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Is the Senpai--Kouhai relationship common across China, Korea, and Japan?

In Japanese culture a Senpai--Kouhai relationship is a specific senior--junior relationship between people of the same generation, and may even exist between those with an age difference of only one year (Lebra, 1976; Nakane, 1970). This in-group hierarchical relationship is a product of Japanese culture.

Although in this study we discuss only the Senpai--Kouhai relationship developed during the years of school attendance and tertiary study, the influence can extend to the years after school and can even be lifelong. The Senpai--Kouhai relationship also exists in the workplace and the military, but owing to participant demographics, to narrow our focus, we examined the Senpai--Kouhai relationship in the context of educational institutions only.

The Senpai is the person who enters school earlier and the Kouhai is the person who enters later. Hierarchy is a core characteristic of the Senpai--Kouhai relationship. The Senpai's higher status comes from his or her longer school attendance. The Kouhai is expected to speak very politely to the Senpai, using an honorific, and sometimes, because of the strict politeness expectations, struggles to speak to the Senpai. The hierarchical culture also restricts the Kouhai from expressing any negative opinions of the Senpai. Thus, if a Kouhai behaves improperly, he or she will be negatively judged and expelled by other Kouhai group members. The Senpai is expected to act as a role model for the Kouhai, who learns from the Senpai how to behave in the new environment (Enyo, 2013; Nukaga, Suzuki, Akiba, Iida, & Arai, 2018; Sano, 2014; Yoshinaga, 2017).

The features of the Japanese Senpai--Kouhai relationship are congruent with social exchange theory (Blau, 1964). In the social exchange between a Senpai and a Kouhai, the Senpai mainly provides the Kouhai with information and services, and gains status from the Kouhai (Emerson, 1962; Foa & Foa, 1980). That is why the Senpai has a higher status than the Kouhai. In comparison with an exchange of universal and concrete resources like money and goods, in this relationship, particularistic and symbolic resources like status and love are usually exchanged in a more open-ended manner and over a long term (Cropanzano & Mitchell, 2005). The involvement of status and love makes the Senpai--Kouhai relationship one of long-term social exchange.

Chinese, Korean, and Japanese cultures share many features as a result of the influence of Confucian values. According to Hofstede's cross-cultural theory, they all rank high on the Power Distance Index, which is scored from 1 to 100. China is scored at 80, Japan at 54, and Korea at 60. The three cultures rank low on the Individualism Index, which is also scored from 1 to 100. China is scored at 20, Japan at 46, and Korea at 48 (Hofstede, Hofstede, & Minkov, 2010). As the high power distance makes status inequity more acceptable, this leads to the hierarchical difference between the Senpai and the Kouhai. In a collectivistic culture, there is a tendency for people to focus on the relationship between the individual and the group, to seek group harmony, and to form a clear distinction between in-group and out-group members. It is essential for a newcomer to learn how to adapt to a group, and the Senpai can be a good guide. In Japan, mentoring is more of a relationship than a management strategy (Bright, 2005). The Senpai--Kouhai relationship itself can be regarded as a combination of a peer relationship and mentoring (Kram & Isabella, 1985). Because of the similarities in the three countries' cultural backgrounds, namely, the influence of Confucian values, and high power distance and collectivism, an assumption can be made that Senpai--Kouhai relationships, similar to those in Japan, exist in China and Korea.

Indications of similar relationships in China and Korea are that there are five basic relationships in traditional Chinese culture. One of these is the senior partner-junior partner relationship, in which the senior provides the junior with protection and consideration, and, in turn, the junior shows respect for, and obedience to, the senior (Hofstede et al., 2010). There is an expression similar to the Senpai--Koubai relationship in the Korean language, the Seonbae-Hubae relationship, which literally means "the relationship between the older generation and the younger generation," but which actually indicates a kind of peer relationship.

