encouraged to walk through a stroll garden, for example, or just to spend some time in its presence, we begin to recognize the significance of the garden because it is not only symbolic, but because it is also a physical system. Students can then build on this first-hand knowledge.

Some lessons are best learned through physical experience. Garden designers have long been aware of this type of experiential learning. Consider, for example, the irregularity of Japanese stone paths that are best understood not through study, but through walking. These uneven stepping-stones may be quite dangerous if one does not pay close attention to where and how one sets one's foot, as they are often placed along edges of small hills or across water. They impose upon the walker the Buddhist quality of mindfulness and attentiveness to the present moment and to even the least significant action. In a tea garden, these stone paths help guests refocus their attention away from the city noise through which they have just made their way to a place of peace and shared caring that will be the core of the tea ceremony. Yet they also contribute to the inherent social qualities of Japanese gardens. Americans too often think of Japanese gardens as rarified, refined, ascetic, and derived from Zen--but a Zen from which all humor and sociability have been removed. On the contrary, precisely because of such Buddhist qualities as mindfulness and refusal to recognize social distinctions, and because of their egalitarian nature, gardens are marvelous sites for gatherings.

Garden designs and their accents promote conversation and sociality --another principle derived from tea ceremony. As a result, gardens work equally well for parties and for classes of students who do not know each other well; differences between, say, sophomores and juniors, Goths and Jocks, and those in different majors disappear; they all end up feeling somewhat similar, aware of what they share, and this feeling invariably undercuts their apparent differences. At a deeper level, Japanese gardens are models of integration of what can seem like the irreconcilable polarities of our period. Their formal qualities combine natural materials and rational structure into compelling designs that many people find deeply reassuring. This tranquility, the ability to reconcile opposites, and the refutation of the fragmentation of body, mind, heart, and spirit, can transform lives.


I suggest students visit a Japanese garden since they can now be found at several universities and in most major and many smaller American cities. (3) Giving short writing assignments and/or photographic projects in conjunction with such visits work well. Ask students to bring along Japanese poems on seasonal topics such as the full moon, irises, cherry or plum blossoms, or autumn leaves. Or have them write their own haiku in the garden and read them aloud, since sharing poetry is an age-old Japanese tradition for visiting gardens. Coordinating garden visits with reading Japanese novels is also valuable. The annual cherry-blossom viewing trips described in Tanizaki's The Makioka Sisters, for instance, help students understand many different aspects of Japanese culture, from attitudes toward nature to patterns of socializing to aesthetics to the role of literature in Japan. An especially effective comparison can be made with the cherry-blossom viewing in the classic Heian memoir, As I Crossed a Bridge of Dreams. In addition, there are also several documentary videos on Japanese gardens and on tea ceremony that provide a sense of what it is like to see or move through gardens in Japan. (4) A number of feature films give worthwhile insights into how Japanese gardens of various types are used and appreciated by specific types of Japanese society. Mizoguchi's Forty-Seven Ronin, based on events that occurred in 1701, opens with an unusually long take of a daimyo's courtyard garden with a mound of sand in the middle; the camera films it while moving around the four sides of the verandah from which it would be viewed. Ichikawa's version of Tanizaki's novel The Makioka Sisters shows family members going each year to view cherry blossoms. Teshigahara's Rikyu, an account of the life of the founder of the Japanese tea ceremony aesthetic, has beautiful footage of tea gardens and other objects.

Philosophical Issues in Japanese Gardens

Philosophical issues relevant to gardens are often overlooked. What follows is a guide to studying Japanese gardens philosophically. (5)

Some philosophical questions to begin: Since gardens are used worldwide as metaphors for human life, education, and government, what are the perceived premises and extrapolations of metaphors, and why and how are they applied? As multi-sensual places, what do gardens suggest for our theories and experience of embodiment? Since gardens are spatial, how do and can we use them to understand the differences between space and place, between logical/mathematical space and perceived space? How do and can we use gardens to extend our definitions of home, country, or state, and evidence? Given gardens' intense and intricate temporality, what purposes are they made to serve in making our own temporality appreciable to us? What is their role in disseminating "objective" notions of time (scientific, geological, historical, and religious)? What roles do they play in conveying socially shared structures of time since gardens incorporate living organisms and death must always be taken into account? What approaches do they take toward death? What parallels do they draw between the death of plants and animals to that of humans? Gardens both take their place within existing lifeworlds and serve as microcosms of our world; at times they even represent some other ideal world. What views of the lifeworld do they represent or, more originally, present?

