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Iphimeis dives (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): first report on Inga edulis (Fabaceae) in Brazil and data on its biology.

Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae) is a fruit plant found in secondary tropical forests in Central and South America (Silva et al. 2007a). Compounds from its leaves can be used to manufacture anti-inflammatory medicines (Silva et al. 2007b), and its fruits are rich sources of vitamins and antioxidants (da Silva & Rogez 2013). In addition, Inga species are used in landscaping projects, degraded area recovery, and in agroforestry systems (dos Santos Junior et al. 2006; Leblanc et al. 2006; de Araujo & Pires 2009). Insect pests such as Methona themisto Hubner [Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), reported in Vigosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, can reduce the productivity and aesthetics of I. edulis plants (Tavareset al. 2013).

Iphimeis dives Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae and adults feed on numerous plants, including Acacia decurrens Willd., Glycine max (L.) Merr., Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (all Fabaceae), Actinidia deliciosa C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson (Actinidiaceae), Campomanesiaxanthocarpa (Mart.) O. Berg, Plinia cauliflora (Mart.) Kausel (both Myrtaceae), Chorisia sp. (Bombacaceae), Citrus x limon, Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus x sinensis (all Rutaceae), Coffea arabica L. (Rubiaceae), Diospyros kaki L.f. (Ebenaceae), Jatrophacurcas L. (Euphorbiaceae), Malus pumila Miller, Prunus persica (I.) Batsch, Pyrus communis L., Rosa sp. (all Rosaceae), Solanum melongena L. (Solanaceae), and young leaves of Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) (Mariconi 1962; Basso et al. 1974; de Oliveira et al. 2011; Wiest & Barreto 2012; Milleo et al. 2013; Alves et al. 2016; Luckmann et al. 2016). The objectives are to report a new host plant record for I. dives in Brazil, and to provide data on the egg mass characteristics of this insect.

The I. dives occurrence was monitored on 10 I. edulis adult plants in Nov 2013 and Nov 2014 by visual observation in landscaped areas in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (21.2333[degrees]S, 44.9833[degrees]W, 919 masl). The rainfall and the average temperature in Lavras in Nov 2013 and Nov 2014, the months with the highest populations of the pest, were 180 and 224 mm, and 22.6 and 23.6 [degrees]C, respectively (INMET 2017).

A total of 50 I. dives adults, without sex determination, were collected in Nov 2013 and another 50 in Nov 2014, placed in 250 mL plastic pots and brought to the Regional Museum of Entomology "Ubirajara Martins" of the Federal University of Lavras in Lavras, where the sex of the insects was determined. Five males and 5 females were mounted and sent to Dr. Germano Henrique Rosado Neto, of the Department of Zoology of the Federal University of Parana in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil, for species identification. The characteristics of the I. dives antennae and legs (Mariconi 1962) were compared with dichotomous insect keys for this genus and with others of the same species deposited at the Federal University of Parana entomological collection. These specimens were preserved as sample number 0092I2013-RN. Inga edulis branches with flowers and fruits were collected and sent to Dr. Rubens Manoel dos Santos, of the Department of Forest Sciences of the Federal University of Parana for plant species identification.

Five pairs of young I. dives collected from I. edulis in Nov 2014 were placed individually in 500 mL plastic pots at 25 [+ or -] 2 [degrees]C, 70 [+ or -] 1% RH, and 12:12 h (L:D) photoperiod at 2,000 lux. Fresh I. edulis leaves, with the petiole immersed in a container with water, were offered ad libitum to the insects and changed when necessary. The proportion of beetles which females oviposited, number of eggs per mass ([+ or -] SE), and the period (d) between the first and last egg deposited per pair of I. dives were evaluated.

Hundreds of adult I. dives were observed feeding on leaves of 10 I. edulis plants that were about 5 yr old in Nov 2013 and 6 yr old in Nov 2014 (Fig. 1A). Insects fed from the edge to the center of the leaf (Fig. 1B). Iphimeis dives pairs were observed mating on I. edulis plants, but neither eggs nor larvae were observed on the plants after visual examination (Fig. 1C).

All I. dives pairs collected in Nov 2014 oviposited in the laboratory. The number of eggs per mass was 69.2 [+ or -] 10.6. The first egg was deposited 1 d after the insects were brought from the field, and the last 14 d later, with an average duration of 2.6 [+ or -] 1.1 d for each act of oviposition. Eggs were orange and oval (Fig. 1D).