Thus, we concluded that if there were Senpai--Kouhai relationships in the Chinese and Korean cultures, they would share many commonalities with the Japanese version. However, as researchers have shown that there are cultural differences in East Asian cultures (Brown & Brown, 2006; Zhang, Lin, Nonaka, & Beom, 2005), a closer investigation into Senpai--Kouhai relationships in the three cultures is necessary. Therefore, we posed the following research questions:

Research Question 1: Does the same form of social exchange relationship as the Senpai--Kouhai exist in China and Korea?

Research Question 2: If the relationship exists in China and Korea, what is the factor structure of this relationship, and can there be a uniform measurement for the Senpai--Kouhai relationship in Japan, China, and Korea?

Research Question 3: If the relationship exists in China and Korea, what are the commonalities and differences in the Japanese, Chinese, and Korean Senpai--Kouhai relationship?

Method

We conducted interviews to help determine the items about the Senpai--Kouhai relationship for the next step of our research. We then designed the items for the survey, which Chinese, Korean, and Japanese participants completed online.

Interviews

We interviewed nine people, with three from each culture, about the Senpai--Kouhai relationship. They were aged from 20 to 31 years, and each had at least finished senior high school in their own country. Each person was interviewed one on one and each interview lasted for an hour. The interviews were conducted according to an outline, and open discussion was especially welcomed. The questions in the outline included:

* How do the interviewee and people in his or her culture understand the Senpai--Kouhai relationship?

* Who is the interviewee's favorite and most disliked Senpai and favorite and most disliked Kouhai? Why? What sort of person can make a good or bad Senpai or Kouhai?

* Is the Senpai--Kouhai relationship necessary? Why?

Each interviewee had developed a Senpai--Kouhai relationship, and thought that almost everyone in their culture should be familiar with the relationship. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed using a thematic analysis process (Braun & Clarke, 2006). The positive and negative points raised are summarized in the thematic map (see Figure 1). Factors identified were:

* Hierarchy. The Senpai was described as "a peer whom you should treat like a teacher." The Senpai--Kouhai relationship involves strict rules and courtesy. All the Korean and Japanese interviewees agreed that a Senpai--Kouhai relationship was between superior and subordinate. The Kouhai respects, and uses honorifics when speaking to, the Senpai. Failure to use honorifics to a Senpai, even years after graduation from school, would still cause negative remarks from others.

* Supporting and verbal etiquette. The Senpai and the Kouhai each has a role to play. The Senpai should lead and be professional and the Kouhai should be modest and polite. Participants from each culture took a very negative view of impolite Kouhai. In China, the Senpai shares his or her skills, knowledge, and experience with the Kouhai. In return, the Kouhai respects and appreciates the Senpai for this kindness. However, the obligations that Japanese and Korean interviewees outlined were mainly connected to the Kouhai.

* Closeness and trust. The Senpai--Kouhai relationship is treated as an in-group relationship. Although there may sometimes be strict rules and dark sides, such as bullying and violence, most Senpai and Kouhai feel closer to each other than to other acquaintances. Chinese and Korean interviewees stated that the Senpai--Kouhai relationship provides the chance to develop a social network among students at the same school. All the interviewees stated that they had firm trust in their favorite Senpai and Kouhai.

Survey Design

We designed a survey based on a literature review and the interview responses. In the first part of the survey we sought demographic information, namely, culture, sex, age, and education. The second part comprised multiple-choice items regarding general information about the Senpai--Kouhai relationship. The third part consisted of 49 items relating to the Senpai--Kouhai relationship, to which participants responded on a 7-point Likert scale. We examined both the short-term (at school) relationship and the long-term (after leaving school) relationship. We developed items on hierarchy, supporting, and verbal etiquette in the Senpai--Kouhai relationship. Trust, comprising affection-based and cognition-based trust (Lewicki & Bunker, 1995), was explored with 10 items developed from the measures designed by Cook and Wall (1980) and McAllister (1995). The focus of each item was on the Senpai--Kouhai relationship that was developed during student days.