As starting points, these questions can be raised about virtually all gardens, but especially about Japanese gardens.

Overlaps between Philosophical Issues Raised by and about the Gardens

Some readers may find the proposal to study gardens philosophically foreign, or even preposterous, but if we view gardens as text and objects of philosophical inquiry, they begin to appear more intellectually inviting.

I believe there are two types of philosophical issues raised by Japanese gardens: those that philosophy might raise about them, like those just described, and those issues the gardens themselves were designed to formulate. From this latter standpoint, gardens may be thought of as exemplars of theories put forth previously in written or verbal texts. What follows exemplifies this latter aspect of my hypothesis. The next section explores relations between humanity and nature, semiotics and symbolism, and the role of history (the nature of society and the role of our predecessors in contemporary society). I then address the two sets of philosophical issues that Japanese gardens are designed to raise: the nature of time and varieties of temporality, and the nature of the human Subject and its relation to the world.

The Relations between Humanity and Nature

In any culture that has philosophy as an activity, the exploration of hypotheses regarding relationships between humans and the natural world is fundamental. The combination of nature and artifice that is the Japanese garden provides an entree into the relations between humanity and nature.

In traditional Japanese gardens, one wants to look at gardens as instantiations of Buddhist, Confucian, Neo-Confucian, and Daoist views on the relations between humans and the natural world. However, the questions that philosophers address abstractly, gardens present concretely. A question to be asked to begin is, how much of the world we are seeing and feeling is part of the garden? Where does the garden end and nature begin? Some gardens give an irrefutable reply: "Here! At this wall, hedge, or fence." The Japanese response, however, is the notion of "borrowed scenery" (shakkei), which they have used extensively and in many different ways. Ginkakuji (Silver Pavilion) is especially famous, as is the view of the surrounding countryside from the Shugaku-in Detached Imperial Palace. Whether the contrasting view of skyscrapers from Koichi Kawana's Japanese garden at the Denver Botanic Garden was intentional or not, his intelligence, invention, sensitivity, and sense of fun are so great that they add a certain delectable postmodern element to the garden. The issues raised by boundaries are not limited to human-nature relations; they also venture into social and political territory, for gardens that obscure their boundaries challenge social conventions and notions of property ownership.

Next come questions of the qualitative differences between the natural and garden environments. What is the boundary of the artificial? Is the line of demarcation invariable? Is it even perceptible? How is it made so? Of course, all gardens are both natural and artificial. The extent to which they aspire to "imitate nature," however, varies enormously from style to style, but what sort of nature is it that Japanese gardeners emulate? In European and American gardens, ideal trees are those that conform to a standard gleaned from Aristotelian notions of perfect conformity to its kind, or to a Platonic mathematical symmetry. In Japanese gardens, by contrast, the ideal is that which has been shaped to a highly individualized, often sweeping, idiosyncrasy. The nearest objects to them to be found in nature are the trees on windy mountaintops whose shapes have been distorted by natural forces.

Here we must confront questions regarding the relations between nature and divinity. In the Abrahamic religions, God abides outside of nature, for He created and transcends it. In Shinto, however, kami are immanent in nature and scattered throughout the countryside, and even in cities. Shinto shrines raise questions about the nature of sacred space and the different processes by which different religions come to recognize a space as sacred. Unlike monotheistic Western religions that prefer consecrated places where some religious event took place, East Asia recognizes places of inherent sanctity such as mountaintops or caves. Buddhists decorate them with paintings and carvings and treat them as locations for ritual and prayer. Shinto favors keeping decoration (especially narrative programs) at a minimum in most cases and found marking sacred spots with relatively simple architectural ritual forms such as the torii (sacred gate) to be aesthetically pleasing and religiously significant.