TheI, dives abundance in Nov 2013 and Nov 2014 in Lavras coincided with the beginning of the rainy season in this municipality (Beijo et al. 2005) and may affect I. edulis phenology. The rainy season favors emergence of new leaves by this plant (Milleo et al. 2013), which are preferred by I. dives for feeding. The high number of I. dives in Nov in Lavras at the beginning of the rainy season agrees with the report for this insect from Oct to Dec 2004 and Oct to Dec 2005 in an orchard area in Ponta Grossa, Parana State, Brazil (Milleo et al. 2013). Iphimeis dives was reported on C xanthocarpa in Oct 2011 in DoisVizinhos, Parana State, Brazil (Luckmann et al. 2016). In Sep and Oct 2014, I. dives was reported on P. vulgaris in Assis Chateaubriand and Palotina, Parana State, Brazil (Alves et al. 2016). Reports of I. dives in Parana State from Sep to Dec coincided with the period of highest rainfall in this state (Waltrick et al. 2015) similar to that of its occurrence in Lavras in 2013 and 2014. Ingaedulis should be included in the list of suitable I. dives host plants.


The authors thank Dr. Jose Carlos Martins, of the Federal University of Lavras for collecting and preparing samples of Ingaedulis used in the identification of this plant; "Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq)"; "Coordenagao de Aperfeigoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES)"; "Fundagao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG)"; and "Programa Cooperativo sobre Protegio Florestal (PROTEF)" of the "Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais (IPEF)" for financial support.


Iphimeis dives Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was recorded feeding on young and mature leaves of Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae) plants in the urban area of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in Nov 2013 and Nov 2014 at the beginning of the rainy season. Iphimeis dives males and females were brought to the laboratory for species identification, and fecundity characteristics (the proportion of females laying eggs, number of eggs per mass, and the period of time required for an act of oviposition) were determined. Inga edulis is added to the host plant list for I. dives. Each female of this species deposited 69.2 [+ or -] 10.6 eggs in a single mass in 2.6 [+ or -] 1.1 d ([+ or -] SE).

Key words: Eumolpinae; insect pest; legume; Mimosoideae; urban landscaping


Adultos de Iphimeis dives Germar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) foram registrados alimentando-se de folhas jovens e maduras de plantas adultas de Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae) na area urbana de Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil em novembro de 2013 e novembro de 2014 no inicio da estagao chuvosa. Machos e femeas de I. dives foram trazidos ao laboratorio para identificagao da especie e as caracteristicas de fecundidade (numero de ovos depositados, de massas de ovos e de ovos por massa e o periodo de oviposigao) foram determinados. Inga edulis e adicionada a lista de plantas hospedeiras para I. dives. Cada femea desta especie depositou 69,2 [+ or -] 10,6 ovos em urna massa unica em 2,6 [+ or -]1,1 dias ([+ or -]EP).

Palavras Chave: Eumolpinae, inseto-praga, leguminosa, Mimosoideae, paisagismo urbano

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Claubert Wagner Guimaraes de Menezes (1), Geraldo Andrade Carvalho (2), Marcus Alvarenga Soares (3), Deyvisson Rodrigues Pinto (1), Wiane Meloni Silva (4), Wagner de Souza Tavares (5,*), and Jose Cola Zanuncio (6)

(1) Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias, Instituto Federal do Norte de Minas Gerais, 39480-000, Januaria, Minas Gerais, Brazil; E-mails: (C. W. G. de M.); (D. R. P.)

(2) Departamento de Entomologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, 37200-000, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil; E-mail: (G. A. C.)

(3) Departamento de Agronomia, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, 39100-000, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil; E-mail: (M. A. S.)

(4) Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, 36570-900, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil; E-mail: (W. M. S.)

(5) Asia Pacific Resources International Holdings Limited (APRIL), Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper (RAPP), Pangkalan Kerinci, 28300, Riau, Indonesia; E-mail: (W. de S. T.)

(6) Departamento de Entomologia/BIOAGRO, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, 36570-900, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil; E-mail: zanuncio(S) (J. C. Z.) Corresponding author; E-mail:

Caption: Fig. 1. Iphimeis dives (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and its damage on Inga edulis (Fabaceae) (A, B), mating (C), and eggs (D).

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Author:de Menezes, Claubert Wagner Guimaraes; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Pinto, D
Publication:Florida Entomologist
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3BRAZ
Date:Jun 1, 2018
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