The survey was first designed in Chinese, then translated into Korean and Japanese by native speakers, and finally back-translated into Chinese and compared with the original Chinese version to ensure consistency. Responses were collected online through Survey Monkey.

Participants

We analyzed valid responses from 311 Chinese, 266 Korean, and 275 Japanese participants, of whom 79.4% were students (Mage = 24.0, SD = 4.20; age range: 17 to 39 years). There were 488 male participants and 374 female participants.

Results

General Descriptions

Although two Chinese participants, 31 Korean participants, and 11 Japanese participants had never been a Senpai, all participants were very familiar with the Senpai--Kouhai relationship. Of the Chinese participants, 53% came to know the concept of the Senpai--Kouhai relationship when they were undergraduate students, but most of the Koreans (58.1%) and Japanese (74.9%) came to know this concept during their time at high school. Of the Chinese participants, 65.3% were first regarded as a Senpai when they were undergraduate students, and 56.3% of the Korean and 88% of the Japanese participants were first regarded as a Senpai before they went to university. Of the Chinese participants, 25.6% first established a Senpai--Kouhai relationship with a person in the same department, and 27.8% when asking a Senpai for help. In contrast, 33% of the Korean participants first established a Senpai--Kouhai relationship by arrangement. Of the Japanese participants, 48.7% first established a Senpai--Kouhai relationship with a person in the same department, and 38.2% did so by arrangement. Most students from each culture knew of the existence of the Senpai--Kouhai relationship from school. Chinese and Korean participants interacted with the Senpai most frequently in clubs, whereas Japanese did so in learning groups. The results of the general descriptive items are summarized in Table 1.

Factor Analysis

To explore the relationship of the items and to construct a model to identify important aspects of the Senpai--Kouhai relationship, we performed a principal component analysis with varimax rotation. The overall measure of sampling adequacy was .93 > .50. We eliminated 18 factors, either because their loadings were greater than .50 on two factors, or because they failed to load on any factor at a .50 level (Hair, Anderson, Tatham, & Black, 1995). Items with loadings greater than .50 on the same factor were to form one component of the model. Finally, a four-factor model containing 31 items was extracted and explained 61% of total variance (see Table 2). Cronbach's [alpha] for trust, supporting, hierarchy, and verbal etiquette were .91, .93, .84, .84, respectively, all greater than .60 (Hair, Black, Babin, & Anderson, 2010).

Factor 1, labeled as trust, contained nine items and explained 19% of the total variance. In this factor we included the 10 items related to trust, except for the item "When cooperating with the Senpai, I believe he or she won't cause me trouble." This may be attributable to the fact that a Senpai sometimes assigns a task to the Kouhai who has to help the Senpai sort out the latter's trivial matters. The complicated situation means that this statement is related not only to trust but also to hierarchy (Factor 3) with both loadings larger than .50.

Factor 2, labeled as supporting, contained nine items and explained 18% of the total variance. This factor comprises items describing how the Senpai and Kouhai support each other. Of these items, some describe what a Senpai does for a Kouhai (e.g., provides the Kouhai with help and suggestions in study and daily life, and looks after the Kouhai years after graduation), and what the Kouhai does for the Senpai (e.g., respects, helps, and supports the Senpai years after graduation). Three items only describe what the Kouhai does for the Senpai, and every item describes situations in the years after completing tertiary study. This may be because what the Kouhai does for the Senpai during schooldays is related more closely to hierarchy (Factor 3) than to supporting.

Factor 3, labeled as hierarchy, contained nine items and explained 14% of the total variance. The items are different from the genial feeling of the expressions used in the supporting items (Factor 2). They mainly describe a relationship with a nervous atmosphere for the Kouhai, because of the hierarchical relationship. There are strict rules for the Kouhai to follow (e.g., obey the Senpai unconditionally, and take care not to offend the Senpai). The item "I will feel surprised and angry when my Kouhai directly comments negatively about me" refers to when the Kouhai responds negatively to the Senpai and it describes the Senpai's view of the attitude toward the hierarchy. The item "As Kouhai, I have the responsibility to help the Senpai with his or her daily chores" is also included in this hierarchy factor rather than in supporting (Factor 2). This may be because the Kouhai's help with daily chores is done more to show respect for the Senpai's higher position, rather than to show closeness or friendliness.

