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Istvan Polgar, Ioan Horga, Mircea Brie (eds.), Migration and European Integration of Minorities.

Istvan Polgar, loan Horga, Mircea Brie (eds.), Migration and European Integration of Minorities, Saarbrucken, Lambert Academic Publishing, 2017, 376 pages

Polgar Istvan in the article The phenomenon of migration and integration of minorities in the European Union brings into discussion the issues of demography and migration bringing together other issues related to the place of origin and receiving places of potential immigrants, integration of minorities in the areal of EU, considering as a solution for the contemporary times the concept of Europe without borders. After the dissapearance of multinational empires such as Tsarist Empire and Austro-Hungarian Empire, the pattern for the national states was imposed. But the directing lines of national states were not drawn accordingly and a lot of minorities emerged between national boundaries of states in Europe and this small groups posed problems leading to internal frontiers defined by professor Marga as separating different parties with their values, really separatory dividing lines. After pointing out the failure of communist with the failure of its egalitarism, the model of European Union emerged as the only viable pattern for the future of European states and the idea of free movement of citizens on the territory of the union gained consistance. The problem of migration is regarded by the author as a European issue, an issue of great importance for all the member states of European Union. The link between competitive economies and regions and migration of the labor force is strongly emphasised by the author (p. 11). The demographic decline of the European Union will change the perspective on migration, is the opinion of the author (p. 12).

The first part of the volume is entitled Minority and majority in the Eastern European Area. It opens with the article of Mircea Brie, National minorities: levels of educational analysis. The author emphasises the issue of national minorities as a main priority for the EU countries. The author focuses on the two concepts of ethnicity and religion which both generate feelings of extreme intensity. Diversity and openess are two strictly related terms. The author debates the idea of actual crisis as having political, social, mental and ideological conotations, placing European societies at crossroads. The social, political, economic life are redefined. The current European societies develop a sort of self-protection prezerving economies, current identities and cultures. It emerges a European cultural space of cultures (p. 20). The author makes a critical approach of the Romanian model of interethnic relations being a model of a dominant culture in the logic of nation-state. The existence of minorities that asserted their rights leads the author to the problem of confessional rights that adjusted to the non-discrimination principle granted by the European Union. In the part of conclusion, the author poses some problems still faced by the minorities in Romania such as the discrimination against the Roma community and "the dispute over the granting of a form of autonomy from the central regions for the Hungarian community" (p. 33).

Janos Penzes, Istvan Zoltan Pasztor, Erzsebet Jasz in the article Gypsy population in Hungary-Databases and their background, focus on the aspect that there are no exact data with the view of Gypsy population in Hungary. Gypsy population has to suffer a lot of social problems, representing the largest minority in Hungary. Different surveys reveal a number of Gypsies in Hungary varying between 315 000 and 881 000 (p. 38). The authors point out that the Gypsy population in Hungary can be divided in three ethnic groups: Hungarian Gypsies (Romungros), Vlach Gypsies, Beas ethnic group, Sintos and Vend Gypsies. Among the databased quoted by the authors when evaluating Gypsy community, we remember censuses, sociological surveys, minority local government elections, data of birth/ marriage registers.

Penka Peeva, in the article The Turkish Ethnic Group in Bulgaria: History and problems of integration, mentions that Ethnic Turks in Bulgaria are the second ethnic group as size from this country. Some of them are descendents of the Turkish people that settled in the Balkans during 14th century (p. 53). Others were Bulgarian Christians converted to Islam. In the years 1980, the Bulgarian communists tried to replace the names of Turkish-Arabians with Bulgarian names. This community was oriented towards the promotion of socialism. But, also, among this community it took place a rebellion in 1984 with anti-communist stances. In consequence, moving for good reasons in new regions, more than 2000 Turks were deprived of their jobs and homes (p. 57). In January 1990, a part of the rights of this minority were returned back. This issue, underlines the author, must take into consideration the balance between individual rights and national interest.

Gabriel Moisa, in the article Minority and majority. The case of the historical Romanian community from Hungary in post-Trianon era, points out that the first documents about the Romanians in Hungary dates back in the XVIIIth century, so the Hungarians can lead their history on a different path. Romanian Orthodox parishes were the first who enacted documents about the Romanians from Hungary. Making a history of historiography in the field of Romanian element in Hungary, the author asserts that, in XVIIIth century, are considered to be found the original documents about Romanian minority in Hungary, in the context of the lack of archeological and archival systematic research (p. 66).

Natalia Putina in the article National minorities in Moldova between Eastern and Western aspirations: risks and challenges focuses on the ethnopolitical background and political orientation of ethnic minorities in the Republic of Moldova. The author underlines the multiethnic character of the Republic of Moldova in 1989, as an inheriting republic of USSR. The Gagauz minority enjoyed strong support from Turkey and Russia, Bulgarian minority was helped by Bulgaria, Moldovan minority enjoyed support from Romania. Then, the author focuses on electoral orientation of minorities from Moldovan Republic. Ethnic cleavages generate different political orientations is the opinion of the author. Last but not least, the author writes about the dilemma of the Republic of Moldova to choose between European and Eurasian integration.

