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It's only a game? Sport, sexuality and war in Don Delillo's End Zone.

In his ground breaking study, Reading Football (1993), Michael Oriard argues that the literature the sport has generated from its inception enables the historian to read the game as a particular kind of "cultural text [...] reading its 'primary' text, if you will--the game itself, as played on the field--through its 'secondary' texts, the interpretations of the game" (xviii). He argues that the meaning of football is contested among an array of interests, each of whom brings subjective position to their own understanding of the game. These interested parties include players, owners, the media and fans so that "to approach football as a multiply interpreted cultural text can bring us close to the game's actual meanings among its diverse audience" (Oriard 31). According to the American literary critic William Burke, "football represents us; it reveals us; it is a significant correlative for our inner communal life" (391). For its entire history, the "diverse audience" for football has been overwhelmingly male and the "inner communal life" resoundingly masculine and often assumed to be seamlessly heterosexual. However, as many sociological studies show,1 the way men negotiate notions of gender and sexuality with other men is a pressing concern in the team sport's environment, so it is unsurprising that novelists also turn to these anxieties, enabling an examination of the gendered interests at stake.

In this article, I explore those gendered interests through an analysis of Don DeLillo's second novel, End Zone. First published in 1972, the work approaches games from an oblique literary angle, which allows a reading that utilises theoretical perspectives from the fields of literary criticism, philosophy, and psychoanalysis in order to expose some of the ambiguities of gender and sexuality that reside within the locker room. According to the British literary scholar, Steven Connor, DeLillo "has often been represented, alongside Salman Rushdie, as the most representative of contemporary postmodern novelists" (72). In establishing DeLillo's postmodern literary status, End Zone is characterised by its disturbing imagery of sport, warfare and language, thus anticipating later novels such as White Noise (1985) and Underworld (1997) that cemented his reputation as an author whose works explored "the instability of identity, the enigmatic omnipresence of information, the cryptic excesses of consumption, and the ironic interweaving of disaster and triviality" (Connor 72). Above all, End Zone is a novel of games, notably games of football, war, and sex, which DeLillo interweaves through a disruptive narrative technique--anguage games so to speak--that helps to undermine assumptions of hetero-normativity within the male sports environment.

Set at Logos College, in a nameless place in the West Texas desert, the novel follows the events of a single season, through the voice of its narrator, Gary Harkness, in which the team has a winning 9-1 record under the management of their strict rule-making manager, Coach Emmett Creed. Significantly, it is the single lost game, against archrival West Centex Biotechnical that occupies the central section of the book in a reversal of the standard sport's novel technique where such a crucial game would normally be found at the climactic end. The novel is presented in three parts, the first of which is concerned primarily with introducing the characters and the locale and the theme of order in the face of a potential nuclear holocaust. Following the traumatic defeat to West Centex, the final third is an examination of the emptiness that the players feel once the football season is over and they do not have the game on which to displace their energies, including sexual desires, through the precisely ordered mechanisms of intense physical football plays.

In thinking about the place of football in the novel, David Cowart argues that DeLillo imagines the game "as something primal--the key, perhaps, to larger manifestations of the violence to which the human instinct for aggression drives its victims" (17). In writing End Zone, DeLillo recaptures the fascination with football of some of its early pioneers for whom, according to Donald Mrozek, "football had a special appeal because it combined the values of precision and order with a kind of gross physical force" (167). In End Zone, DeLillo figures games as attempts to exert control on a chaotic world that is riven with anxieties about an impending nuclear apocalypse and unmanageable (and unconscious) sexual desires. In the words of Joseph Dewey:
   Harkness finds comfort, even pleasure in the merciless discipline
   of long scrimmages in the undulating Texas heat. He finds security
   and direction in Coach Creed's playbook that structures an ironclad
   gameworld where accident and chance are excluded. He relishes the
   barrenness of options open to him in the backfield, the thrill of
   being automatic, of surrendering his self to the unit. (28)