Factor 4, labeled as verbal etiquette, contained five items and explained 10% of the total variance. This factor describes the rules that the Kouhai should obey in the verbal part of the relationship. The Kouhai should address the Senpai in a respectful way rather than calling the Senpai directly by name, and should be polite when talking to the Senpai, both during school days and in the years after leaving school. Failure to do so would annoy the Senpai.

The Effect of Demographic Variables and Culture

The mean rating of items within each factor was calculated and treated as the rating of that factor. Four models were established in an analysis of variance to compare the ratings for each factor (see Table 3). Culture was added to the model as an independent variable to help answer Research Question 3. We also added the other demographic variables to the model to establish whether or not age, sex, and education affected the influence of culture. Age group was a categorical variable transformed from age. The effect of culture on all four factors was significant, with [alpha] = .05. Three effect sizes [[eta].sup.2] were above the medium threshold of .059 (Cohen, 1988). The [[eta].sup.2] for verbal etiquette was lower than .059 but much higher than .010, the small effect size. Education had a significant medium effect on trust, and a significant small effect on supporting and hierarchy. Age group had a significant medium effect on supporting and hierarchy. There was a significant interaction effect of culture*education on both hierarchy and verbal etiquette, and of gender*culture on verbal etiquette, with a relatively small [[eta].sup.2] of .100. The effect of gender on supporting was significant (p < .05), but the effect size was small ([[eta].sup.2] < .100).

We conducted post hoc tests with a Benjamini--Hochberg adjustment. The results of the age group test showed that participants aged 22 to 25 years (M = 4.46, SD = 1.23) rated supporting significantly lower than did participants in other age groups (M > 4.67, SD < 1.09, p < .005, d > 0.18). Participants aged 22 to 25 years (M = 3.71, SD = 0.93) rated hierarchy significantly higher than did participants aged 18 to 22 years (M = 3.35, SD = 1.00, p = .002, d = 0.37).

Results of the test on the effect of education showed that for trust and supporting, ratings increased with participants' educational level. Participants with a master's degree or doctorate (M = 4.91, SD = 0.85) rated trust significantly higher than did participants with a bachelor's degree (M = 4.65, SD = 0.96, p = .002, d = 0.29), and participants with a bachelor's degree rated trust significantly higher than did participants who had not undertaken any university study (M = 4.30, SD = 0.95, p < .001, d = 0.37). The same trend was found for supporting. Participants with a master's degree or doctorate (M = 5.21, SD = 0.86) rated supporting significantly higher than did participants with a bachelor's degree ( M = 4.84, SD = 1.06, p < .001, d = 0.38), and participants with a bachelor's degree rated it significantly higher than did participants who had not undertaken any university study (M = 4.45, SD = 1.09, p < .001, d = 0.36). For hierarchy, the effect of education was significant only for Chinese participants, of whom those who had not undertaken any university study (M = 3.74, SD = 1.10) rated hierarchy significantly higher than did participants with a master's degree or doctorate (M = 3.10, SD = 0.91, p = .037, d = 0.63). For verbal etiquette, the effect of education was significant only for Korean participants, of whom those with a master's degree or doctorate (M = 5.38, SD = 1.05) rated verbal etiquette significantly higher than did participants with a bachelor's degree (M = 4.45, SD = 1.16, p = .001, d = 0.84), and Korean participants with a bachelor's degree rated this factor significantly higher than did participants who had not undertaken any university study (M = 4.07, SD = 0.91, p = .004, d = 0.36).

