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James Cook--SNLR.


During his second Pacific voyage, 1772-75, James Cook approached New Zealand from the west in HMS Resolution, reaching Dusky Bay in the southwest of New Zealand around midday on 26 March 1773. Cook had just spent some four months in Antarctic waters and needed to rest his men, replenish water, and effect repairs.

Cook had named 'Dusky Bay' (now called Dusky Sound although it is actually a fiord) during his first visit when he entered the mouth of the Sound in the Endeavour around dusk three years earlier in his First Voyage. With the onset of night and the numerous small islets that he could see, on that occasion Cook prudently decided not to linger, but did name some of the prominent points. Many of the names given by Cook during his visits--Point Five Fingers for example--appear on present-day charts, albeit with some minor variations.

Resolution was initially anchored off Anchor Point at the eastern tip of Anchor Island, but like much of the Sound this is somewhat exposed, especially to the prevailing south-westerly winds and swells rolling in, and it proved to be an unsatisfactory anchorage. Lieutenant Richard Pickersgill--"a good officer but liking ye grog" according to Cook--was despatched to seek out a better anchorage. He duly located a "snug little harbour" a few miles to the south and Resolution was accordingly worked over to what Cook named 'Pickersgill Harbour'. In so doing, Resolution was manoeuvred through a narrow passage (which Cook named 'the Narrows' and which the local fishers now call 'Cooks Passage' though it is unnamed on the charts), barely 30 metres wide at its narrowest point, between the mainland and a small island (Crayfish Island).

Resolution was manoeuvred stern first into the outlet of a small creek (Cook Stream) and moored with "her yards locked amongst the branches" port side to the rocky shore of what is now Astronomer Point. A sturdy rata tree growing horizontally from the shore was utilised, with another hewn from the thick forest laid alongside, as a gangway. A notable painting by Hodges (Fig. 1.) depicts the gangway with a seaman making his way back on board. In the far background one can just make out the observatory tent erected by the astronomer William Wales, along with a string of washing hung out to dry.

In 1995 HMNZS Monowai found a rata tree growing horizontally from the shore and what were possibly axe marks could be discerned (Fig. 2.). It is generally thought to be the very same tree, and it would be nice to think that this were so, though it is improbable. There was, however, another rata log lying in the water a short distance away and this one seems more likely to have been the one that was used.



In 1996, the Endeavour replica visited New Zealand and during her circumnavigation called in to Dusky Sound. She moored off Astronomer Point and alongside the horizontal rata (Fig. 3.). Historian and author John Hall-Jones described it as "a truly moving sight" and it is one which evokes Resolution in her snug berth.


Cook's men felled a large number of the point's trees (almost an acre according to Hall-Jones who quotes Wales as saying that they cut down and destroyed "more trees and curious shrubs and plants that would in London have sold for one hundred pounds" (2)) to make a clear spot for an observatory. Covered in ferns, a number of stumps can still be seen today though the tree cover has long since regenerated and the area now looks very much as Cook must have seen it.

Wales found the ground to be very soft, mainly the detritus of fallen vegetation as it still is today. This made it difficult to establish a stable base for Wales' observing instruments so a puncheon (3) was sunk into the ground and filled with stones and gravel. This was still not fully satisfactory so the quadrant and 'the clock' were set up on two adjacent tree stumps. In 1974 a party spent some time exploring and searching for traces of Cook. At Astronomer Point they probed the earth with an iron rod and located something solid. On scraping the topsoil away they discovered gravel. Not wishing to disturb the spot they did not proceed any further though they did locate some embers which were possibly the remains of a fire which we are told Cook and Wales lit in the doorway of the tent.