However, DeLillo does not make a mundane point about sport being analogous to war: as Alan Zapalac, the exobiology tutor, says, "warfare is warfare. We don't need substitutes because we've got the real thing" (164). Supporting Zapalac's contention, the philosophers of sport, William Morgan and Bernard Suits, argue that a defining feature of sport is the necessity to make the task in hand deliberately more difficult than it need be to achieve the aim.2 This is clearly not the case with war. Philosophically speaking, sport cannot, and should not, be thought of as analogous to warfare. However, Cowart argues that it is the spectator's delight in witnessing violence that is paralleled with some people's morbid fascination with the horrors of war and other atrocities. Two of DeLillo's central characters, Harkness and the athletic black running back, Taft Robinson, share this fascination, and, arguably, DeLillo is making the point that it is in the vicarious pleasure gained from the spectacle of violence through which a comparison might be made between football and war.

The theme of control runs deep throughout the novel, and football is just one means by which DeLillo's characters try to impose some order on a world that is threatened by nuclear destruction. As Mark Osteen observes:
   In End Zone, college football player Cary Harkness's obsession with
   nuclear holocaust epitomizes his quest for an "end zone" that
   nullifies all complexities of meaning. In this novel DeLillo traces
   our fascination with nuclear holocaust tales to an ascetic desire
   for purification; our fictions manifest a deep attraction to
   terminality. (3-4)

Other metaphoric devices used as futile efforts to exercise control include the playing of tarot cards, the smoking of marijuana, the consumption of vitamin tablets, and the practice of prayer) DeLillo's characters turn to whatever might be at hand in an attempt to control the frightening world in which they find themselves. In this way, End Zone echoes Freud's Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1922), in which he theorised that the human psyche was engaged in a constant battle between Eros and Thanatos, life and death. Freud argued that repetitive actions are attempts at mastery over an unpleasant experience and from which he concluded that "there really exists in psychic life a repetition-compulsion, which goes beyond the pleasure principle" (24). Critically, Freud observed that the life and death drives were inextricably entwined rather than opposed to each other. The best example of this phenomenon occurs late in the novel in the scene of "scratch" football in the snow. The rules of the game are stripped down to the barest of necessities, and the game turns into something primal, pleasurable and painful.
   We kept playing, we kept hitting, and we were comforted by the
   noise and brunt of our bodies in contact, by the simple physical
   warmth generated through violent action, by the sight of each
   other, the torn clothing, the bruises and scratches, the wildness
   of all fourteen, numb, purple, coughing, white heads solemn in the
   healing snow. (196)

Unable to play competitive football as it is the closed season, the players are compelled to repeat the violence among themselves, attempting mastery over their fears, seemingly addicted to the pleasure and pain that it produces. However, DeLillo is showing how such attempts at control also have a deadening effect, and this scene ends unsatisfactorily with Harkness simply being summoned to Creed's office where the game is quickly forgotten and nothing is resolved.

The fear Harkness tries to master through the repetition-compulsion of football plays is ostensibly that of nuclear war with which he is obsessed. However, the novel is also saturated with the language of sexuality, often displaced on to and expressed in terms of sport and war. If nuclear holocaust is Harkness's conscious fear, then his sexuality is the unconscious beast that he attempts to keep below the surface. William Burke observes that by uniting the language of sport and war, "in a remarkable fusion of style and theme, DeLillo keeps the importance of language before our minds" (395). Language is so central to the novel that Francois Happe recalls that, "DeLillo claims that End Zone is not about football" (158), and Happe prefers to read the novel as a text about language games, in which the fragmentary narrative, the unconventional structure, and regular eruptions of comedy are designed to keep the reader offbalance and to refuse the text any ultimate meaning.