Results of the test for the effect of culture are as follows: In regard to trust, Chinese Kouhai trusted their Senpai (M = 4.96, SD = 0.95) significantly more than did Korean ( M = 4.40, SD = 0.89, p < .001, d = 0.61) or Japanese participants ( M = 4.36, SD = 0.91, p < .001, d = 0.65). The difference in the level of trust between the Japanese and Korean participants was nonsignificant (p = .610). Chinese participants (M = 5.26, SD = 0.94) rated supporting significantly higher than did Korean participants (M = 4.84, SD = 0.90, p < .001, d = 0.47), and Korean participants rated supporting significantly higher than did Japanese participants (M = 4.20, SD = 1.08, p < .001, d = 0.63). Japanese participants (M = 3.92, SD = 0.92) rated hierarchy significantly higher than did Korean participants ( M = 3.42, SD = 0.89, p < .001, d = 0.55), and Korean participants rated hierarchy significantly higher than did Chinese participants (M = 3.24, SD = 1.03, p = .025, d = 0.18). Korean ( M = 4.30, SD = 1.07, p < .001, d = 0.38) and Japanese participants ( M = 4.40, SD = 1.22, p < .001, d = 0.44) rated verbal etiquette significantly higher than did Chinese participants (M = 3.84, SD = 1.32). The difference in the rating of Japanese participants and Korean participants was nonsignificant (p = .310).

Discussion

Our results confirmed the existence of the Senpai--Kouhai relationship in China and Korea. Participants in all three cultures commonly accepted that the Senpai has a higher status than the Kouhai. Hierarchy is a salient feature of the Senpai--Kouhai relationship.

In this study, we found that years after graduation, both the Senpai and the Kouhai are still willing to support each other. Indeed, as the Senpai--Kouhai relationship can be lifelong, the establishment of a Senpai--Kouhai relationship is a commitment that people form to reduce uncertainty during social exchanges. They choose to interact repeatedly with each another in a safe relationship rather than to seek new but unknown alternatives. During these interactions, they establish emotional bonds, which, in turn, enhance the commitment (Lawler & Yoon, 1996).

The results also identified differences in the Senpai--Kouhai relationship among the three cultures. The Chinese Senpai--Kouhai relationship is more of a family relationship with its emphasis on supporting and trust, whereas the Senpai--Kouhai relationship of the Koreans and the Japanese, in particular, focuses more on hierarchy. We thus concluded that the differences in the Senpai--Kouhai relationship may be due to the discrepancy between reciprocal and negotiated exchange. The Senpai--Kouhai relationship in Japan and Korea is usually established earlier than it is in China and is done by arrangement, so that it is more like a negotiated exchange, whereas the emphasis in the Chinese Senpai--Kouhai relationship is more on trust and supporting. This is consistent with a reciprocal exchange, which involves more uncertainty for the parties to the relationship than does a negotiated exchange. To make up for this lack of certainty, the parties develop mutual feelings of trust and positive affection that strengthen the reciprocity of the bond (Molm, Takahashi, & Peterson, 2000).

We found that education had an effect on participants' attitudes toward the Senpai--Kouhai relationship. Trust and supporting increases as academic qualifications become higher. Glaeser, Laibson, Scheinkman, and Soutter (2000) found that the effect of education on trust occurred because education can increase social skills and social capital, which enable the individual to maintain better relationships. Antonucci, Fuhrer, and Jackson (1990) found with American and French participants that culture, age, and education predicted social support, and our results provide evidence with East Asian participants. The effect of education on hierarchy was significant only with the Chinese participants in this study. This may be attributable to the fact that in the Japanese and Korean Senpai--Kouhai relationship, hierarchy is more commonly accepted.

In other Asian countries, such as Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Malaysia, there is a culture in which both power distance and collectivism rate highly (Hofstede et al., 2010). Future researchers could examine whether or not there is a similar Senpai--Kouhai relationship in these countries.