In 1773 the area was the sign of much activity in addition to the observations and the laundry evident in Hodge's painting. A forge was set up on the brow of the point and a pen built for Resolution's sheep. Tents were set up for the sail makers and the coopers on the shingle bank astern of Resolution at the mouth of Cook Stream. The cooper's casks were soon to hold the first beer brewed in New Zealand, a 'spruce beer' which Cook described as a "very good well tasted beer" (4). The beer would be unrecognisable today, being a fermented concoction from the leaves of the rimu and manuka trees, molasses and wort juice (5). The crew apparently hated the taste though Cook, in his campaign against scurvy, insisted on it being consumed. Apparently the addition of rum and brown sugar made it drinkable and, according to the botanist Sparrman, when these ingredients were stirred in "it bubbled and tasted rather like champagne" (6)!

Whilst the various activities were going on ashore, Resolution's seamen surveyed the harbour and Cook explored the coastline, encountering a local Maori tribe on Indian Island with whom a close bond developed. After a stay of five weeks, Resolution headed north via Acheron Passage and Breaksea Sound.

Cook's plan of Pickersgill Harbour served as the model when a copper plate was engraved in 1777 and the plan was included in the published account of Cook's second voyage (7) (Fig. 4.). It was also included as an inset plan forming part of Admiralty chart 1281, published sixty-seven years later, in 1840. The plan, originally entitled "Pickersgill Harbour from Vancouver's Voyage 1791", but later changed to "... from Captn Cook's Voyage 1773" (Fig. 5.), was one of four on the chart (8). This plan includes the soundings from Cook's work and two others (and a little more detail around a drying rock in the south side of the harbour) evidently from Vancouver's voyage. Over the years as charting schemes changed, this plan was reproduced on various British Admiralty (BA) and New Zealand (NZ) charts of the area as various new editions and new chart schemes were produced (Figs. 6 & 7.).




In 1993 an article in a magazine for commercial fishermen (9) noted:

The surveyors and their shore-based counterparts, the cartographers at the Hydrographic Office in Takapuna, Auckland, are a dedicated group. Much hard work and applied effort has been put in, so that many of the charts of New Zealand have been updated and replaced in recent years. However, many of the navy's surveyors will point out with a perverse sense of pride that: 'you can still buy a modern NZ chart which contains a plan which is directly attributable to Captain Cook'. The plan to which they refer is of Pickersgill Harbour off Dusky Sound ... the plan is contained as a part of the chart NZ 7612 and, indeed, has been moved in recent years as new charts have been published so that it could be retained on the current large scale chart.



(Chart NZ 7612 was a NZ reprint of its earlier BA counterpart produced primarily from surveys by HMS Acheron in 1851 and was the chart of the area that we used in Monowai to navigate around the area in the course of our surveys.)


I took command of HMNZS Monowai at the end of January 1994, surveying in the southernmost reaches of Fiordland (Fig. 8.) as part of the navy's continuing programme of updating the charts of New Zealand--a task now taken over by Land Information New Zealand (LINZ). During a spell in Auckland around Easter for maintenance and making preparations for a South Pacific deployment, I discussed our future survey tasking with the Hydrographer. This was to be a joint survey from September 1994 between Monowai and the Inshore Survey Craft (ISC), HMNZS Takapu and Tarapunga, under my overall control for the survey.


The charts of the area mostly dated back to the Acheron and Pandora surveys of Captain John Lort Stokes 1850-51. These were 'adequate' in relative terms, but increasing use of the area by large cruise liners and other tourist vessels and the greater use of GPS and electronic charts (in their infancy at the time but becoming increasingly popular) required that the area be surveyed to modern standards and that charts be produced on WGS84 datum. A secondary purpose was to benefit the occasional small pleasure craft and "fishing vessels seeking sheltered and safe anchorages from the notorious weather often experienced along the Fiordland coast" (10).

As we discussed the area to be surveyed, I noted that Pickersgill Harbour was included in the ISC area. After an interesting discussion, seniority carried the day and the survey limit inside the Sound was adjusted eastwards so that the harbour lay inside Monowai's survey area.

Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) survey ships were tasked by Hydrographic Instruction (HI) issued by the Hydrographer. HI179, issued in July 1994, required the full gamete of survey observations to be undertaken, including tidal stream observations, tidal observations positioning control, side-scan sonar observations, checking coastal detail, and ancillary observations. Pickersgill Harbour was specifically included in the instruction: "NZ Chart 7612 presently has a large scale plan of Pickersgill Harbour as surveyed by Captain Cook. It is intended that the new chart also contain a similar plan for historic reasons ..." (11)

It was difficult to estimate how much time would be required for the survey. Large scale surveys of Duck Cove, Anchor Island and Facile Harbour were suggested if the Charge Surveyor determined that a need for large scale surveys of these areas was warranted. The French research vessel L'Atalante had undertaken a considerable amount of multibeam sounding offshore which reduced the amount of sounding to be undertaken in the offshore area, but the Hydrographer noted that "Due to the unpredictability of Fiordland weather it will be difficult to accurately plan when [Monowai will leave the area for her next survey] ...," (12).

Along with the usual sounding sheets, detailed reports and a variety of data including amendments to Sailing Directions (the 'Pilot') were required to be rendered in accordance with our usual operating standards.

A party from the ship arrived in the area ahead of the ship to effect a reconnaissance, undertake shore control, and set up tide gauge stations in Many Islands, referenced to benchmarks established nearby. Monowai duly arrived in the area on 14 October 1994 and commenced the survey.

Differential GPS was not yet in service with the RNZN. Position fixing was therefore conducted using Del Norte Trisponder DDMU 542 in the Sounds and GPS in the offshore area. Trisponder is a short range line-of-sight radio ranging system working on microwave (X-Band, approx 9 Ghz) frequencies. In its simplest terms the remote unit ashore 'turns around' the received signal from the survey vessel, the mobile receiver calculating the time taken for the 2-way journey of the pulse and converting this to distance. Ranges from two remote units ashore allow a position fix to be computed. Typically the hydrographic surveyor would aim for ranges from at least 3 units to allow for redundancy and to provide a fix accurate to around 2-3 metres.

Monowai, her survey motor boats, Astrolabe and Pelorus (Fig. 9.), were fitted with the recently commissioned computerised survey system HADLAPS. This computed position from the Trisponder ranges in the vessel to provide line guidance, storing these data and data from other sensors such as the echo-sounder(s), onto optical disc for later processing in Monowai's chartroom.

The Trisponder stations were powered by two large (and heavy!) lead-acid batteries supported by solar panels. In the somewhat moist and cloudy conditions of Fiordland the solar panels proved of little benefit and were not always sufficient to maintain the battery charge. Supporting these stations took considerable effort. Monowai's seamen became adept at leaping from small inflatable boats onto slippery rock shelves, and in passing the truck batteries to and from the heaving boat. I do not recall--and the Report of Survey wisely does not report!--the loss of any equipment whilst being deployed, though we did lose one complete Trisponder station outfit which was apparently washed from the rock shelf in a short sharp storm.

As much as any hydrographic survey can be described as straightforward, though the nature of the area and the dreadful weather added its own challenges, the survey, whilst challenging and a very interesting one, was indeed straightforward.

Monowai's bow-thruster had failed towards the end of our mid-1994 South Pacific deployment--due in no small measure, I believe, to strains imposed during search and rescue operations in a large storm--and had not been repaired as this would have delayed survey operations for several months. Although the ship had twin engines and controllable pitch propellers, the engines were of relatively low power and the propellers were close together limiting the turning torque from one engine. A small single rudder was also a limiting factor. With her superstructure positioned mainly aft, Monowai tended to 'weathercock' in any wind, though this could sometimes be used to advantage.