How might the language games that Happe believes form the core of the novel be read, and how might they be thought of in the context of the novel's other games? These games include football and war but also the subtext of sexuality and sex games. Reading End Zone through the work of the postmodern French philosopher, Jacques Derrida, one of the leading scholars of DeLillo's work, Tom LeClair, argues that "End Zone deconstructs a primary subject of Jacques Derrida's subversions--logocentrism, [which] in the words of DeLillo's narrator, [is] one of 'the darker crimes of thought and language'" (106). LeClair continues the argument that the:
   displacement that Derrida calls "logocentrism" [is] a set of
   assumptions and procedures based on a "metaphysics of
   presence", the awarding of priority and primacy to terms of
   "presence" in logical oppositions: positive before negative,
   simple before complex, pure before impure. "Absence" is
   not conceived as a codeterminant of a system but as a later
   complication or fall. (109)

In order to think through the multiplicity of games in End Zone, it is necessary to look for and revive those "absences" and bring the hidden text into view. Through his deconstructive techniques, DeLillo directs the reader's attention to what is not said in the novel, the importance of which is underlined by the one explicit reference at the end of the novel to the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein. Harkness thinks, "Two parts to that man's work. What is written. What is not written. The man himself seemed to favour the second part" (233). Harkness is referring to a letter that Wittgenstein wrote to his publisher Ludwig von Ficker in 1919 concerning his book Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus in which he wrote, "My work consists of two parts: the one presented here plus all that I have not written. And it is precisely this second part that is the important one" (qtd. in Storoff 240). The important question that arises is what has DeLillo not written that is so important? My argument is that it is sexuality and, more precisely, homosexuality that DeLillo has not written, at least not overtly, but which seeps through obliquely.

Such a reading is supported by aspects of the novel that lead the reader to identify an undercurrent of repressed homosexuality, a revealing "absence" that emerges in displaced and excessive forms in places of the text. An example of this excess is the de-contextualised disparaging gibberish of players that cuts across all categories of "culturally despised peoples, as in the incantation, '[n]igger kike faggot. Kike fag. Nigger fag. Nigger kike faggot'" (Benton 9-10). In a gay reading of the text, Michael Hardin takes up the challenge of revealing the specifically homosexual sub-narrative. As Hardin observes, "What man can be more invisible in contemporary American culture than the gay football player?" (32). How does the "invisible" reveal itself in DeLillo's novel? Hardin argues that a number of clues alert the reader to the homosexual subtext of the novel, one being "his Pynchonesque flair for allusive character names" (37), such as Onan Moley, Cecil Rector, and Billy Mast, each suggestive of male phallic sexuality. Other nicknames, such as "Bloomers" for Anatole Bloomburg, also indicate non-masculine identities. Taken together Hardin argues that "the sheer mass of circumstantial evidence suggests that DeLillo is questioning the heterosexual masculinity of football" (39). There is no doubt that the names that DeLillo gives his characters, reminiscent of a Ronald Firbank novel, lend End Zone a touch of the "camp" which further helps to undermine the hetero-normative assumptions of the all-male locker room.

End Zone is noticeable for the way that sexuality is represented in a fashion that is often critical of gender stereotypes. Harkness does have a relationship with fellow female student, Myna, but this is represented in non-normative ways. On his first meeting with Myna, Harkness tells the reader:
   Myna owned half a million dollars and membership in a
   science-fiction book club. There, by most standards, her
   attraction ended. She weighed about 165 pounds. Her face
   had several blotches of varying size and her hair hung in limp
   tangled clusters. She bit her nails, she waddled, she never shut
   up. (66)