Although the explorative nature of this study may be a limitation, our findings provide practical insights into cross-cultural management of international institutions. In the age of globalization, companies and institutions should develop a better understanding of regional cultures. There is a strong emphasis on hierarchy and relationships among people in East Asian cultures, in which the pattern of organizational culture is a strongly power-oriented family culture (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 2011). As these authors stated, personnel in enterprises in these cultures not only respect those in charge but also look to them for guidance and approval. Strong bonds are formed between in-group members. The Senpai--Kouhai relationship in this study is a typical example: a person's Senpai--Kouhai relationship network can play a role in business development, communication, and training. The Senpai and the Kouhai treat each other differently from out-group members, and they may form networks in an organization. In human resource management, managers should pay special attention to not confusing such relationships by placing the Kouhai in a higher position directly above the Senpai.

Japanese people regard mentoring as a relationship rather than a management strategy (Bright, 2005), and this may also apply to Chinese and Korean cultures because of the influence of the Senpai--Kouhai relationship. Thus, in an organization, the design of the training system and the training process should be adapted to the specific culture. In international schools and international online courses, individuals' expectations of peer relationships may differ, and misunderstanding, or even conflict, may arise among students from different cultural backgrounds.

As social exchange is an important feature in human society, our findings are valuable as, to our knowledge, it is the first time that the Senpai--Kouhai relationship has been closely investigated in Chinese and Korean cultures. A comparison of our findings with those in Japanese culture (Sano, 2014; Yoshinaga, 2017) provides a more general perspective. Future researchers could examine the deep influence of this relationship in various scenarios, such as social media, game theory, and knowledge sharing.

We explored similarities and differences between the Senpai--Kouhai relationship with Chinese, Korean, and Japanese participants, who rated trust, supporting, hierarchy, and verbal etiquette significantly differently. Our results showed that hierarchy is at the core of the Senpai--Kouhai relationship in Korea and Japan, whereas supporting is the most essential element in China. The Senpai--Kouhai relationship is a product of collectivist and high-power-distance cultures, as well as a commitment to the social exchange process. This relationship, which reflects the power-oriented family culture in East Asian organizational cultures, should receive more research attention in the age of globalization.

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (71661167006) and by the National Research Foundation of Korea grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIP; NRF-2017R1C.1B5076718).

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Nan Qie (1), Pei-Luen Patrick Rau (1), Lin Wang (2), Liang Ma (1)

(1) Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University

(2) Department of Library and Information Science, Incheon National University

How to cite: Qie, N., Rau, P., Wang, L., & Ma, L. (2019). Is the Senpai--Kouhai relationship common across China, Korea, and Japan?.

Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 47(1), e7404

CORRESPONDENCE Pei-Luen Patrick Rau, Department of Industrial Engineering, Room South 525, Shunde Building, Tsinghua University, Haidian, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Email: rpl@tsinghua.edu.cn

https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.7404
Table 1. Results of the Basic Situation of the Senpai--Kouhai
Relationship in the Three Cultures