Constantin Liviu Demeter, in the article Twenty-five years of demographic forum of Germans in Oradea, writes about the fact that the year 1989 opened a path of linguistic and spiritual freedom and for 25 years the German Community from Oradea developed projects and activities here. The German community in Transylvania was divided between Saxons in the South of Transylvania with Evangelical religion and Swabians, in the West of Transylvania with Universal Catholic Church. The author writes about Lutheran Church from 28, Tudor Vladimirescu Street which have an existence of 200 of years, after the Lutheran reform, mentioning that a part of the Germans from Oradea were living in that area. The Frimont family and the Palota village are other benchmarks for the community of Germans from Bihor county. In 1990, two weeks after the creation of German Democratic Forum in Sibiu, there was created a German Forum in Oradea. At 25 years after the Revolution of 1989, it seems they are still living ethnic Germans in the villages of Palota, Petreu, Padurea Neagra, Tarian and Saniob. The aim of German Democratic Forum from Oradea is to preserve and to teach the German language in Oradea and Bihor County with the financing of Romanian state.

Renata Hegedus in the article Migration and integration of immigrants emphasizes the complexity of migrations phenomenon at global scale. One of the subjects approached by the author is migration and discrimination. In the context of the recent global economic crises, migration and discrimination phenomenon occur more and more often. In what concerns the issue of migration in Europe, the author considers that many European countries are multiethnic states even if the actors are still the nation--states from EU (p. 99). One of the effects of migration in Europe is that the actors of migratory fluxes are high qualified individual who want to reside in the core states of European Union. The future of immigrants, in EU, depends on their educational level, concludes the author.

Vasile Cucerescu, in the article Cohesion, integration and securitization challenges for EU migration law and policy, presents the migrations phenomenon as a process dating back to ancient times and which manifests even in present times. Migration issues had been the object of research for several disciplines and impose an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research approach. The author brings into discussion the three layers of the research objectives of migration issues such as cohesion, integration and securitization (p. 104). As a target territory for migrations European Union was perceived, during history, as the cradle of civilizations, the territory of "Old continent", an area of welfare and prosperity and peace. The desired immigrant in the European Union is a highly qualified individual being able to adjust to European standards. The author makes an elaborate analysis of the EU legal provision on migration. The issue of migration imposes also new challenges for the development of EU legislation in this field is the conclusion of the author (p. 124).

Nataliya Nechayeva-Yuriychuk, in the article Tire problem of Russian-speaking people integration in post-Soviet states, emphasizes the hot subject of Russia's occupation of Crimea and Russia's aggression in East Ukraine, posing new threats on European security. In this context, the situation of national minorities is very important, in Europe. The purpose of research, as defined by the author, "is to define the place of Russians and Russian-speaking minority in social and political life of Latvia", (p. 128) The author draws the picture of the evolution of Russian minority in Latvia in the XIX and XXth centuries. In spite of Latvian authorities to preserve and enforce the Russian language, the Russian minority from Latvia was never fully integrated in this state.

The second part of the volume has the title The phenomenon of migration in Europe. Migration and integration of immigrants in the EU and opens with the paper of Mihai Sofonea, The immigration under the intelligence panopticon effect. The author points out that the communication in immigration process is hindered by different obstacles. In the same time, the international migration is increasing in scale and complexity, (p. 142) International mobility is part of globalization process. Foucault quoted by the author established a connection between power and knowledge and instituted surveillance of the members of the society, including the immigrants, as a tool of political power. Security and surveillance should prevent the terrorism instauration, transnational crime and illegal migration from development on European soil.

Ambrus Attila and Teperics Karoly in the paper The examination of the cross-border catchment area of medical science universities of Debrecen Oradea, focuses on the beginning on demographic increase and the role of Hajdu-Bihar and Bihor counties in developing neighborhood relations. The authors analyze the role of the universities of Debrecen and Oradea in fostering bilateral and international relations. The author focuses on particularities and differences between the two countries.

Constantin-Vasile Toca in the article Erasmus Programme. European Instrument for European Educational Migration focuses on the Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP) that took the place of former programes such as Socrates, Leonardo da Vinci ITC/Open & Distance Learning. The author mentions that this survey is dedicated to Erasmus programme. Providing different graphs and statistics with the view of providing the number of beneficiaries of this program,

Ludmila Rosea, in the article Moldovan Diaspora in Italy: Valuable integration experiences, brings into discussion the problem of international migration as being defined by several aspects such as the existential-philosophical, philosophical-pragmatic, economic, psychological, political, social, cultural, religious. Then the author focuses on the particularity of Italian case in the options for emigration of ethnic Moldovans. Church and pubic organizations play an important role in the integration of emigrants. In the context when the Republic of Moldova remains the poorest country in Europe, the possibility to migrate is on the liking of Moldovan people.

