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Iranian Fisheries Status: An Update (2004-2014).

Introduction

Iran is surrounded by three seas: the Caspian Sea at the north, the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman at the south. It has a long coastline exceeding 5,800 km, about 890 km in the north (Caspian Sea coast) and 4,900 km in the south (Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman coast including coastline around the islands) [1]. In addition, Iran has a great variety of marine and freshwater resources. Table 1 shows important marine and freshwater resources, and their surface area in Iran. There are differences between biological contents and climatic conditions among Iran's sea. These difference water conditions result in diversity of fish species and provides many resources for fisheries activity in Iran. The fisheries are one of the most important agriculture industries in Iran (REF). Providing human nutrition and raw material for industrial sectors, creating employment possibilities and generating high potential for export earnings.

Since 1996, fisheries production statistics have been collected every year by Iran Fisheries Organization. Marine fisheries is divided into two sectors north water (Caspian Sea) and south water fisheries (Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman coast), while for inland aquaculture, Iran is divided into thirty-one provinces.

There has been a recent increase in the fishery production of Iran. Total harvest increased from 474,500 tons in 2004 to 838,892 tons in 2012 (Table 2). In 2014, total fisheries production of Iran peaked at 947,352 tons, with 575,512 tons (60.74%) of the total production were obtained from capture fisheries [2,3]. In 2014, Iran was 20th place in world aquaculture production, 28th place in world fish capture production, and 27th in overall production [4]. After Egypt (1,481,882 tons), Iran (947,354 tons) is the biggest fish producer in the Middle East and western Asia. Turkey (536,516 tons), Oman (211,319 tons) and Yemen (190,000 tons) are other big producers [4]. The percentage contribution of aquaculture production to total harvest increased from 26.26% in 2004 to 39.26% in 2014.

Although the bulk (about 93%) of capture production (535,865 tons) was obtained from the south, 48% of the aquaculture production came from three provinces; Mazandaran (71,784 tons) and Guilan (46,802 tons) provinces in the north and Khuzestan (60,172 tons) in the southwest [2,3].

A review on the aquaculture development in Iran until 2008 was primarily published by Kalbassi et al. [5]. They mainly reported carp, rainbow trout, sturgeon and marine shrimp aquaculture status in Iran. In addition, in another study, a review on the status of fisheries in Iran was primarily published by Karimpour et al. [6]. They presented and discussed the fishery, aquaculture, importance aquaculture species and aquaculture industry in Iran between 1997 and 2008. On the other hand, no studies have been published on the status of fisheries in Iran in recent years. This review presents and discusses the notable expansion of fisheries and aquaculture in Iran between 2004 and 2014 [7].

Fishery production

Marine fishery: Over 60% of marine fishery products is from Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. The most abundant species were Eleutheronema tetradactylum (fourfinger threadfin), Otolithes ruber (tigertooth croaker), Pampus argenteus (silver pomfret), Scomberomorus commerson (narrow-barred Spanish mackerel), Scomberomorus guttatus (Indo-Pacific king mackerel), Pomadasys kaakan (javelin grunter), Epinephelus coioides (orange-spotted grouper), Thunnus tonggol (longtail tuna), Dussumieria (rainbow sardines), Coryphaena hippurus (mahi-mahi), Acanthopagrus latus (yellowfin seabream) and Cynoglossus arel (largescale tonguesole) [2,3] (Figure 1). There is no notable difference in abundant of each species caught from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman.

Regard into marine crustaceans; three shrimp species are caught in the south of Iran. Penaeus indicus (Indian white shrimp), Penaeus merguiensis (banana shrimp) and Penaeus semisulcatus (green tiger shrimp). Annual harvest in 2013 and 2014 was 8,789 and 8,567 tons shrimp were from Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, respectively [3].

