J Wildl Dis.: Serological survey for select infectious agents in wild Magellanic penguins (Sphensicus magellanicus) in Argentina, 1994-2008.
Despite being the most numerous penguin species in South America, exposure of the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) to pathogens has not yet been thoroughly assessed. We collected serum from 1058 Magellanic penguins at 10 breeding colonies along the entire latitudinal range of this species in Argentina. The work spanned 10 breeding seasons over 15 years (1994-2008). Sera were tested for antibodies to select infectious agents. Antibodies reacting against 16 pathogens were detected (seroprevalence): Aspergillus sp (15.1%), Chlamydia psittaci (6.5%), Salmonella Pullorum (3.1%), Salmonella Typhimurium (81.3%), Aviadenovirus sp (18.1%), Duck atadenovirus A (23.6%), Anatid herpesvirus 1 (0.7%), Avian orthoreovirus (3.3%), Avian coronavirus M41 (43.5%), Avian coronavirus C46 (59.8%), Avian coronavirus A99 (37.4%), Avian coronavirus JMK (40.2%), Tremovirus A (0.3%), Avian avulavirus 1 (44.0%), Avian avulavirus 2 (43.8%), and Avian avulavirus 3 (46.6%). No antibodies were detected against 9 infectious agents: Gallid alphaherpesvirus 1, Gallid alphaherpesvirus 2, Infectious bursal disease virus, Avastrovirus 2, West Nile virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, and Influenza A virus. While restricted by limitations inherent to serological methods, our results provide baseline knowledge for a key species in the South Atlantic Ocean. This information is valuable for adaptive conservation management in a time of increasing environmental stressors affecting the Patagonian Sea, one of the world's richest pelagic seabird communities.
Uhart M, Vanstreels RET, Gallo L, et al. 2020;56(1):66-81.