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Investigative services.

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The units described in this section have a primary mission of supporting FBI investigations. Most of the units analyze evidence obtained from crime scenes and major incidents, including plane crashes and natural disasters. Other units support FBI casework by providing photographic services or creating models and exhibits that can be used to conduct an investigation, support courtroom testimony, or plan an event. Some of the units maintain databases that help the FBI and other law enforcement agencies solve crimes, identify missing persons, and exonerate the innocent.

Chemical-Biological Sciences Unit

The Chemical-Biological Sciences Unit (CBSU) was created to enhance the FBI's ability to conduct and direct forensic analyses of hazardous chemical, biological, and radiological evidentiary materials resulting from terrorist acts involving the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Critical to the success of this mission are the development and validation of methods to analyze threat agents and establish a thoroughly vetted supporting laboratory network that provides a wide range of analytical capability and expertise.

CBSU's Biology, Chemistry, and Nuclear Programs have developed analytical methods that identify and characterize biological pathogens and toxins, hazardous chemicals, and radiological and nuclear materials. CBSU's research and development efforts focus on the validation of existing pathogen identification assays, the development and evaluation of novel molecular and genetic methods for characterizing biological agents, and the identification of trace compounds in evidentiary samples.

CBSU has formalized partnerships with a variety of government, academic, and private laboratories to conduct very specific examinations of FBI evidence. These partner agencies include:

* Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California.

* Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

* The Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, Maryland.

* The Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina.

* The U.S. Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick Air Force Base, Florida.

* The U.S. Army's Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

* The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland.

* The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Riverdale, Maryland.

* The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service, Office of Public Health Science, Eastern, Midwestern, and Western Laboratories.

* The U.S. Department of Homeland Security's National Bioforensic Analysis Center, Fort Detrick, Maryland.

* The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Enforcement Investigations Center, Lakewood, Colorado.

* The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Forensic Chemistry Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

CBSU also has developed a Hazardous Evidence Analysis Team (HEAT), a group of experienced FBI Laboratory examiners and technicians who receive advanced training to work with hazardous evidence (chemical, biological, and radiological evidentiary materials too hazardous to be handled at the FBI Laboratory in Quantico). The HEAT has more than 60 active members from 12 separate units within the FBI Laboratory, including CBSU, the Chemistry Unit, both DNA Analysis Units, the Explosives Unit, the Firearms-Toolmarks Unit, the Hazardous Materials Response Unit, both Latent Print Units, the Photographic Operations and Imaging Services Unit, the Questioned Documents Unit, and the Trace Evidence Unit.

Examinations of hazardous evidence are conducted at FBI partner laboratories. The HEAT has designated laboratory space at the Savannah River National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to work with radioactive evidence. Infectious or biologically contaminated evidence analysis is conducted at the National Bioforensic Analysis Center. Chemical weapons analysis is conducted at the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center.

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CBSU continues to coordinate with the FBI's partner laboratories to secure additional laboratory facilities to use for the forensic analysis of WMD materials. In November 2006 the FBI Laboratory and the Savannah River National Laboratory held a ribbon-cutting ceremony for the Radiological Evidence Analysis Laboratory Suite (REALS). The suite provides forensic laboratory space where radiologically contaminated items can be examined by the HEAT. The preparation and deployment of dedicated space at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory also has been completed.

Construction has begun on the Sample Receipt Facility at the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center. The facility--which is funded jointly by the Department of Homeland Security, the Army, and the FBI--will provide facilities for the safe handling of chemical and biological weapons materials, forensic examination of contaminated evidence, and analysis of chemical weapons compounds. Completion is scheduled for summer 2008.

In 2006 CBSU's Chemistry Program developed and validated an analytical method for the attribution of spore-related material. A novel procedure was created using state-of-the-art instrumentation and appropriate recommendations from the Scientific Working Group on the Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT). Evidentiary material was analyzed by CBSU personnel in direct support of the FBI's investigation into the 2001 anthrax mailings.

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Personnel in the Biology Program oversaw the forensic analysis in several FBI cases involving the extraction of the toxin ricin from castor beans. Samples were sent to partner laboratories to characterize the ricin present in the samples. In support of the FBI's anthrax investigation, the Biology Program continued to develop and validate a number of molecular assays designed to detect specific differences within the DNA of anthrax that could be used as a comparison to other collected samples. These assays were then applied to evidentiary samples, which have provided useful information to field investigators in their quest to find the source of the material.

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CBSU's Nuclear Program coordinated the forensic analysis of radiological evidence in several FBI cases, which included collaboration with international law enforcement agencies. The partnerships CBSU establishes with other agencies have a far-reaching effect in the communities they serve. As the FBI and its partner agencies increase their knowledge of hazardous materials, these substances pose less of a threat to the world around us.

Chemistry Unit

The Chemistry Unit may be one of the most diverse units in the FBI Laboratory. The unit is composed of five subunits: the General Chemistry Subunit, the Paints and Polymers Subunit, the Toxicology Subunit, the Metallurgy Subunit, and the Instrument Operation and Support Subunit. Each subunit is staffed with personnel who have specialized, formal education and training. The staff examines a wide array of substances, including writing inks, lubricants, self-defense sprays, paint, adhesives, tapes, dyes from bank security devices, drugs and poisons in biological specimens, metals for elemental composition, and structural materials for failure analysis. The unit also identifies unknown substances and conducts investigations involving commercial product tampering. The unit maintains approximately $6 million worth of analytical instrumentation in order to offer these vast services to its customers. The diversity of the Chemistry Unit is reflected in the variety of cases worked in 2006.