Iran's marine fishery has increased steady in the last decade. It raised to 535,865 tons in 2014 from 314,165 tons in 2004. Although there are no statistics to show exact portion of fish species in Iran's marine fishery, about 50% of harvest is large pelagic species. In addition, catching of tuna and tuna-like (Auxis rochei, Auxis thazard, Euthynnus affinis, Katsuwonus palamis, Rastrelliger kanagurta, Scomber japonicas, Scomberomorus commerson, Scomberomorus guttatus, Thunnus albacares and Thunnus tonggol) species is a major component in large pelagic fisheries in Iran [2,3].

After large pelagic fish species, demersal fish species with 32-35% constitute the highest rate in the catch caught from the seas. P. kaakan, O. ruber, C. arel and P. argenteus are the most important demersal fish species [2,3].

Inland fishery: Iran has two major inland basins in the north and south and several smaller basins in center and east. Taking into account the newly described species of cyprinids and loaches, freshwater and brackish water fish of Iran exceed 200 species. Inland waters contain 163 of these species including mainly cyprinids with 87 species, balitorids with 22 species and gobiids with 10 species [8].

The main inland fishing area is the Caspian Sea the largest inland body water in the world with salinity around 12 ppt. In 2014, the total fish catch from the Caspian Sea was 39,647 tons. The most important commercial fish species in the Caspian Sea are divided into three groups; bony fish, Caspian Sea sprat and sturgeon fish species.

The most important commercial bony fish of the Caspian Sea are Rutilus frisii kutum (Caspian kutum), Liza aurata (Golden grey mullet), Liza saliens (Leaping grey mullet), Sander lucioperca (Pikeperch), Cyprinus carpio (European carp), Rutilus rutilus (Roach), species of genus Alosa (Caspian shads), Abramis brama (bream), Chalcalburnus chalcoides (Caspian shamaya) and Vimba vimba (Caspian vimba). Three species of Caspian Sea sprat live in the Caspian Sea: Clupeonella engrauliformis (Anchovy kilka), Clupeoneela grimmi (Big eyed kilka) and Clupeonella cultriventris (Common kilka). The Caspian Sea is inhabitant of five species of Sturgeon fish: Huso huso (Great sturgeon), Acipenser gueldenstaedtii (Russian sturgeon), Acipenser persicus (Persian sturgeon), Acipenser stellatus (Stellate sturgeon) and Acipenser nudiventris (Spiny sturgeon) [6]. Annual average catch of these three fish groups between 2004-2014 is given in Figure 2.

Caspian kutum, grey mullet and European carp are the most important caught fish species of fishermen in the Caspian Sea. Grey mullet is the most abundant species and contributes in 70% of the total bony fish fishery in the Caspian Sea.

Sturgeon fishery: There are 27 sturgeon species living in the seas and rivers of the Northern hemisphere [9]. The maximum sturgeon catch in the world was 32,078 tons in 1977 [10]. Iran is the biggest exporter caviar and sturgeon fish meat in the world. However, sturgeon fisheries reduced in the last two decades. For example, sturgeon fisheries from Iranian waters dropped to 41 tons in 2014 from 500 tons in 2004 [2,3]. Bronzi et al. [10] suggested that variety of reasons contributed to the sturgeon fishery decline:

* River fragmentation and channelization with subsequent changes in hydrology and hydrodynamics.

* Overharvest by legal and illegal fisheries.

* Increasing pollution, from agricultural practices, urban growth and industrial developments.

Aquaculture production

In recent years, there has been a fast increase in the aquaculture production of Iran. It contributed approximately 40% of fisheries production of Iran in 2014 (Table 3).

Aquaculture production in Iran increased about 11.5% per year from 2004 (124,560 tons, 26% of fisheries production) to 2014 (349,365 tons, 40%). This rapid increase was higher than the global average of 8% per year and resulted from production of carp species and rainbow trout (carp culture increased from 54,801 tons in 2002 to 170,341 tons in 2014). This increment was more rapid for rainbow trout. Rainbow trout culture in Iran enhanced from 16,026 tons in 2002 to maximum amount of 143,917 tons in 2013. After Chile, Iran was the biggest rainbow trout producers in the world.