Semiotics and the Nature of Symbolism (6)

Some Japanese gardens employ symbolism of Chinese origin: actual islands in water or rocks set in raked sand representing the Isles of the Immortals from Daoist mythology, while pines suggest immortality or lotuses symbolize the Buddhist potential to rise from the world of suffering. (7) This sort of one-to-one correspondence between signifier and signified seems so straightforward and simple one hesitates to call it symbolism at all.

If, as Carl Jung argued, a symbol is a sign of such depth and richness of interpretation that it can be explored and its significance deepened virtually infinitely (like the Christian cross or the Buddhist wheel of the law), then these Chinese examples are hardly symbols at all, but visual (and literary) signs, that is, correlates of words in language. They stand for something that can be explained or shown; they are largely conventional, though not arbitrary in the linguistic sense; they approach the "natural sign" in which one thing stands for another in virtue of some natural relationship such as smoke for fire. Or, even better, they are symbols as defined by Ferdinand de Saussure:
 One characteristic of the symbol is that it is never wholly
 arbitrary; it is not empty, for there is the rudiment of a natural
 bond between the signifier and the signified. The symbol of
 justice, a pair of scales, could not be replaced by just any other
 symbol, such as a chariot." (8)

Yet mythology, numerology, Daoism, and yin-yang thinking provide just the sort of rich ground for interpretation for which Jung argued (9)--they have interwoven over centuries with the Confucian literati tradition (prevalent throughout East Asia) that developed an especially rich tradition of symbolic interpretation of plants. (10) Pine, bamboo, orchid, chrysanthemum, and plum blossom are known in combination as the Four Gentlemen and the Three Friends. Like the Buddhist lotus, these Confucian plants appear with their symbolic connotations in gardens as well as in paintings and poems as seen in Shisendo, literally the "Hall of the Poetry Immortals," in northeast Kyoto. (11)

Yet some scholars believe that Japanese culture tends not to use symbols. Rather, they claim the Japanese use allusion, iteration, and evocation to build up rich networks of resonances, (12) which are beautifully illustrated by "Japan the Beautiful and Myself," the 1968 Nobel Prize acceptance speech by Japanese novelist (and art collector) Yasunari Kawabata. In his speech he unravels a theory of Japanese aesthetics so replete with poems about the moon that by the time the reader finishes, she is already in possession of a beginning repertoire of aesthetic experiences sufficient to enable her to participate in this elaborate allusive network that comprises the Japanese aesthetic experience. (13)

Other types of gardens, however, set up images in such a way they seem to be questioning the very possibility of symbolism and the validity of interpretation. Notorious in this respect is the largest grouping of rocks at the dry sand garden at Ryoanji, which has been interpreted in a number of ways, most famously as a mother tigress with her cubs or a group of islands in the sea. Yet this group both provokes and defies interpretation. Although Zen art and theory use symbols, notably the mirror, the ox, and the tiger, Zen is famous for its refusal to look "behind" the thing itself for some deeper signifi cance and insists on the validity of the thing itself. In this context, it seems doubtful that the group of rocks was "meant" to be anything other than a group of rocks (in relation, admittedly, to several other groups of rocks, pebbles, the wall, the viewer, and the borrowed scenery from beyond). Yet surely, one cannot in good faith dismiss totally these other accounts out of hand.

Philosophical Issues Raised by Japanese Gardens

The Nature of Time and Varieties of Temporality

Zen gardens with "rivers" or "oceans" of raked sand or pebbles are not simply representational in a straightforward sense; they choose signifiers that directly contradict the usual characteristics of the signified. By using fragments to represent indivisible wholes--rocks, one of our most long-lasting substances, to represent water, which is not only constantly moving and changing but is also ephemeral and constantly evaporating--these gardens challenge some of our most cherished metaphysical ideas such as substance, change, and repetition. (14) They make literal the Buddhist truism that the only constant is change, forcing the hardest of media to represent the most fluid, and at the same time, they deliberately challenge the common-sense notions of what is true and valid.