The survey of Duck Cove (charted on NZ 7612 from Stokes' survey) was undertaken towards the start of the survey as it was hoped that it might provide a suitable anchorage for Monowai in the southern part of the area. This proved not to be the case. Discretion being the better part of valour, and not wishing to join New Zealand's first known shipwreck (Endeavour 1795 in Facile Harbour), I was extremely cautious about taking the ship into some of the more constricted places, recalling that in the late 1970s I was the ship's navigator when we had to manoeuvre stern-first for a considerable distance out of Wetjacket Arm which proved to be not quite as charted! Under such constraints there proved to be few safe anchorages for Monowai. My proposed amendments to the Sailing Directions do, though, record a number of anchorages and most also record having dragged anchor there at some stage. Depths are generally great and mud over rock does not constitute good holding ground.

The limited manoeuvrability also meant that my ambition of mooring Monowai off Astronomer Point in Pickersgill Harbour--following both Resolution and the ship's predecessor HMNZSLachlan--was not fulfilled. Survey work within the Sounds was heavily dependent upon fine weather, as much for the safety of the ship at anchor or steaming slowly in support of the boats with a greatly reduced steaming crew, as for the boats themselves.

Anchor Island was deemed to be an exposed anchorage so was not surveyed. Facile Harbour (charted from Vancouver's visit in 1791) was surveyed during a period of settled weather at the start of March 1995 with the ship anchored off Facile Harbour. The ship's "Report of Proceedings" (ROP), the Commanding Officer's monthly narrative report to the Commodore, records for this period that "the days conformed to a pattern of sending the boats away just before sunrise and recovering them between 1800 and 1900 daily." The amount of data being acquired required that our usual pattern of processing the day's work in the evening was put into abeyance, and a double crew system was worked with data processed by the sounding team the following day. With these minor surveys completed and reasonable weather holding, there was no excuse for not surveying Pickersgill Harbour!

The ROP for March 1995 records:
   [Cook's] plan of Pickersgill Harbour is the last remaining part of
   a current NZ chart directly attributed to the great navigator, so
   it was with some reluctance that a re-survey of the harbour was
   contemplated. However it was decided that the survey would be
   marked by a special effort. Thus, with the settled weather looking
   likely to come to an end, the 'Great Pickersgill Harbour
   Expedition' was mounted on Tuesday 7th of March. The expedition was
   led by myself, and the survey party comprised of the Operations
   Officer, every survey officer and the majority of the survey
   ratings in the ship. The Marine Engineer Officer and the Supply
   Officer came along to represent their departments along with a
   number of seamen. In all about 22 personnel were included in the
   party. Both survey motor boats, the RHIB [i.e. Rigid Hull
   Inflatable Boat] and Achilles inflatable craft departed the ship
   before sunrise. The morning was misty with low cloud but the swell
   had died down to a gentle surge. The weather improved slowly during
   the day and the activities were undertaken in excellent weather.

Trisponder sites--including one on a drying rocky outcrop shown on Cook's chart--were selected and surveyed in. There cannot have been anyone in the ship who was not aware of the historic nature of the survey or of the importance that the survey of this small--and otherwise insignificant--harbour was being accorded.

One survey motor boat, Astrolabe, and the inflatable boat were sent to complete the sounding in Cascade Cove whilst the bulk of the party attacked Pickersgill Harbour itself. Everyone was given a task in order that they be involved in the historic survey.

Though not required for the survey (indeed the obscured nature of the site would have rendered it useless anyway!), a survey mark was established atop Astronomer Point in a position that I considered likely to be close (within 2-3 metres) to the likely position of Wales' observatory and a couple of stumps which could well have been those in which he set up his equipment. The RNZN had a strict naming policy for survey marks established during the course of a survey but this position was instead named F (for Fiordland) 1773 and the number was stamped into a standard bronze RNZN trig mark which a survey rating spent several days polishing to a high standard before it was lacquered. The Engineer and Supply Officers were tasked with establishing the site, driving it into the ground and setting the mark into the top. Normally one would leave 20cm or so of the stake clear of the ground but like Wales we found the earth soft so it was driven almost fully in.