Most aquaculture production in Iran is comprised of freshwater species except for marine shrimp production (about 6% of the total). However, there is also a very small cage culture industry in the south of Iran.

Iranian Fisheries Organization (IFO) divided aquacultured species into six groups 1) cyprinid species, 2) trout species, 3) sturgeon species, 4) marine shrimp species, 5) crayfish (besides it is not cultured) and 6) marine fish species. The most important aquaculture species are listed in Table 4.

Cobia (Rachycentron canadum), silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus), fourfinger threadfin (Eleutheronema tetradactylum), Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer), sobaity seabream (Sparidentex hasta), grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and rabbit fish (Siganus canaliculatus) (11-12) are produced in experimental or pilot scales.

One of the important freshwater crustacean species in Iran is the narrow clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus). It is the only freshwater crayfish species in Iran. The commercial value of exported A. leptodactylus between 2000 and 2009 varied from 1.5-2.5 million US$ annually [13]. Iranian crayfish production reached to maximum 341 tons at 2012.

Future species: The candidate species for mariculture development include groupers (Serranidae), cobia (Rachycentron canadum), silver pomferet (Pampus argenteus) and fourfinger threadfin (Eleutheronema tetradactylum) [5]. Also recently, the Caspian salmon, Salmo trutta caspius, has attracted interest for aquaculture in cages and raceways in Iran, with emphasis on using triploid populations to omit problems associated with sexual maturation, which can reduce commercial benefits of salmonid culture, especially beyond the maturation phase [5-14].

There are more than 130 species of seaweed found in the Iranian marine waters. Gracilaria spp., Sargassum spp. and Eucheuma spp. are some of the commercial seaweed species. Over the past four years several trials have been carried out on the farming of Gracilaria in ponds and the open sea and a pilot project has been initiated to develop commercial seaweed farming. Persian Gulf pearls are well-known on the international markets, however, due to over fishing, oyster stocks have been reduced dramatically. Iranian Fisheries Research Organization (IFRO) has conducted various research projects for seed production and in 2004 successfully produced seed. Access to seed production technology could lead, in the future, to pearl culture activity [5].

In addition, a recent development occurred in Iran in the culture of two sea cucumber species (Holothuria lecospliota and Holothuria scabra) and black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera).

Fish processing industry: IFO has divided fish processing industry into four sections:

* Fish canning factory.

* Fish meal factory.

* Freezer and refrigerator units in shoreline.

* Fish processing unit.

At present, there are 134 fish canning factories, 46 fish meal factories, 122 freezer and refrigerator units in shoreline and 143 fish processing units. Number and production capacity of fishery processing industry of Iran between 2004 and 2014 are presented in Table 5.

In the last decade, Iranian fishery processing industry increased in all sections except fish meal production. Although the number of fish meal factory increased the fish meal production decreased in recent years. The reason of this decrease is due to the fluctuations in Caspian Sea sprat catch. For example, fish meal production reached to the maximum in 2005 and 2006 when the Caspian Sea sprat catch reached to the maximum.

Exports

Strong infrastructure (such as access to open waters) and high volume product (marine shrimp, marine fish, carp species and rainbow trout) of Iran have caused a continuous increase in fisheries exports. Iran's exports worth and amount displayed a steady increase in the last decade. The value of aquatic products export in 2014 was more than 300 million US$. The worth of export between 2004 and 2014 is presented in Figure 3.

Caviar is one of the most valuable export products of Iran. In 2014, the price of caviar increased 94.1% in comparison to that of 2013. The price of one kg Iranian caviar reached to 1,652 US$ in 2014. In 2015, Iran exported 1,029 kg caviar to Japan, Germany, England, Italy, Belgium, the South Korea, Norway and United Arab Emirates.

Other important product is shrimp. Iran exports shrimp to 40 courtiers in the world. The worth of shrimp exported from Iran in 2014 was more than 56 million US$. Countries in the Southeast Asia, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon and United Arab Emirates are the major export markets for Iranian shrimp. Iran also exports shrimps to some European countries such as Spain, Italy, Norway and Turkey. Fisheries export amount (ton) between 2004 and 2014 is presented in Table 6.