Against normative judgements, Harkness tells her, "You'll hate me for saying this, Myna, but I think you're one of the prettiest girls I've ever known. Man or boy. Pound for pound" (67). The comedy of Harkness's "compliment" underscores the ambiguous representation of his sexuality. The allusion to locker room talk of "pound for pound," a reference normally of strength in relation to body weight, suggests that Harkness has his mind on that homosocial space and its muscular occupants. In the one sex scene towards the end of the novel, Harkness and Myna have what can only be described as a "fumble" among the library shelves, which is interrupted by a library assistant and so comes to a non-climactic end. Harkness even tells the library assistant that his name is "Robert Reynolds" (218), thus disavowing the affair altogether. Following this scene, Myna "returned from Christmas vacation many pounds lighter" (226) in what appears to be an attempt to conform to gender stereotype but also with a telling demand for Harkness who, she says, "can't just expect to just come searching for me for comfort" (228). However, Harkness is no longer interested in Myna because it seems that "comfort" was all he is interested in, and he is not attracted to her more classically feminine looks and burgeoning sexuality. While this scene can be read in the positive light of Harkness rejecting normative feminine sexuality in preference for the former Myna, a better reading is to conclude that he is not interested in Myna at all beyond her ability to provide "comfort."

What further evidence is there to support this contention? One line of enquiry concerns Harkness's relationship with Major Staley, a tutor in warfare on the Logos College Royal Officer Training Corps (ROTC) programme. Early in the novel, the reader is informed that Major Staley is staying at a local motel (a traditional site for surreptitious homosexual trysts) and that his "wife and kids are still up in Colorado." He says that he hopes to have them with him soon and "our house should be ready in ten days" (79-80). When Harkness meets Staley again towards the end of novel, just after his failed sexual encounter with Myna, Staley is still in the motel and there is no sign of his family. Hardin rightly asks the question, "Does Staley have a family in Colorado or is it just a myth he perpetuates to appear straight?" (44). I would argue further that the language with which DeLillo describes the war game that Staley and Harkness play enables the scene to be also read as a sex game:
   At length we began. It took only twelve major steps or
   moves to complete the game yet we were at it for more than
   three hours. It was the strangest thing 1 had ever taken part
   in. There were insights, moves, minor revelations that we
   savoured together. Silences between moves were extremely
   grave. Talk was brief and pointed. Small personal victories
   (of tactics, of imagination) were genuinely satisfying. Mythic
   images raged in my mind. (223)

The last move is described as "(12) SIMcap dictates spasm response" (225) suggesting that the tryst ended in a climax that was lacking in Harkness's "fumble" with Myna in the library. The whole scene is replete with imagery suggestive of a highly sexualised encounter between Harkness and Staley, and in likening sex to warfare, DeLillo unites, through language, the novel's themes of games, war, and sexuality.

Further evidence of a homosexual subtext occurs during the football match in the middle of the novel. In a short article about "the queer on the squad" (DeLillo 25), I.K. Higginbotham argues that homosexual desire in the novel is displaced onto the game of football and that this desire emerges excessively in the use of homoerotic language, disguised as motivational instruction, as in the exchange:

Hauptfuhrer chanted to his linemen: "Contain. Contain. Contain those people. Infringe. Infringe on them. Rape that man, Link. Rape him. Ray-yape that man." Dennis Smee, at middle linebacker, shouted down at the front four: "Tango-two. Reset red. Hoke that bickie. Mutt, mutt, mutt." (De Lillo 130)

The allusions to Nazism and the military, two potent sites of the homosexual imaginary, serve to heighten the homoeroticism of the scene. Higginbotham argues that when the football season ends and the players no longer have that outlet through which to displace their homosexual energies, their attention turns to other avenues of relief. In a scene in the final third of the novel the players eroticise a blue dress that is being sewn by Billy Mast. The scene builds with displaced sexual tension as the players fight to put their head under the dress or to lick its buttons: "there's a waiting line for that dress, Deering said. My head goes under first" (De Lillo 183). Higginbotham argues that, "as a desperate surrogate for the sexual energy released on the football field, the dress exemplifies the players' need for sensual contact not with a woman but rather among themselves" (7).