The heavy tree cover precluded the planned GPS positioning of the site, so instead reflectors were established over F1773 and, with some difficulty due to the vegetation, the position was fixed by the Operations Officer by range and bearing from a known point on Crayfish Island.

William Wales established a tide gauge tube on a large rata which "to his astonishment [showed] that the tides in the fjord fluctuated by a remarkable 8 feet" (14). Although the actual site is not known, to the modern surveyor there was only one point that a tidepole could be established and there was indeed a large rata overhanging the point close to what is now the landing point for those visiting Astronomer Point. Thus we wedged the pole in a cleft in the rock, lashing the top of the pole to the rata. We actually did not need a tidepole for the survey of Pickersgill Harbour--and in any case we could not use the data without several days' worth of observations to tie the sounding datum in to the rest of the vertical control network. However Cook had set one up here ... so we had to!

The weather had been settled for a few days--which allowed the boat surveys in Facile Harbour and Cascade Cove to be progressed so swiftly, but this was an unusual occurrence and unlikely to last. Rather than spend a lot of time on shore control to extend into Pickersgill Harbour itself, instead we established the position of a small drying rock outcrop on the south side of the harbour and ran our sounding lines using Trisponder ranges and theodolite angles. I spent a short period on the rock checking that all was under control, but then left it to the Leading Survey rating to con the boat along a predetermined set of lines. It was not a large rock; the ROP describes his position as "precarious" and notes that he spent the greater part of the day there. It also records that it was something of a race against time since the rating was "lifted from the rock as the incoming tide lapped over it."

We had planned to moor the boats close to Resolution's berth at Astronomer Point for lunch but we were pipped to the position by one of the many small cruise vessels which now work the area. However the ROP notes that ".the regular boats crews felt that being allowed to stop for lunch itself marked the day as special".

Astrolabe took bottom samples in Pickersgill Harbour (thus ensuring that all played some part in the survey) before returning to complete sounding in Cascade Cove. Pelorus completed sounding in the eastern end of the harbour and parties were engaged in fixing the harbour's coastline--mainly from the RHIB due to the steep rocky shoreline. At the end of the day, those who had not had the opportunity previously were afforded the opportunity for a tour of Astronomer Point, most accepting my offer to act as guide. A number also took the opportunity to drink from Cook Stream where Cook had drawn water and brewed the first beer in NZ. At the end of a busy but satisfying day the boats return to the ship around 6.30pm. We processed the data the next day while the boats finished the sounding in the Cascade Cove area (Fig. 10.).


I spent some considerable time on the HADLAPS system trying to match my surveys with those of Cook, but whilst the overall depths were in the general region, to match more than one at a time required considerable skewing of our results, and whilst it would have been nice to have been able to label the survey "Pickersgill Harbour from Captain Cook's survey 1773 with later work by HMNZS Monowai" (or better still "... by Monowai with some work by Captain Cook"!) the hydrographer's ethic would not permit it.

Our tidepole recorded a range of about 1.85 metres on the day (a little over 6 feet), the tidal station at Many Islands--established over a far longer period and used to reduce the inshore soundings for the survey--recorded a range of 2.1 metres at Spring tides and 1.5 metres at neaps following analysis of all the data recorded during the survey. The spring range equates to about 7 feet, disappointingly a full 12 inches different from Wales' results!

As noted, it was not possible to locate Wales' observation point exactly but survey mark F1773 was established as nearly as possible and probably within 5 metres or so of Wales' point. We derived the position for F1773 as being Latitude 45[degrees]47'43" S, Longitude 166[degrees]34'26" E on the WGS84 datum with an estimated error of [+ or -] 1.5 metres. This compares closely with the position derived by Wales and Cook, certainly in terms of latitude--as one would expect (Latitude 45[degrees]47'27" S, Longitude 166[degrees]18'09" E) (15). Cook's positions, of course, are not referenced to any particular datum, but ignoring a datum difference the two points are less than 21km apart, notably in longitude.