Fish consumption in Iran

In Iran, fish consumption per person was 4.5 kg in 1997. However, fish consumption in Iran has increased from 5.2 kg in 2002 to 9.2 kg in 2014. Global per capita fish consumption has risen to above 20 kg. Although fish consumption is increasing from year to year, on the other hand, fish consumption in Iran is still behind the world average. Fish consumption per capita between 2004 and 2014 in Iran is presented in Table 7.

Fisheries and aquaculture facilities

Fish farm numbers and fish farm areas: Fish farm numbers and their areas raised very fast in recent years. For example, fish farm number increased from 4,859 in 2002 to 18,795 in 2014. Fish farm area for cyprinids increased from 25,890.6 hectares in 2004 to 50,853 hectares in 2014 (approximately 96% increment). This increment was 0.4% for rainbow trout farms. Fish farm area for rainbow trout increased from 104.6 hectares in 2004 to 225 hectares in 2014. Number and area of fish farms between 2004 and 2014 are presented in Table 8.

The number of employees in the fisheries sector: Number of employees in the fisheries sector increased as fisheries industry enlarged after 2004. For example, the number of employees in the fisheries sector increased from 144,584 persons in 2002 to 208,472 persons in 2014. Number of employees in the different parts of fisheries sector between 2004 and 2014 are presented in Figure 4. The number of fishermen in the north and south waters did not increase during last decade. In contrast, the number of fish farmers increased dramatically from 16,894 in 2004 to 68,287 in 2014 (approximately 24% increment).

Number of fishing fleets: The number of fishing fleets (boat, doha dhow, fishing ship) does not show any significant differences between 2004 and 2014. Number of fishing fleets between 2004 and 2014 is presented in Table 9.

Discussion and Conclusion

Iran has a great potential for fisheries and aquaculture production in its both freshwater and marine resources. It seems that potential for mariculture will also significantly enlarge with the completion of the cage aquaculture projects in the north and south of Iran. In addition, Although Iran has the potential to produce 900,000 tons fish in cages according to the Development Strategy Department of IFO the total production from cage aquaculture will increase up to 400,000 tons in 2025. The cage culture potential for Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman are 300,000, 150,000 and 450,000 tons respectively.

Statistics in Iran show that fishery productions between 2004 and 2014 have significantly been developed and freshwater aquaculture has achieved remarkable attention due to high demand for aquatic products because of the fact that fast growing rate of human population and increase in fish consumption of per person in Iran. Therefore, fishery sector is considered as one of the most important promising industries of Iran economy.

However, although the suitable aquatic production in Iran is about 947,352 tons this industry is still far away from the production aims of the Iranian government. There is no statistics available to see the contribution of fisheries in Gross Domestic Products (GDP) of Iran. Nevertheless, the agriculture sector is not an important part of the economy at present; the whole sector (fisheries, agriculture, poultry and animal husbandry) was estimated to contribute 13% of GDP in 2014 in the country.

The most important priorities of IFO to financially support are shrimp farming, fish culture in cages, lantern fish (myctophids) fishery and sturgeon fish farming. For example, Iranian Government has started to support fish farms financially especially for cage culture and sturgeon fish farming.

Conversely, there are difficulties in Iranian fisheries, such as shortage of experts, qualified technical stuff and lack of high technology in cage culture (i,e., importing cages, automatic feeding machinery, water quality monitoring, etc.). Despite to having high potential for doing mariculture in cages, fish cage culture has not developed well and needs future investments and supports. Furthermore, aquaculture in Iran is associated with other problems such as low stocking density large earthen ponds for shrimp farming, lack of technical knowledge among farmers, diseases especially white spot disease in shrimp culture, unsuitable feed quality especially for juvenile diets, improper feeding management, low water quality in some of aquaculture sites, low hatching and survival rate in larval production units, low quality seed production, improper brood stock production especially in shrimp aquaculture industry, financial problem, and low cultural species diversity [5]. Therefore, it can be concluded that although Iran has a good potential to improve fish production it is necessary to overcome above problems.