There is, then, the question as to whether one of the players is homosexual. First raised as a possibility by Onan Moley, who reports to some of the other players that "there might be a queer on the squad" (De Lillo 25), the issue occupies a later chapter set in the locker room, in which "Lloyd Philpot Jr., wearing a jockstrap and red socks" passes the rumour to Harkness that "there might be a queer on the squad" (154). In addition to highlighting how discourses about homosexuality are often conveyed in gossip and rumour, the scene ends comically with Philpot saying, "we have to figure out what to do and pretty damn soon. There are guys walking around here naked right now. It could be any one of them" (155). The term "one of them" so often used as a disparaging euphemism for gays, underscores the notion that homosexuality is the excluded "other" that is always present and, therefore, perpetually in need of expulsion. From the reader's point of view, it is doubly comic since the clues that DeLillo plants suggest that Harkness himself may be the "queer on the squad" and that his object cause of desire is the athletic black running back, Taft Robinson.

Here, finally, the spotlight comes to rest on Taft Robinson, who actually features from the opening paragraph of the novel where DeLillo introduces him as:
   Taft Robinson was the first black student to be enrolled at
   Logos College in west Texas. They got him for his speed ...
   Taft Robinson, rightly or wrongly, no more than haunts this
   book. I think it's fitting in a way. The mansion has long been
   haunted (double metaphor coming up) by the invisible man.

As Wittgenstein proposed, it is precisely the "invisible" that is the most important to reveal, and it is clear within that formulation that Robinson does indeed haunt the book through to the end. For much of the novel, DeLillo presents Robinson, through Harkness's narrator's voice, as a figure of athleticism, grace, speed and power, suggesting that Harkness is erotically attracted to this vision of supreme physical masculinity. DeLillo comes perilously close to confirming the racist stereotype of what Lynne Segal calls the "the black male as phallic symbol" (148) but, arguably, he escapes the charge due to the non-normative sexuality that he offers as the sub-text to the novel.

In an incisive reading of End Zone, Peter Boxall shows how Harkness is slowly drawn towards this "haunting" figure that appears to be sidelined but in fact is always there in the corner of his imagination. At the end of the novel, after Harkness has finally rejected the "new look" Myna, he goes to find Robinson:

Working his way towards the poetic mystery that he represents, but as he finally faces him in the geometric centre of his minimalist cell at the end of the novel, the potential that is harboured in their encounter across the divide between the poetic and the prosaic, the sacred and the profane, America and Africa, seems to leak away. (Boxall 43)

Robinson has chosen a life of ascetic denial and withdrawal and, finally, when Harkness and Robinson are alone, they cannot talk about their feelings except in displaced terms of atrocities, torture, and killing. Reminiscent of a character from a Samuel Beckett play, Harkness plaintively says, "There must be something we can do" (241). Sadly, for Harkness and Robinson, their determination to maintain control of their lives prevents them from doing anything at all.

The slow, oblique pursuit of Robinson and the final encounter at the very centre of the college in a sparse cell has echoes of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness (Gary Harkness?). As Robert Hampson writes in his introduction to Conrad's tale:
   The repeated references to Rurtz's "eloquence" contain the
   implicit promise that Kurtz, with his "gift" for "expression,"
   will articulate the secret and provide the solution to the
   moral, psychological and philosophical problems that
   the journey has presented, but there is a deliberate anticlimax
   in relation to Kurtz that expresses the story's radical
   scepticism about ultimate values and about the possibility of
   explanation. (xxvi)

If, in that cell, Harkness was looking for a final answer to the question of how to impose order on a chaotic world, or to find the solution to his repressed desire, then he, like Marlow, would be disappointed when he comes face-to-face with his enigmatic quarry. The repeated references to Robinson's physicality suggest a homoeroticism that is finally lost because Harkness, ironically at Logos College, is unable to find the words to express his desire, leaving unspoken, as did Wittgenstein, the most important things. Harkness retreats to his room and starves himself. The novel ends with his being taken to hospital and being force-fed, his attempts at finding order having finally cut him off from his desire and condemned him to near death.

