Is thalidomide "good" or "bad"?
Take, for example, a drug called thalidomide. When it was introduced in the 1950s it was hailed as an excellent sedative and a treatment for morning sickness in pregnant women. It had been tested on mice and other small animals, and was thought to have no side effects, even in overdose. It was used widely in Europe, but was never approved for the United States.
About that time an epidemic of birth defects appeared in Europe, with something like ten thousand babies born without arms or with other gross abnormalities. In the 1960s it was found that the deformities occurred in pregnant women who had taken thalidomide. The general reaction of horror caused doctors to discontinue any use of it.
Several years later, investigators found that thalidomide inhibits the body's production of something called tumor necrosis factor alpha, which itself poses a good/bad problem: it helped fight infections and malignant cells, but it elevated concentrations of protein in the blood, which brought on fever and weight loss. Later thalidomide was found to block the growth of new blood vessels, needed for the development of limbs in the fetus.
The net result of these investigations is that thalidomide fights, or may be useful against, leprosy, AIDS, certain diseases of the eyes, some cancers, tuberculosis, arthritis, ulcers and in heart transplant recovery.
All this leads to the key question: How do we get the "good" benefits of thalidomide while avoiding the "bad" aspects? The drug has continued to be manufactured in some countries, and deformed babies are occasionally born in some remote places. Despite the warnings on the bottle, some pregnant women inadvertently take the drug. Some people do not read, at least not English.
In any case, the damaged-baby experience has shown that drugs must be tested on animals more nearly like humans, not just on mice.
Mice Emotionally Disturbed Without Toys
Another problem with using mice for testing arises from the assumption that the findings would apply to humans in "psychological" as well as "physical" ways. Mice ordinarily are kept in small cages with no "toys" or interesting items to play with. A German animal behaviorist wondered what these mice did in the dark of the night, so he set up a video camera to find out. It showed some mice engaging in extremely abnormal behavior such as doing endless backflips.
Scientists had assumed the experiments with mice were relevant to human behavior, a conclusion that was undermined by finding the mice so emotionally disturbed by their surroundings.
SOURCE: DISCOVER MAGAZINE, JULY 2003.
Seen One Resort, Seen Them All?
Promoters of resorts sometimes run advertisements containing a picture of a different resort. Ads for Bermuda may include photographs--of Hawaii.
Bermuda's minister of tourism said the photos represent the spirit of the island and were intended to create a mood. One advertising man termed this a "misrepresentation," while a magazine publisher commented, "If this were a pharmaceutical ad, that would be one thing, but this isn't harmful."
Being Regular Is No Joke For a Geyser
Old Faithful is a geyser in Yellowstone National Park that regularly erupts every few minutes. Metamucil is a product designed to keep its users "regular." So its manufacturer, Procter & Gamble, ran a commercial on television showing a park ranger pouring Metamucil into the geyser "to help it stay regular."
The Park Service, although it presumably realized the ad was a joke, objected to it on grounds that geothermal features can be damaged by dumping things into them. So the company added a disclaimer that the ad was a "dramatization."
Mutual Fund Investors Like Those Names
If you're considering buying a mutual fund, you'd be wise to study the information about it carefully, and not be entranced by the fund's name. The Wall Street Journal found that investors prefer funds with a name that "sounds good." Just adding "growth" to the name attracts buyers. Some funds that changed their names but not their style of investing outdid funds that changed both their style and their name.
Secure Growth Fund [up arrow] 4.5 Confident Investors' Fund [up arrow] 5.6 Gibraltar Solid Securities [up arrow] 2.4 New Titanic Fund [down arrow] 6.7
EDITOR: ROBERT WANDERER
* Robert Wanderer taught adult classes based on general semantics for 30 years, was editor of The Map newsletter of the San Francisco Chapter ISGS for many years, and has written for ETC for four decades.
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|Title Annotation:||Illustrating General Semantics|
|Publication:||ETC.: A Review of General Semantics|
|Date:||Dec 22, 2003|
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