References

[1.] Mousavi A, Karimi J, Mohammadi AA, Vafayi F (2008) Determination the length of coast line north and south Iran. 8th International Conference of Coasts, Ports and marine structures, Ports and Shipping Organization, Tehran, Iran.

[2.] Iran Fisheries Organization (IFO) (2013) Annual Iranian Fisheries Statistics between 2002 and 2012. Fisheries Design and Program Office, Tehran, Iran pp: 64.

[3.] Iran Fisheries Organization (IFO) (2015) Annual Iranian Fisheries Statistics 2013 and 2014. Fisheries Design and Program Office, Tehran, Iran pp: 33.

[4.] FAO (2016) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2016, Contributing to food security and nutrition for all, Italy, Rome pp: 200.

[5.] Kalbassi MR, Abdollahzadeh E, Salari-Joo H (2013) A review on aquaculture development in Iran. Ecopersia 1: 159-178.

[6.] Karimpour M, Harlioglu MM, Khanipour AA, Abdolmalaki S, Aksu O (2013) Present status of fisheries in Iran. Journal of Fisheries Sciences 7: 161-177.

[7.] Kardavani P (2012) Iran Water Resources. Tehran University Press, Tehran, Iran pp: 420.

[8.] Keivany Y, Nasri M, Abbasi K, A Abdoli (2015) Atlas of inland water fishes of Iran. Iran Department of Environment Press, Tehran.

[9.] Birstein VJ, Waldman JR, Bemis WE (2006) Sturgeon biodiversity and conservation. Envir Biol of Fis 48: 13.

[10.] Bronzi P, Rosenthal H, Gessner J (2011) Global sturgeon aquaculture production: an overview. J Appl Ichthyol 27: 169-175.

[11.] Regunathan C, Kitto MR (2005) Persian Gulf fish culture in Iran-pointers for success. Aquaculture Asia 10: 40-42.

[12.] Hajirezaee S, Ajdari D, Matinfar A, Aghuzbeni SHH, Rafiee GRA (2015) preliminary study on marine culture of Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer in the coastal earthen ponds of Gwadar region, Iran: an assessment of growth parameters, feed intake efficiency and survival rate. J Appl Anim Res 43: 309-313.

[13.] Karimpour M, Harlioglu MM, Aksu O (2011) Status of freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) in Iran. Knowl Manag Aquat Ec 401: 18.

[14.] Dorafshan S, Kalbassi MR, Pourkazemi M, Amiri BM, Karimi SS (2008) Effects of triploidy on the Caspian salmon Salmo trutta caspius hematology. Fis phy and bio 34: 195-200.

Harlioglu MM (*) and Farhadi A

Department of Fisheries, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey

*Corresponding author: Harlioglu MM, Fisheries Faculty, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey, Tel: +0090 4242370000; Fax: +0090 4242386287; E-mail: mharlioglu@firat.edu.tr

Received date: February 24, 2017; Accepted date: March 17, 2017; Published date: March 23, 2017

Copyright: [c] 2017 Harlioglu MM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

DOI: 10.4172/2150-3508.1000192
Table 1: Important marine and freshwater resources of Iran and their
surface area.

Seas and Lakes           Dam Lakes       Rivers

Caspian sea (370,987)    Aras (145)      Helmand (1,150)
Gulf of Oman (903,000)   Shahyun (65)    Hari (1,100)
Persian Gulf (251,000)   Amir Kabir      Aras (1,072)
Urmia (5,200)            Latyan          Karun (950)
Hamoun (3,820)           Sivand (11)     Karkheh (900)
Bakhtegan (3,500)        Mulla Sadra     Sefid Rud (670)
Namak (647)              Upper Gotvand   Zayanderud (400)
Maharloo (600)           Golpayegan      Zarrineh (302)

Table 2: Aquaculture and capture fisheries productions (tons/year)
obtained from seas and freshwaters in Iran between 2004 and 2014 [2,3].