In a bleak assessment of the novel, Boxall claims that "while the novel indulges in the erotics and homoerotics of chaotic, unreadable and unimaginable violence, the whirl and press is organised around a dead, non-libidinal centre, what T.S. Eliot has described as the 'still point of the turning world'" (40). On a psychological level, Robinson might be said to represent for Harkness his objet petit a, identified by the French psychoanalyst, Jacques Lacan as the impossible object cause of desire, which, because it is structured around a "lack," can never be reached, yet provides the unceasing motive force of desire? The novel ends with Robinson alone in his monastic cell and Harkness in hospital. Finally, DeLillo points up the deadening effect of repression of (homo)sexuality, which, like all attempts to force structure out of chaos, can only ultimately fail. It is the failure of language that obstructs the path to the realisation of Harkness's object of desire, which remains displaced onto other activities, especially violent sports and warfare but also blue dresses.

End Zone can be read as an admonition about life "in the closet" and the dangers, as Lacan warned, of "giving way on your desire." Yet, as Main Badiou acknowledges, "desire is constitutive of the subject of the unconscious; it is thus the not-known par excellence, such that 'do not give up on your desire' rightly means: 'do not give up on that part of yourself that you do not know'" (47). In line with Plato's "determination to prove that the philosopher, the man of truths, was 'happier' than the hedonistic tyrant" (53), Robinson and Harkness adopt an ascetic existence. DeLillo shows the fallacy of Plato's argument because, as Badiou contends, there is no "renunciation when a truth seizes me ... since this seizure manifests itself by unequalled intensities of existence [which] ... render empty all considerations of renunciation" (53). To not "give way on your desire" requires you to "seize in your being that which has seized and broken you" (47), and a continual perseverance to uncover that which about yourself you do not as yet know. In that fatal final scene, Harkness does give way on his desire, after which he adopts a pure asceticism that leads him to the door of death.

The failure of Harkness and Robinson to find a language of desire also marks the dissolution of the fabled "male bonding" that the intense homosocial environment is said to produce. Men are said to obtain power through homosocial bonding, but this power comes with its costs. Male bonding has been described by Lillian Rubin as a process by which men spend time together while, paradoxically, keeping each other at a safe distance. She argues that, as a result, men's friendships are "emotionally impoverished" (135). Men achieve this state of affairs by organising activities external to themselves in which they can take part. The sociologist, Michael Messner argues that sport is a prime example of such a displacement activity: "here men can enjoy the company of other men--even become 'close'--without having to become intimate in a way that may threaten their 'firm ego boundaries'" (253). Some of Messner's sporting informants told him that that their relationships were "characterised by a 'covert style of intimacy' [...] 'We didn't have to talk about everything; We just knew we were on the same page'" (254). An obvious retort to Messner's contributors might be to ask them how they can know this to be the case if they don't talk to each other about intimate matters. As it turned out, Harkness and Robinson did not know if they were on the same page and their failure to find a language, however imperfect, to express desire, stood in the way of any real closeness.

In oblique ways, End Zone helps to destabilise the assumed heteronormativity of the male team sports environment, which is often thought of as a bastion of heterosexual conformity. In this sense, DeLillo's novel provides confirmation for the findings of sociologists who have sought to explain some of the apparent paradoxes of masculinity that can be found in the locker room. Yet, it also identifies the structural underpinnings of homophobia and how displacement activities help to sustain the heterosexual matrix as they allow an outlet for repressed sexual tensions within a close homosocial community. DeLillo's enigmatic novel replicates the sexual ambiguities that circulate in the male locker room, helping to destabilise that mythic place where boys are said to learn to become men.

Works Cited

Badiou, Main. Ethics: An Essay on the Understanding of Evil. New York: Verso, 2001.

Benton, lill. "Don DeLillo's End Zone: A Postmodern Satire." Aethlon 12. 1 (Fall 1994): 7-18.