Claudiu Filimon, Cosmin Chiriac si Luminita Filimon in the article Migration and the perspective of demographic revitalization of the rural settlements in the metropolitan area of Oradea (ZMO) make the description of Metropolitan Area of Oradea established in May 2005. ZMO comprises today Oradea and 11 communes. After the entrance in the second millennium, it became obvious the migration from rural to urban settlements. According to statistical data in most communes from ZMO immigration was higher than emigration rate for the period 2005-2012. In all these communes, the proportion of the group of 20-64 years % is the highest during the years 2002-2011. The effects of this migration trend are not significant, in the opinion of the author, the life of the migrants being connected with the city of Oradea.

Joszef Fekete and Zsolt Radies in the paper International migration trends in Turkey and the Balkans show the migration trends from Southeast Europe. The events from the Balkans impacted on the migration process in SE of Europe. The authors focus on historical migration during in interwar period, after World War I and World War II, on the emigration process from Turkey and in Turkey, on the migration in the Balkans. From European countries such as Germany, the Netherlands, France, Austria, there are known some migration waves to Turkey in the context of increasing economic situation. In the same country, the role of Turkey increased as a transit country towards West.

Judit Moinar and Tibor Korodi in the article A new Era of Hungarian emigration: Why are residents of Hungary thinking about leaving their home country? , emphasize the problem of international migration due to the aging of Hungarian population. 5354 of people were questioned in 5 different towns of Hungary in the issue of migration plans. It follows to question Hungarian migrants who are living abroad. Hungary needs to attract young workers as the Hungarian population is in an aging process.

Anca Oltean in the paper The emigration of Romanian Jews in Israel during the years 1945-1969 finds reflections of Jewish exodus from Romania in Israel in the works of Liviu Rotman and Radu Ioanid. Then, she makes the portrait of Romanian-Israeli diplomatic relations during the years 1945-1969 basing her research on a collection of documents edited by Daniela Bleoanca, Nicolae-Alexandru Nicolescu, Cristina Paiusan, Dumitru Preda, namely Romania--Israel. 50 de ani de relatii diplomatice (Romania-Israel. 50 years of diplomatic relations). The diplomatic relations between the two countries evolved in time, revealing economic, cultural, human rights problem, migration, religion.

The third part of the volume has the title Managing interethnic relations and community security. The first paper is written by Gabriela Goudenhooft and has the title The European Court of justice as an Institutional Actor of European Integration. The author emphasizes the institution of European Court of Justice, one of the most important institutions of the European Union. The actual trend in EU, points out the author, is to abandon political integration approach in favor of "legal integration".

Marton Tonk and Tunde Szekely wrote the study Hungarian minority and minority higher education system in Romania and bring up the issue of Bolyai University closed by the communist authorities in 1959 and the idea of having in Romania universities in the Hungarian language for the Hungarian minority. The authors provide a table with the universities with training in Hungarian for the academic year 2013-2014 (pp. 270-271).

Gabor Paloczi, Istvan Mate Lengyel and Erno Molnar in the article Changing commuting pattern in Hungary after the turn of the millennium show that the Hungarian economy was characterized by processes of spatial restructuring, the problem of commuting dealing with spatial inequalities in demand and supply.

Klara Czimre and Gabor Kozma in the work Characteristics of the cross-border suburbanisation process in the Oradea agglomeration emphasize the fact that the borders lost their significance and international mobility increased. The agglomerated zones of the city developed, rural areas are more valorified and the number of inhabitants of the cities in this part of Europe increases.

Istvan Suli-Zakar, Agnes Paloczi, Istvan Molnar in the article Questions of Roma integration and migration endeavouring of the Roma people in South-Eastern Europe, wrote about Roma people, the largest minority in the European Union. The trend of Roma people is to migrate from South Eastern Europe to Western Europe and North America. Their law level of education, unemployment, high criminality rate, illegal affairs hinder their integration in SE Europe. The Gypsyes' problem is a European issue, conclude the authors.

Edina Lilla Meszaros in the article Is the European Union turning into a gated community? The principle of selective permeability and African 'soccerscapes' to the EU, focuses on irregular migration in the European Union, an unauthorized migration which causes the concern of European Union. Among the factors that generate irregular migration, the author identifies economic, demographic, political, social, cultural, and environmental. It is necessary to have a global approach to migration and mobility. The EU should review its immigration filters, thinks the author, because it discriminates people based on their country of origin.

Felix-Angel Popescu, in the article European Structural Funds for migrants and minorities during 2000-2006 and 2007-2013 periods, states that migrants and minorities bring a significant contribution to the economies of EU member states. During 2007-2013, more funds were allocated to people with migrant and minority background, less than during 2000-2006.

We see thus a variety of papers from the domain of "migration and European integration of minorities", a variety of detailed information about migration process and solutions for a better integration of immigrants at the scale of EU. Authors coming from all Europe, but mostly from Romania, Hungary, Republic of Moldova bring significant Eastern contributions in finding solutions to migration and ethnicities' issues in Europe.

Anca Oltean *

* Anca Oltean, PhD is Research assistant, Institute of Euroregional Studies within the University of Oradea (Romania). Contact:
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Author:Oltean, Anca
Publication:Studia Europaea
Article Type:Book review
Date:Jun 1, 2017
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