This pattern of representation is built upon a tradition of comparing life to flowing water that was already centuries old when the first Zen gardens were designed. Dry gardens take their place alongside a visual tradition that has used reflecting pools to indicate both the ultimate "truth" of Buddhist Paradise and the falsehood of illusion or mistaking a reflection for the thing itself. The relations of water to consciousness, illusion, and awareness are reflected in the dry water features of many Buddhist gardens.

The Nature of the Subject and Her Relation to the World

Gardens are miniature worlds and the positions viewers take in a garden indicate the positions its designer believes the Subject takes in the real or physical world. If, as scholars of French gardens claim, Versailles assigns the king a central privileged and literally superior position from which to see and make sense of everyone else's position in the garden, then similarly the various Japanese gardens instantiate positions on the position of the Subject in the world. Picturesque landscape gardens afford every visitor the opportunity to see the landscape as a series of pictures with aesthetic and perhaps emotional, that is, subjective significance for her as an individual. The fact there is no position from which Ryoanji's stones can all be seen at once suggests a mentality diametrically opposed to that of French monarchs; an experience of the dry rock garden at Ryoanji makes the idea that there is no single final absolute objective truth not only comprehensible, but acceptable. And this is a philosophical lesson for students and for all of us who experience what Japanese gardens open for us.

For Further Reading and Research:

A. C. Graham. Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1989.

Hyams, E. Capability Brown and Humphrey Repton. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1971.

Saussure, Ferdinand de. Course in General Linguistics. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966.

Schutz, Alfred. Collected Papers I: The Problem of Social Reality, "Part III/ Symbol, Reality and Society: On Multiple Realities," Maurice Natanson, ed. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1973.

Schutz, Alfred and Thomas Luckmann. The Structures of the Life-World. Richard

M. Zaner and H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr, trans. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1973.

Stroud, Dorothy. Capability Brown. London: Faber & Faber, 1975.

Tsunoda, Ryusaku, Wm. Theodore de Bary, and Donald Keene, editors. Sources of Japanese Tradition, Vol. I. New York: Columbia University, 1958.

Principle works in English translation:

Anon. (attrib. to Ariwara no Narihira). Tales of Ise: Lyrical Episodes from 10th Century Japan (Ise Monogatari), Helen Craig McCullough, trans. (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 1989)

Itoh, Teiji. Shakkei to Tsuboniwa (Borrowed Scenery and Courtyard Gardens). Kyoto: Tankosha, 1965; Space and Illusion in the Japanese Garden. Translated and adapted by Ralph Friedrich and Masajiro Shimamura. New York & Tokyo: Weatherhill/Tankosha, 1973.

Kawabata, Yasunari. Japan the Beautiful and Myself, Edward G. Seidensticker, trans. Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International, Ltd., 1968.

Morris, Edwin T. The Gardens of China: History, Art, and Meanings. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1983.

Morris, Ivan. As I Crossed a Bridge of Dreams: Recollections of a Woman in EleventhCentury Japan. New York: The Dial Press, 1971. (Memoir)

Murasaki, Shikibu, "Murasaki Shikibu: 'On the Art of the Novel,'" in Sources of Japanese Tradition, Vol. I, Tsunoda, Ryusaku, Wm. Theodore de Bary, and Donald Keene, editors. New York: Columbia University, 1958, pp. 176-179.

Murasaki, Shikibu. The Tale of Genji, Edward G. Seidensticker, trans. (New York: Knopf, 1977); Royall Tyler, trans. (New York: Viking, 2001); Arthur Waley, trans. (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1926-1933; Modern Library, 1960). (Novel)

Nitschke, Gunter. Japanese Gardens: Right Angle and Natural Form. Koln: Benedikt Taschen, 1993.

