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On Why the City of Pigs and Clocks Are Not Just, BRENNAN MCDAVID

Some Plato scholars have recently argued that the "City of Pigs"--described in book 2 of the Republic, before Socrates goes on to describe Kallipolis and the definition of justice--is better and more just than Kallipolis itself. The author argues that this interpretation misconstrues Plato's conception of justice by ignoring three significant conditions that he establishes for making an entity eligible for being just. In overlooking these conditions, scholars have misconceived the definition of justice itself, resulting in an overestimation of the virtue of the City of Pigs.

A Continuation of Atomism: Shahrastani on the Atom and Continuity, JON MCGINNIS

The present study investigates the atomism of Muhammad ibn 'Abd alKarim al-Shahrastani (c. 1075-1153). After a survey of traditional Islamic atomism and Avicenna's devastating critique of it, the author argues that Shahrastani developed a new form of atomism in light of Avicenna's critique. Briefly, unlike earlier forms of atomism, which viewed atoms as actualized and discrete entities within the body, Shahrastani's atoms have possible existence within the body, which is actualized only when separated from the whole. What makes this position particularly interesting is how Shahrastani exploits and incorporates elements of Avicenna's own theories of the continua and natural minima into a new theory of the atom.

The Curious Case of Hobess's Amazons, SUSANNE SREEDHAR

Hobbes's philosophy involves a fundamental shift in ideas about the theological, metaphysical, and axiological significance of sex, gender, reproduction, and the family. He fundamentally rejects the idea that dominion is naturally or divinely ordained, using a strategy the author calls "dethroning." In this paper, the author argues that the Amazon myth, which Hobbes invokes in every version of his political theory, is one such act of rhetorical dethroning in that it attacks naturalized familial and gender hierarchies, denying natural parent/child, as well as husband/wife, relations of rule and subordination. Substantive discussions of Hobbes's use of the Amazons in the secondary literature are few and consist of contradictory understandings of the example, with some seeing it as a prototype of early feminism and others seeing it as a retrenchment of misogyny and racism. The author uses her interpretation, one that makes sense of the example by reference to the internal logic of Hobbes's overall philosophical and political project, to examine both sides of this debate.

Hermann Cohen on Kant, Sensations, and Nature in Science, CHARLOTTE BAUMANN

The neo-Kantian Hermann Cohen is famously antiempiricist in that he denies that sensations can make a definable contribution to knowledge. However, in the second edition of Kant's Theory of Experience, Cohen considers a proposition that contrasts with both his other work and that of his followers: a Kantian who studies scientific claims to truth, and the grounds on which they are made, cannot limit himself to studying mathematics and logical principles but needs also to investigate underlying presuppositions about the empirical element of science. Due to his subjectivist approach, Cohen argues, Kant not only failed to explain how scientific observation and experiments are possible, but also misconceived the role of the ideas, particularly the idea of a system of nature.

Fundamental Truths and the Principle of Sufficient Reason in Bolzano's Theory of Grounding, STEFAN ROSKI and BENJAMIN SCHIEDER

Bernard Bolzano developed his theory of grounding in opposition to the rationalists' principle of sufficient reason (PSR). He argued that the PSR fails because there are fundamental, that is, ungrounded truths. The current paper examines Bolzano's views on fundamentality, relating them to ongoing debates about grounding and fundamentality.

The Behaviorisms of Skinner and Quine: Genesis, Development and Mutual Influence, SANDER VERHAEGH

B. F. Skinner and W. V. Quine, arguably the two most influential proponents of behaviorism in mid-twentieth-century psychology and philosophy, are often considered brothers in arms. They were close friends, they had remarkably parallel careers, and they both identified as behaviorists. Yet surprisingly little is known about the relation between the two. How did Skinner and Quine develop their varieties of behaviorism? In what ways did they affect each other? And how similar are their behaviorisms to begin with? In this paper, the author sheds new light on the relation between Skinner and Quine by infusing the debate with a wide range of new and previously unexamined evidence from the personal and academic archives of Skinner and Quine.

Bibliographia Claubergiana (Ninetheenth-Twenty-First Centuries): Tracking a Crossroads in the History of Philosophy, ALICE RAGNI

This is the first bibliography collecting all studies that have been entirely devoted to Johannes Clauberg or that contain a substantial discussion of his works, from the early nineteenth century down to our day, namely, in the age when scientific philosophical historiography arose and reached full maturity. Clauberg (1622-1665), known as a representative of modern German reformed scholasticism (Schulmetaphysik)--in this context, he is the author of one of the most systematic treatises on ontology of his day--is among the first followers of Descartes. Leibniz praised Clauberg's commentaries on Descartes's works and described him as a disciple who surpassed his master in clarity. This bibliography reveals Clauberg's versatility in treating some of the major questions in the history of modern philosophy: metaphysics and ontology--also taking into account the neologism ontologia--Cartesianism, logic, hermeneutics, physics, and occasionalism.
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Publication:The Review of Metaphysics
Date:Dec 1, 2019
Previous Article:INTERNATIONAL PHILOSOPHICAL QUARTERLY: Vol. 59, No. 4, December 2019.
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