Question            Option                Chinese  Korean  Japanese

When did you first  Primary school or      4.7%    19.3%   16.7%
get to know the     before
concept of a        Junior high school    13.2%    37.4%   69.1%
Senpai-Kouhai
relationship?
                    Senior high school    25.9%    20.7%    5.8%
                    Undergraduate         53.0%    16.3%    4.0%
                    Graduate               2.2%     0.0%    0.4%
                    In the workplace       0.6%     4.1%    1.5%
                    Never                  0.3%     2.2%    2.5%
When did you first  Primary school or      3.5%     5.2%   14.2%
act as a Senpai?    before
                    Junior high school     6.3%    23.0%   67.3%
                    Senior high school    20.2%    28.1%   6.5%
                    Undergraduate         65.3%    26.7%    4.0%
                    Graduate               3.8%     0.4%    0.4%
                    In the workplace       0.3%     5.2%    3.6%
                    Never                  0.6%    11.5%    4.0%
How did you first   Extracurricular       19.4%    20.4%    3.3%
establish a         activity
Senpai-Kouhai       Being in the same     25.7%    12.2%   48.7%
relationship?       laboratory or club
                    By arrangement        19.0%    33.0%   38.2%
                    Attending the same     4.4%    10.0%    1.5%
                    class
                    Asking (Senpai) for   27.9%    11.1%    3.6%
                    help
                    Other                  3.5%    13.3%    4.7%
Through which kind  At school             64.2%    72.6%   81.2%
of channels did
you first know the  By movie or           25.9%    14.4%   16.5%
Senpai-Kouhai       television play
relationship?
                    Through the Internet   6.7%     3.7%    1.5%
                    Other                  3.2%     9.3%    0.8%
On which occasion   Laboratory or club    56.2%    44.8%   14.1%
do you most
frequently
interact with       Learning group        20.8%    14.8%   76.8%
the Senpai?
                    Daily communication   13.9%    18.5%    2.1%
                    Extracurricular        7.6%    10.0%    5.4%
                    activity
                    Other                  1.6%     11.9%    1.7%

Table 2. Factor Analysis Results of the Senpai--Kouhai Relationship

                                           Factor I  Factor II
                                           Trust     Supporting

If I encounter difficulties, I know the    .77
Senpai will help me out
I will tell the Senpai my difficulties     .72
and I know he/she can provide
useful suggestions carefully
I am confident of the Senpai's             .72
professional skills
I feel easy to share my points of view,    .71
feelings, and ambitions with the Senpai
I feel free to share with the Senpai my    .71
difficulties in work and I know he/she
will be willing to listen attentively
The Senpai is very professional and        .69
responsible
If the Senpai and I leave our working      .64
or study environment, we both feel a
sense of loss
We both have enough emotional input        .68
when cooperating
Usually the Senpai will do what            .65
he/she says
Years after graduation, I will still look            .79
after my previous Kouhai if I can
As Senpai, I need to listen to my Kouhai             .79
about their problems in study, and
carefully provide suggestions
Years after graduation, if my previous               .79
Kouhai has problems, I will still
provide help
As Senpai, I need to listen to my Kouhai             .78
about their problems in daily life,
and carefully provide suggestions
Years after graduation, if my previous               .76
Kouhai has problems to ask me
about, I will still answer patiently
and carefully
Years after graduation, I will still try             .72
my best to help and support the Senpai
Years after graduation, when meeting                 .65
with the Senpai I will thank him/her
by practical action
As Senpai, I have the responsibility to              .62
train and help my Kouhai with
professional skills
Years after graduation, I will still                 .56
respect the Senpai very much
As Kouhai, I feel nervous in front
of the Senpai
The Kouhai should obey unconditionally
the Senpai's order
The Senpai is scary
I will be very careful when cooperating
with the Senpai, afraid of being
criticized if I make some mistakes
When communicating with the Senpai,
even if there are some divergence, I
will choose to follow the Senpai's
opinion
When cooperating with the Senpai,
I tacitly think that I am in an
attached position
As Senpai, I will feel surprised and
angry when my Kouhai directly
comments negatively about me
As Kouhai, I have the responsibility
to help the Senpai with his/her
daily chores
Years after graduation, if my
previous Kouhai communicates
with me in a way not polite
enough, I will still feel
offended
Years after graduation if my
previous Kouhai calls me by
my name directly, I will still
feel annoyed
If my Kouhai communicates
with me in a way not polite
enough, I will feel offended
If my Kouhai calls me by my
name directly, I will feel
annoyed
Years after graduation, I will still
pay attention to the way I speak to
the Senpai to make sure it is
polite enough
Variance explained                         .19        .18

                                           Factor III   Factor IV
                                           Hierarchy    Verbal
                                                        etiquette