Almost exactly 222 years after Cook, our survey of Pickersgill Harbour was completed ... but the story does not end there!

Vancouver's botanist, Menzies, recorded in Dusky Sound in 1791:
   We drank a cheerful glass to the memory of Captain Cook whose steps
   we were now pursuing and as far as we had opportunity to trace
   them, we could not help reflecting with peculiar pleasure and
   admiration on the justness of his observations and the accuracy of
   his delineations throughout every part of the complicated survey.

As will have been noted, we too were conscious of following in Cook's steps. The final paragraph of the covering letter to the Report of Survey states:

The work in the area was made the more interesting for the personnel undertaking it by the number of books written about the area and its history and especially by the area's very close association with James Cook and the Resolution (1773). In this latter respect, special efforts were put in to the survey of Pickersgill Harbour and a station (F1773) was established within an estimated 3 metres of the point where Cook's astronomer, Wales, would have established his observation point. The current chart contains the last portion of a NZ chart which is directly attributed to Cook. It thus has special significance and it is suggested that some measure, such as a historical cartouche, be taken with the new chart to retain some portion of Cook's work.






In discussions with the Hydrographer after our return to Auckland I urged that this be seriously considered. In fairness, the Hydrographer, Commander Peter Usher, took little persuading and went a little further, suggesting that additional information about the area could be printed on the chart for the benefit of tourist vessels. Historian John Hall-Jones was engaged by the Hydrographic Office to provide notes on historical information, the Department of Conservation provided information on local fauna and so on. One of the plans from a map in my collection was used for the cartouche printed in brown on the chart, NZ 7653 when it was published in January 1997 (Fig. 11.). It was marked "a contemporary original reproduced by permission for historic interest--not to be used for navigation" and was generally well received.

In the 1990s hydrography in New Zealand was changing rapidly--both in terms of technology and in its organisation. In its dying days, the so-called 'Funder/provider split' theology caught up with national hydrography. In 1994 it was announced that Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) was to assume the responsibility for national hydrography from 1996. LINZ having no maritime, hydrographic or nautical cartography experience, the Hydrographer RNZN effectively retained control for the first couple of years; however, LINZ slowly asserted control, the RNZN Hydrographic Service subsequently being contracted to LINZ to provide surveying and cartography services.

The Fiordland Hydrographic Instructions were therefore the last to be issued by the Hydrographer RNZN for national charting purposes, subsequent surveys being conducted under LINZ contract specifications. These followed a very strict commercial model which severely prescribed the Charge Surveyor's discretion as to how the survey was conducted. It is humbling to reflect that had the Dusky Sound survey been undertaken as a LINZ contract survey, our ability to indulge in exercises such as the 'Great Pickersgill Harbour Expedition' would have been greatly curtailed, and with LINZ's focus on commercial shipping, Pickersgill Harbour and the other minor havens would likely not have been re-surveyed.

Chart NZ 7653, on a scale of 1:60 000, was published in January 1997 "by the Hydrographic Office of the Royal New Zealand Navy under the superintendence of Commander P.F.K. Usher RNZN, Hydrographer" (Fig. 12.). The chart was reprinted in 2005 by LINZ, the publication note added that it was published under the authority of Land Information New Zealand and the traditional green tint for the land was replaced by yellow (Fig. 13.). The brown overprint and historic cartouche were retained. The LINZ logo replaced the traditional Hydrographic Office cipher.

A new edition of NZ 7653 was published in August 2009. Multibeam sounding in the main shipping routes replaced Monowai's single-beam sounding but in other areas, the work of Monowai and the ISCs was retained. Although other charts were published on larger scales at the same time (NZ 7655 and NZ 7656 scale 1:25 000), no additional work was undertaken. The larger scale charts did not include the large scale plans of Cascade Cove, Pickersgill Harbour, Duck Cove or Facile Harbour (though the scheme would have readily allowed this) and the brown overlays--along with the historical cartouche--were no longer included (Fig. 14.).

