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J Wildl Dis.: Avian pox in magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

Avian pox in magellauic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). Kane OJ, Uhart MM, Rago V, et al. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:790-794.

Avian pox is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that is mechanically transmitted via arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles or birds. Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from 2 colonies (Punta Tombo and Cabo Dos Bahias) in Argentina showed sporadic, nonepidemic signs of avian pox during 5 and 2 of 29 breeding seasons (1982-2010), respectively. In Magellanic penguins, avian pox expresses externally as wart-like lesions around the beak, flippers, cloaca, feet, and eyes. Fleas (Parapsyllus longicornis) are the most likely arthropod vectors at these colonies. Three chicks with cutaneous pox-like lesions were positive for Avipoxvirus and revealed phylogenetic proximity with an Avipoxvirus found in black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) from the Falkland Islands in 1987. This proximity suggests a long-term circulation of seabird A vipoxviruses in the southwest Atlantic. Avian pox outbreaks in these colonies primarily affected chicks; often resulted in death; and were not associated with handling, rainfall, or temperature.
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Author:Kane, O.J.; Uhart, M.M.; Rago, V.
Publication:Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Article Type:Reprint
Date:Sep 1, 2012
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