If I encounter difficulties, I know the
Senpai will help me out
I will tell the Senpai my difficulties
and I know he/she can provide
useful suggestions carefully
I am confident of the Senpai's
professional skills
I feel easy to share my points of view,
feelings, and ambitions with the Senpai
I feel free to share with the Senpai my
difficulties in work and I know he/she
will be willing to listen attentively
The Senpai is very professional and
responsible
If the Senpai and I leave our working
or study environment, we both feel a
sense of loss
We both have enough emotional input
when cooperating
Usually the Senpai will do what
he/she says
Years after graduation, I will still look
after my previous Kouhai if I can
As Senpai, I need to listen to my Kouhai
about their problems in study, and
carefully provide suggestions
Years after graduation, if my previous
Kouhai has problems, I will still
provide help
As Senpai, I need to listen to my Kouhai
about their problems in daily life,
and carefully provide suggestions
Years after graduation, if my previous
Kouhai has problems to ask me
about, I will still answer patiently
and carefully
Years after graduation, I will still try
my best to help and support the Senpai
Years after graduation, when meeting
with the Senpai I will thank him/her
by practical action
As Senpai, I have the responsibility to
train and help my Kouhai with
professional skills
Years after graduation, I will still
respect the Senpai very much
As Kouhai, I feel nervous in front         .71
of the Senpai
The Kouhai should obey unconditionally     .70
the Senpai's order
The Senpai is scary                        .64
I will be very careful when cooperating    .68
with the Senpai, afraid of being
criticized if I make some mistakes
When communicating with the Senpai,        .67
even if there are some divergence, I
will choose to follow the Senpai's
opinion
When cooperating with the Senpai,          .65
I tacitly think that I am in an
attached position
As Senpai, I will feel surprised and       .65
angry when my Kouhai directly
comments negatively about me
As Kouhai, I have the responsibility       .57
to help the Senpai with his/her
daily chores
Years after graduation, if my                           .83
previous Kouhai communicates
with me in a way not polite
enough, I will still feel
offended
Years after graduation if my                            .83
previous Kouhai calls me by
my name directly, I will still
feel annoyed
If my Kouhai communicates                               .73
with me in a way not polite
enough, I will feel offended
If my Kouhai calls me by my                             .71
name directly, I will feel
annoyed
Years after graduation, I will still                    .57
pay attention to the way I speak to
the Senpai to make sure it is
polite enough
Variance explained                         .14          .10

Table 3. Results of Analysis of Variance of Demographic Variables and
Culture on the Four Factors of the Senpai--Kouhai Relationship

Factor                      Trust                    Supporting
                     F      p      [[eta].sup.2]  F      p

Age                   0.99   .411  .004            8.58  <.001
Sex                   2.73   .100  .003            6.30   .013
Education            26.41  <.001  .059           37.50  <.001
Culture              27.39  <.001  .061           56.19  <.001
Age x Culture         0.77   .613  .006            2.31   .024
Sex x Culture         1.77   .171  .004            1.80   .166
Education x Culture   2.06   .084  .009            1.46   .214

Factor               Supporting             Hierarchy
                     [[eta].sup.2]  F      p           [[eta].sup.2]

Age                  .034            4.36   .002        .020
Sex                  .006            0.34   .561       <.001
Education            .074            8.09  <.001        .018
Culture              .110           32.81  <.001        .074
Age x Culture        .016            1.22   .288        .010
Sex x Culture        .004            2.56   .078        .006
Education x Culture  .006            2.63   .034        .012

Factor                  Verbal etiquette
                     F      p      [[eta].sup.2]

Age                   0.89   .471  .004
Sex                   2.58   .108  .003
Education             1.29   .275  .003
Culture              19.67  <.001  .047
Age x Culture         1.43   .192  .012
Sex x Culture         4.37   .013  .010
Education x Culture   2.90   .021  .014
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Article Details
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Author:Qie, Nan; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Wang, Lin; Ma, Liang
Publication:Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9JAPA
Date:Jan 1, 2019
Words:6342
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