Shimoyama, Shigemaru, Sakuteiki: The Book of Garden (Tokyo: Town and City Planners, 1976)

Slawson, David A. Secret Teachings of Japanese Gardens: Design Principles, Aesthetic Values (Senzui narabi ni yagyoh no zu (Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water, and Hillside Field Landscapes) (Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International Ltd., 1987).

Stein, Rolf A. The World in Miniature: Container Gardens and Dwellings in Far Eastern Religious Thought. Trans. Phiyllis Brooks. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1990.

Tanizaki, Jun'ichiro. The Makioka Sisters. Edward G. Seidensticker, transl. (Novel)

Selected secondary sources:

Deutsch, Eliot. "An Invitation to Contemplation: The Rock Gardens of Ryoanji and the Concept of Yugen," Studies in Comparative Aesthetics, Monograph no. 2 of the Society for Asian and Comparative Philosophy. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1975.

Holborn, Mark, The Ocean in the Sand: Japan: From Landscape to Garden. Boulder, CO: Shambala Publications, 1978.

Keane, Marc P. and Haruzo Ohashi, Photographer. Japanese Garden Design. XX Hume, Nancy. Japanese Aesthetics & Culture: A Reader. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1995.

Keswick, Maggie. The Chinese Garden. London: Academy Editions, 1978; 2nd revised edition, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986.

Miller, Mara. The Garden as an Art. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993.--. "The Lady in the Garden: Subjects and Objects in an Ideal World" (on images of women writers from Medieval Europe and Heian Japan), in Crossing the Bridge, Cynthia Ho and Barbara Stevenson, eds., St. Martin's Press, 2000.--. "Teaching Japanese Aesthetics: Whys & Hows for Non-Specialists," Newsletter of the American Society for Aesthetics, 16, 2; Fall 1996. http://www. --. "Time and Temporality in Japanese Gardens." Between Architecture and Landscape. Jan Birksted, ed. Chapman & Hall, 1999.

Morris, Edwin T. The Gardens of China: History, Art, and Meanings. New York: Scribners, 1983.

Rimer, J. Thomas, Jonathan Chaves, Stephen Addiss, and Hiroyuki Suzuki, Shisendo: Hall of the Poetry Immortals. NY & Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1991.

Takei, Jiro and Marc Peter Keane, trans. Sakuteiki: Visions of the Japanese Garden. Hong Kong: Periplus Eds, 2001.

Treib, Marc and Ron Herman. Guide to the Gardens of Kyoto. Tokyo: Shufunotomo Co., Ltd., 1980.

Yiengpruksawan, Mimi. "The Phoenix Hall at Uji and the Symmetries of Replication," Art Bulletin 77, 1995.


The Embassy of Japan in Canada has a number of videos on Japanese gardens (including Katsura and Eiheiji Zen Temple) that they lend, but only within Canada. archgard.htm

They also have Japan: Spirit and Form. (1991) 45 min. "A 10 program series hosted by Shuichi Kato, one of Japan's best known art and literary critics."

Dream Window: Reflections on the Japanese Garden. Focuses largely on Zen dryrock gardens. Produced and distributed by the Smithsonian Institution.

Four Seasons of the Japanese Garden: "Viewers are brought into the heart of our Garden in this peaceful and contemplative video, which features our five formal garden styles in all seasons. Set to the soothing music of the bamboo shakuhachi flute, played by Peter Ross, the video captures some of the festivals and cultural traditions of Japan celebrated in the Garden during the year. With the subtle movements of water, wind, shapes, colors, and form, along with the natural sounds of the Garden, the landscapes come alive." Japanese Garden, Portland, OR.

Shinto: Nature, Gods and Man in Japan. Japan Society. 48 min. 299.561 2556 Japanese Tea Ceremony. Shows the role of gardens in preparing the guests for the tea ceremony. Distributed by Films for the Humanities. Films_Home/search.cfm?s=1

The Tale of Genji. This study of the 12th century illustrated scroll of the novel by Murasaki Shikibu examines not only the making and the style of the scroll, but the relations between the text and the illustrations, many of which are set in gardens. Distributed by Films for the Humanities.

