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Is it really just a bit of a cough? Just a tickle in the throat, or a sign of something serious? Lisa Salmon asks the experts to cough up the facts.

Byline: Lisa Salmon

LIKE headaches, sore throats and runny noses, coughs are extremely common and most of the time, nothing to really worry about.

Colds and minor infections are often a cough-causing culprit, but conditions like allergies and asthma - as well as things like the weather, environment and smoking - can also come into play.

But if a cough doesn't clear up after a few weeks, how can you tell whether there's possibly something more serious going on? Professor Alyn Morice, cough expert and head of Cardiorespiratory Studies at Hull York Medical School, explains that coughs fall into two categories: acute and chronic.

there is syrups minor Acute coughs are shortterm, lasting up to three weeks, and are usually the result of an upper respiratory tract infection, such as the common cold.

Chronic coughs are persistent and may be the result of a condition such as asthma, or a lower respiratory tract infection like bronchitis.

"If your cough lasts longer than eight weeks, you should seek medical advice," advises Prof Morice. "There are also certain 'red flags', such as coughing up blood, a wheeze which won't go away or chest pain, all of which warrant a trip to the doctor."

There's always a chance that so-called 'red flag' symptoms are due to something entirely harmless, but such symptoms should never be ignored and it's always best to get them checked, sooner rather than later. Plus, Prof Morice adds: "Anyone who feels very ill, is losing weight, or is very lethargic should also consider that something else may be wrong."

range of cough to ease " If you're unsure how to treat a cough in the meantime, or your cough doesn't seem serious but is irritating, speak to your pharmacist for advice.

Here's a list of acute and chronic coughs you might encounter: CHESTY COUGH Causes: A chesty cough is caused by excessive mucus in the chest, produced to help clear the airways. The body's natural response is to cough up the mucus and expel it from the body.

Symptoms: A heavy and tight chest, a rattling feeling within the chest, coughing up sticky mucus, and excess mucus in the airways. Treatment: If the cough is causing irritation, an expectorant cough mixture can be used to help loosen the phlegm and make it easier to cough up.

DRY TICKLY COUGH Causes: A dry cough which tickles the throat doesn't produce mucus and is usually a result of throat irritation.

Symptoms: The throat can become sore when swallowing due to inflammation in the upper airways. Treatment: A demulcent which can help by coating the throat and soothing the passage of the upper respiratory tract.

POST-VIRAL COUGH Causes: A post-viral cough is the most common symptom of an upper respiratory tract infection, such as a cold or flu. It can linger long after the cold virus has gone due to throat inflammation.

Symptoms: The throat becomes irritated and the cough is trigged by persistent sensitivity of the nerves. Treatment: Most cases aren't bacterial, so antibiotics won't help. Look for a cough syrup with one of the key active ingredients, dextromethorphan and menthol, suggests Prof Morice.

WHOOPING COUGH Causes: Symptoms usually appear around a week after infection, but this delay can last up to 21 days. Symptoms: Initial mild, cold-like symptoms that develop over weeks into severe coughing fits that end with a 'whooping' sound and bringing up thick phlegm. Babies and young children may also vomit after coughing.

Treatment: Vaccination is the key to controlling this disease, which can be very dangerous in young children. It's much less serious in older children and is rare in adults, and can be treated with antibiotics and over-the-counter remedies.

ASTHMA Causes: It's not clear exactly what causes asthma, but it's likely to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors that cause the bronchi that carry air in and out of the lungs to become more sensitive.

The body responds with an allergic-type reaction. Triggers can include allergens and irritants such as smoke and the weather.

Symptoms: Wheezing and a shortness of breath, plus a tight chest and cough.

Treatment: GPs will prescribe bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory inhaled steroids.

bronchitis Causes: An infection of the large airways and lungs, causing inflammation.

Symptoms: A hacking cough that brings up yellow-grey phlegm, and cold-like symptoms including a blocked nose, headache and tiredness.

Treatment: Prof Morice says most bronchitis symptoms can be managed at home with bed rest and lots of fluids to prevent dehydration and thin the mucus. Aches and pains can be treated with paracetamol, and over-the-counter medicines that line your throat can help.

"Antibiotics should be reserved for those with chronic chest disease since it is almost invariably a virus in normal folk," he advises.

CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD) Causes: The primary cause is smoking. The smoke scars the lungs and causes the airways to thicken and more mucus is produced.

Symptoms: Breathlessness on exercise, a persistent phlegmy cough and frequent chest infections. Treatment: Stop smoking. Become more active and eat a healthy diet to prevent infections.


Inhalers are used by asthma sufferers, above, while stopping smoking will help those with COPD

Bed rest and plenty of fluids can help those with bronchitis

There is a range of cough syrups available to ease minor symptoms

Hacked off... Coughs can be caused by colds and minor infections but can also be a sign of something more serious
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Title Annotation:Features
Publication:The Journal (Newcastle, England)
Date:Feb 25, 2016
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