Years  Aquaculture                                    Capture fisheries

       Fresh water   Sea    Fresh water  % Ratio of   Fresh  Sea
                            + sea        aquaculture  water
                                         in total
                                         production

2004   115657        8903  124560          26.26      35775  314165
2005   130603        3577  134180          25.68      44887  343492
2006   148974        5700  154678          26.88      46435  374447
2007   191169        2508  193677          34.44      39174  329571
2008   179275        4372  183647          32.65      36967  341980
2009   202225        5128  207353          34.58      44279  348122
2010   245015        6359  251374          37.88      43805  368505
2011   277325        8026  285351          38.82      37831  411897
2012   328725       10152  338877          40.4       40314  459701
2013   358178       12698  370876          41.91      40423  473658
2014   349365       22475  371840          39.26      39647  535865

Years                                    Aquaculture +
                                         Capture fisheries
        Fresh water  % Ratio of          Total production
        + sea        capture fisheries
                     in total
                     production

2004    349940       73.74               474500
2005    388379       74.32               522559
2006    420882       73.12               575560
2007    368745       65.56               562422
2008    378947       67.35               562594
2009    392401       65.42               599754
2010    412310       62.12               663684
2011    449729       61.18               735079
2012    500015       59.6                838892
2013    514081       58.09               884957
2014    575512       60.74               947352

Table 3: Name and quantity (tons) of important aquacultured and
ornamental fish (million) products between 2004 and 2014 [2,3].

                 2004    2005    2006    2007    2008    2009    2010

Common          65400   73396   77463   97262   87748  100430  121608
carp
Rainbow         30000   34760   46275   58761   62630   73642   91519
trout
Sturgeon            -       -       -       -       -     363     251
Marine           8903    3577    5700    2508    4372    5128    6359
shrimp
Narrow-clawed      27     268     270     258     275     287     298
crayfish
Harvesting      20230   22179   24970   34888   28622   27503   31339
from natural
water
resources
Marine fish         -       -       -       -       -       -       -
in cage
Total          124560  134180  154678  193677  183647  207353  251374
Ornamental         30      31      35      54      79      93     107
fish

                   2011    2012    2013    2014

Common           132177  154565  167883  170341
carp
Rainbow          106409  131000  143917  126515
trout
Sturgeon            312     456     564     650
Marine             8026   10152   12698   22475
shrimp
Narrow-clawed       338     341     263      70
crayfish
Harvesting        38089   42363   45551   51666
from natural
water
resources
Marine fish           -       -       -     123
in cage
Total            285351  338877  370876  371840
Ornamental          132     148     186     204
fish

Table 4: Important aquaculture species in Iran.

No   Group of species   Species

1    Cyprinid           Cyprinus carpio, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix,
                        Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Ctenopharyngodon
                        idella
2    Trout              Oncorhynchus mykiss
3    Sturgeon           Huso huso, Acipenser baerii, Acipenser
                        persicus, Acipenser ruthenus, Acipenser
                        stellatus
4    Marine shrimp      Litopenaeus vannamei, Penaeus merguensis,
                        Penaeus monodon, Fenneropenaeus indicus,
                        Penaeus semisulcatus
5    Crayfish           Astacus leptodactylus
6    Marine fish        Lates calcarifer, Acanthopagrus latus,
                        Sparidentex hasta, Sparus aurata

Table 5: Number (up lines) and production capacity (down lines) of
fishery processing industry in Iran between 2004 and 2014 [2,3].