Traditional Japanese Architecture. A beautifully done video on Katsura, the early 17th century. Detached Imperial Villa outside Kyoto, renowned for its gardens. Distributed by Films for the Humanities. search.cfm?s=1

Videos--Feature Films that feature gardens

Enjo (Conflagration). Kon Ichikawa, dir. 1958. Based on the novel by Yukio Mishima, The Temple of the Golden Pavilion, which was based on the real-life destruction of the Kinkakuji Temple by a mentally disturbed young priest in 1950.

Forty-seven Ronin. Mizoguchi Kenzo, dir. 1942. Based on the early 18th-c. Kabuki play by Chikamatsu Monzaemon, who based his work on actual events of 1703.

The Makioka Sisters. Kon Ichikawa, dir. 1983. Based on the novel by Jun'ichiro Tanizaki. Rikyu. Hiroshi Teshigahara, dir. 1989. Based on the life of the 17th century founder of the tea ceremony as an art form, Sen no Rikyu.


International Association of Japanese Gardens.

The Japanese Garden Database, run by Robert Cheatham, keeps lists of gardens, bibliographies, supplies and suppliers, and so forth. Japanese Gardens and Designs, with photos and resources:

The Morikami Museum and Japanese Garden, in Del Ray Beach, FL:

The Japanese Garden in Portland, OR: Parks/JapaneseGarden.htm

(1) Miller, Mara, "Teaching Japanese Aesthetics: Whys & Hows for Non-Specialists," Newsletter of the American Society for Aesthetics, 16, 2 (Fall 1996).

(2) Miller, Mara, The Garden as an Art, (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993).

(3) Robert Cheatham's website "The Japanese Garden Database" (http://www. and the International Association of Japanese Gardens (http://www. are good places from which to start your search for local gardens.

(4) See video bibliography at the end of this essay.

(5) The Garden as an Art and David E. Cooper's A Philosophy of Gardens (Oxford University Press, 2006) address issues such as: where gardens fit in contemporary aesthetic theory and why they were dropped from philosophers' consideration after their 18th century popularity, where gardens stand in relation to central aesthetic criteria such as distance/disinterest and virtual form as well as semiotic questions such as how signification in gardens occurs and how gardens compare and contrast with language as meaning systems and with other arts as ways of conveying ideas and with their relative effectiveness in these projects.

(6) Miller, op. cit., 25-32 and 153-170.

(7) Williams, C. A. S. Outlines of Chinese Symbolism and Art Motives, (3rd revised edition, Shanghai: Kelly and Walsh, Ltd, 1941; Rutland, VT and Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, 1976).

(8) Saussure, Ferdinand de, Course in General Linguistics, (New York: McGrawHill Book Company, 1966), 68.

(9) Jung, Carl. Man and His Symbols (New York: Dell Publishing, 1964) and A. C. Graham, Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China, (La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1989).

(10) Two particularly nuanced and informative sources on Chinese nature and garden symbolism are Keswick, Maggie, The Chinese Garden (London: Academy Editions, 1978; 2nd revised edition, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986), and Morris, Edwin T. The Gardens of China: History, Art, and Meanings (New York: Scribners, 1983).

(11) Rimer, J. Thomas, Jonathan Chaves, Stephen Addiss, and Hiroyuki Suzuki, Shisendo: Hall of the Poetry Immortals, (NY & Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1991).

(12) Keene, Donald, "Feminine Sensibility in the Heian Era," Appreciation of Japanese Culture, (Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd., 1971; reprinted in Nancy Hume, Japanese Aesthetics & Culture: A Reader, (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1995), 109-123.

(13) Kawabata, Yasunari, Japan the Beautiful and Myself, Edward G. Seidensticker, trans. (Tokyo and New York: Kodansha International, Ltd., 1968).

(14) Miller, "Time and Temporality in Japanese Gardens," in Between Architecture and Landscape. Jan Birksted, Ed. (London: Chapman & Hall, 1999).
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Author:Miller, Mara
Publication:East-West Connections
Article Type:Essay
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2007
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