Berman, Neff. Playful Fictions and Fictional Players: Game, Sport, and Survival in Contemporary American Fiction. London: Kennikat Press, 1981.

Boxall, Peter. Don DeLillo: the Possibility of Fiction. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Burke, William. "Football, Literature and Culture." Southwest Review 60 (1975): 391-98.

Connor, Steven. The Cambridge Companion to Postmodernism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Cowart, David. Don DeLillo: The Physics of Language. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2002. DeLillo, Don. End Zone. 1972. New York: Penguin Books, 1986.

Dewey, Joseph. Beyond Grief and Nothing: A Reading of Don DeLillo. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2006.

Freud, Sigmund. Beyond the Pleasure Principle. 1922. Mansfield Center, CT: Martino Pub., 2009(rep.).

Hampson, Robert. Introduction: Heart of Darkness. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 1995.

Happe, Frangois. "Fiction vs Power: The Postmodern American Sports Novel". Narrative Turns and Minor Genres in Postmodernism. Eds. Theo D'Haen and Johannes Willem Bertens. Amsterdam; Atlanta (Ga.): Rodopi, 1995. 157-75.

Hardin, Michael. "What Is the Word at Logos College." Journal of Homosexuality 40, 1 (2000): 31-50.

Higginbotham, J.K. "The 'Queer' in Don DeLillo's End Zone." Notes on Contemporary Literature 19.1 (1989): 5-7.

LeClair, Thomas. "Deconstructing the Logos: Don DeLillo's End Zone." Modern Fiction Studies 33. 1 (1987): 105-123.

Messner, Michael. "Friendship, Intimacy and Sexuality". The Masculinities Reader. Eds. Stephen Whitehead and Frank I. Barrett. Cambridge, UK: Blackwell Publishers, 2001. 253-65.

Mrozek, Donald I. Sport and American Mentality: 1880-1910. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press., 1983.

Osteen, Mark. American Magic and Dread: Don DeLillo's Dialogue with Culture. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.

Rubin, Lillian B. Intimate Strangers: Men and Women Together New York: Harper & Row, 1983.

Segal, Lynne. Slow Motion: Changing Masculinities, Changing Men. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

Storoff, Gary. "The Failure of Games in Don DeLillo's End Zone." American Sport Culture: The Humanistic Dimensions. Ed. Wiley Lee Umphlett. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 1985. 235-245.

Andy Harvey

Lyle Olsen Graduate Student Essay Contest Winner


(1.) See, for example, Donald F. Sabo and Ross Runfola, Jock: Sports & Male Identity (Englewood Cliffs, N.I.: Prentice-Hall, 1980); Michael A. Messner and Donald F. Sabo, Sport, Men, and the Gender Order : Critical Feminist Perspectives (Champaign, I11.: Human Kinetics Books, 1990); Michael A. Messner, Power at Play: Sports and the Problem of Masculinity (Boston: Beacon Press, 1992).Sharon R. Bird, "Welcome To The Men's Club," Gender & Society 10, no. 2 (April 1, 1996): 120 -132. David Plummer, One of the Boys : Masculinity, Homophobia, and Modern Manhood (New York: Harrington Park Press, 1999).

(2.) For a full discussion on this point, see William John Morgan, Leftist Theories of Sport: a Critique and Reconstruction (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994); Bernard Suits, The Grasshopper : Games, Life and Utopia (Peterborough, Ont: Broadview Press, 2005).

(3.) For a more detailed discussion on this point, see Joseph Dewey, Beyond Grief and Nothing: a Reading of Don DeLillo (Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 2006).

(4.) See Jacques Lacan, The Seminar of Jacques Lacan. Book 11, Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis (New York: Norton, 1998).
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Author:Harvey, Andy
Publication:Aethlon: The Journal of Sport Literature
Article Type:Critical essay
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 22, 2010
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