Cook's survey of Pickersgill Harbour survived on the charts for 224 years--and a further 12 years as an historical cartouche due to the Royal NZ Navy's sense of history. It has now been consigned to history.


I am indebted to Southland historian and author Dr John Hall-Jones OBE--who became a good friend of Monowai and her company during the surveys in Fiordland--for permission to quote from his books and to reproduce his original photographs.

I am also grateful to Lieutenant Commander W. Spencer RNZN of the NZ Defence Force's Geospatial Intelligence Organisation who provided (courtesy of Carol Kohl of LINZ) copies of Monowai's Report of Survey and a copy of Monowai's survey sheet of Cascade Cove and Pickersgill Harbour.


Cook, James, 1777, A voyage towards the South Pole, and round the world. Performed in His Majesty's ships the Resolution and Adventure, in the years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775. Written by James Cook, commander of the Resolution, W. Strahan and T. Cadell, London. 2 vols.

Hall-Jones, John, 2002, The Fjords of Fiordland, Craig Printing Company, Invercargill.

Price, David Nisbet, [2005?], 'HMNZSMonowai The Survey Ship', unpublished manuscript.


(1) SNLR--an annotation on military service documents indicating 'Services No Longer Required'.

(2) J. Hall-Jones, 2002, p.14.

(3) Puncheon--A cask with a capacity of from 72 to 120 gallons (327 to 546 litres).

(4) J. Hall-Jones, 2002, p.16.

(5) Wort--An infusion of malt that is fermented to make beer.

(6) In 1995 when my wife and I visited the area on the Milford Wanderer, we landed at Cook Stream. In our small party with historian John Hall-Jones was the chief brewer for Speights Brewery, a well-known Dunedin brewery. I was on a pilgrimage to show some of Cook's spots to my wife, he to visit the first brewery in NZ. He did muse about reproducing the beer using the actual water from the stream, though when the recipe was explained to him, he appeared less than convinced about the likely saleability of the product. The subject was not raised again! He did, however, pronounce the water to be extremely pure and suitable for brewing.

(7) J. Cook, 1777, A voyage towards the South Pole ..., inset on Plate XIII 'Sketch of Dusky Bay in New Zeeland 1773', vol.1, after p.92.

(8) The other three were 'New Zealand South Island Doubtful Harbour By Don Felipe Bauza in The Descubierta 1793', 'Anchor Island Harbour From Vancouver's Voyage 1791' and 'Facile Harbour From Vancouver's Voyage 1791'.

(9) Seafood New Zealand, December 1993, p.53.

(10) HNZ 3201/2/179--Hydrographic Instruction 179 Fiordland--Dusky Sound and Offshore Areas. Hydrographer of the RNZN, 25 July 1994.

(11) ibid

(12) ibid

(13) 'Report of Proceedings, HMNZS Monowai', transcribed in David Nisbet Price, 'HMNZS Monowai The Survey Ship', unpublished manuscript, ca.2005.

(14) J. Hall-Jones, 2002, p.14.

(15) Unfortunately I do not have access to the geodetic data pack from the survey but Monowai's derived positions for F1773 were advised to Hall-Jones and quoted by him in The Fjords of Fiordland. The figures quoted in this paper are those printed in the book.

Larry Robbins [1]

[1] Larry Robbins OBE enjoyed a career at sea for over 30 years, initially with the British Merchant Navy and then for 26 years with the Hydrographic Surveying Service of the Royal NZ Navy. His naval career culminated in the rank of commander and the position of Hydrographer RNZN. On retiring from the Navy he became the Director of the NZ National Maritime Museum for 7 years. He collects antique maps and nautical charts and is an ANZMaps member. Email:
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Author:Robbins, Larry
Publication:The Globe
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Geographic Code:8NEWZ
Date:Jul 1, 2011
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