                                2004     2005  2006  2007  2008  2009

Fish canning factory             113      118   127   134   134   134
                                 458.95   491   543   569   569   569
Fish meal factory                 38       44    44    36    36    36
                                 960     1100  1100   910   921   921
Freezer and refrigerator         133      126   109   112   113   113
unit
                                  86.9    101    91    96   116   126
Fish processing unit             116      119   125   125   129   132
                                1891     1940  2038  2038  2067  2135

                                2010  2011  2012  2013  2014

Fish canning factory             134   134   134   134   134
                                 569   569   569   569   569
Fish meal factory                 46    46    46    46    46
                                 921   921   921   921   921
Freezer and refrigerator         114   114   120   120   122
unit
                                 126   126   151   151   159
Fish processing unit             135   135   142   142   143
                                2179  2179  2255  2255  2266

Table 6: Amount of fisheries export (ton) from Iran between 2004 and
2014 [2,3].

                   2004      2005    2006       2007    2008     2009

Caviar               38.4      9.1      9.98      6.6      2.3      0.4
Shrimp             7681     1918.7   2986      2289.1   1346.2   3801.1
Fish and other    12610    14856    27312     31102    23028    29633
aquatic animals
Total             20329    16784    30308     33398    24376    33435

                   2010      2011    2012       2013    2014

Caviar                4      0.3      0.4      1.2      0.8
Shrimp             2602   4141     4904    11585    11610
Fish and other    41894  52673    59096    60219    60182
aquatic animals
Total             44500  56814    64000    71805    71793

Table 7: Fish consumption (kg per capita) between 2004 and 2014 in Iran
[2,3].

                   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011

Fish consumption   6.7    7.03   7.7    7.35   7.32   7.51   8.5    9.1

                      2012   2013   2014

Fish consumption      10.2   8.5    9.2

Table 8: Number (up) and area (hectare) of fish farms (down) in Iran
between 2004 and 2014 [2,3].

                   2004    2005     2006    2007    2008    2009    2010

Cyprinid           6084    6319     6863    7261    7923    8362   10527
                  25891   28332  29836.7   33793   31892   34504   40261
Rainbow trout       662     698      750    1200    1085    1180    1387
                  104.6     132    111.4   162.6     157     169     230
Harvesting from     220     240      356     307     283     351     332
natural water
resources
                 450000  848500   570183  545287  455709  499117  496579
Shrimp              310     298      189     208     219     145     214
                   4272    3641   2625.7    1207    2481    2148    2873
Total              7276    7555     8158    8976    9510   10038   12460
                 480267  880605   602756  580449  490239  535938  539943

                   2011    2012    2013    2014

Cyprinid          11968   14295   14615   16254
                  43722   46587   48697   50853
Rainbow trout      1607    1907    1923    1595
                  236.5     258     230     225
Harvesting from     296     367     412     428
natural water
resources
                 485259  555515  562227  746096
Shrimp              209     320     313     518
                   3220    4427    4779    7053
Total             14080   16889   17285   18795
                 532437  606787  615933  804227

Table 9: Number of fishing fleets in Iran between 2004 and 2014 [2,3].

                      2004    2005    2006    2007    2008    2009

Caspian     Boat       582     713    1007     980     980     890
Sea
            Doha       152     145     146     135     115      81
            Dhow
            fishing      -       -       -       -       -       -
            Ship
            Total      734     858   1,153   1,115   1,095     971
Persian     Boat     7,496   7,563   7,663   7,847   7,970   7,932
Gulf and
Gulf of
Oman
            Doha     3,210   3,250   3,257   2,999   3,033   3,066
            Dhow
            Fishing    77      78      47      45      44      47
            Ship
            Total    10,783  10,891  10,967  10,891  11,047  11,045

                        2010    2011    2012    2013    2014

Caspian     Boat         827     811     804     865     825
Sea
            Doha          73      73      73      73      73
            Dhow
            fishing        -       -       -       -       -
            Ship
            Total        900     884     877     938     898
Persian     Boat       7,855   7,689   7,520   7,423   7,385
Gulf and
Gulf of
Oman
            Doha       3,087   3,090   3,135   3,151   3,165
            Dhow
            Fishing      51      54      54      51      50
            Ship
            Total      10,993  10,833  10,709  10,625  10,600
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Harlioglu, M.M.; Farhadi, A.
Publication:Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jan 1, 2017
Words:4411
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