Caribbean Cartel

A long-running investigation of a Caribbean-based drug-trafficking organization resulted in the arrest of several individuals in the Washington, D.C., area over the past few years. Various items of evidence seized from the subjects were submitted to the Laboratory for analysis. In response to a series of submissions made during the period 2004-2005, the Chemistry Unit examined numerous items (including digital scales, coffee grinders, microwave ovens, and trash) for the presence of drug residues. Testimony regarding the identification of cocaine and heroin residues on the seized items was presented at trial in district court in Washington, D.C., in March 2006. The defendants in the case were found guilty and sentenced to life in prison.

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Murder in Baton Rouge

Michelle Sparks, 17, disappeared from her Erwinville, Louisiana, home on October 22, 2004, while doing chores. The local FBI field office helped West Baton Rouge Parish sheriff's deputies search for the teen. Her body was found two weeks later in a nearby canal, wrapped in carpet and badly decomposed. The cause of death was blunt-force trauma to the head. An anthropologist at Louisiana State University recovered black material from fractured areas of the victim's skull. This black material was submitted to the Laboratory's Chemistry Unit for examination, along with paint from the suspected murder weapon--the head of a shovel. The black material was examined and identified as paint. It was also visually and chemically consistent with paint from the head of the shovel submitted for comparison. In March 2006 a Chemistry Unit forensic examiner testified to these results in the subject's murder trial. The subject was convicted of second-degree murder with the mandatory penalty of life without the possibility of parole, probation, or suspended sentence.

Mivacurium Murders

In February 2001 several unexplained deaths occurred at Nocona Regional Hospital in Nocona, Texas. In that same time frame the hospital noticed that several vials of mivacurium chloride, a strong paralytic drug, were missing. The local FBI field office immediately assisted in this investigation, and a suspect was developed. The Chemistry Unit was contacted to aid in the mivacurium analysis. At the time the Laboratory did not have a method to analyze this drug or its metabolites.

The Chemistry Unit quickly developed and validated a method for mivacurium analysis. Initial work on the evidence was directed toward identifying residues of the drug in syringes, intravenous tubing, and empty vials. When this evidence was found to be positive for the drug, the task turned toward the analysis of 10 exhumed bodies submitted in the investigation. When traces of mivacurium were identified in all 10 bodies, the deaths were reclassified from natural causes to homicide. A nurse suspected of injecting the victims with mivacurium eventually pleaded guilty to the charges. In October 2006 she was sentenced to life in prison.

Carjacking Case

In May 2006 an attorney in Birmingham, Alabama, reported that she had been kidnapped, forced to withdraw funds from her bank account, and then taken to a crack house by the suspect so that he could buy crack cocaine. She further reported that she had been bound and raped while at the crack house. The victim also said that the suspect had blown crack cocaine smoke in her face at least five times to force her to inhale the drug. The suspect in turn claimed that the sexual contact was consensual and that he and the attorney had smoked crack cocaine together on several occasions prior to the incident in question. The Chemistry Unit was asked to analyze hair from the victim to determine if she was a habitual drug user, as suggested by the suspect.

The FBI Laboratory continues to strive to improve its analytical methods. Even though the Chemistry Unit has analyzed samples for cocaine for almost two decades, the unit viewed this request as an opportunity to improve its method in order to find even lower amounts of cocaine in hair than it previously had been able to find. After a thorough validation of the improved method, the Chemistry Unit tested the victim's hair sample. The results indicated that the attorney did not have a history of long-term cocaine use. Because of these findings, the suspect was federally charged and found guilty on three counts, including carjacking and possession of a deadly weapon while committing a felony.

Phoenix Metals U.S.A. II

As the price of gold and other precious metals increases, a dramatic increase typically occurs in the number of fraudulent schemes developed to defraud investors. Accordingly, the FBI has been increasingly focused on these types of crimes.

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In one such case, a shell company doing business as Phoenix Metals U.S.A. II began offering investors the opportunity to invest in a proprietary process the company claimed could economically extract precious metals from volcanic ash. The company set up a sham mining operation at an extinct volcanic site in the Nevada desert and began to convince people to invest in its schemes. Investors were further convinced after being shown metal bars reputed to be dore metal. Commonly obtained as a by-product of copper refining, dore is a mixture of silver, gold, and other precious metals. Ultimately, those misled into investing in the project lost millions of dollars.

The FBI Laboratory was asked to assist in this investigation and a number of other related precious-metal scams. Alleged dore bars were provided for analysis of their precious-metal content. The Chemistry Unit analyzed the bars and determined that they contained only trivial amounts of silver with little to no other precious-metal content. Interestingly, the analysis showed that the base-metal content of copper and iron in the bars exceeded the value of any precious metals present. Similarly, it was established through an independent expert that volcanic ash does not contain economically useful levels of precious metals.

The principal subject of the investigation was convicted in a federal trial in Las Vegas in May 2006 and is now serving a lengthy prison term. In addition, the government seized assets from the company worth more than $5.5 million.

Flash Act

In the course of an investigation in the New York area, the FBI excavated the concrete foundation of a Brooklyn parking garage. The remains of an individual were found buried under the garage floor. The individual was believed to be Israel Greenwald, a jeweler who had been reported missing two decades earlier. The excavation also revealed a number of small corroded lumps of metal. At the request of investigators, these items were forwarded to the Laboratory for identification.

The Chemistry Unit analyzed the metallic lumps to reveal that they were the remains of a wristwatch, pocket change, and a New York City subway token. Restoration of the subway token determined that it was a type last accepted by the New York City subway system on January 1, 1986. The brand and manufacturer of the watch were also established at the investigator's request.

In April 2006 two retired New York City police detectives were convicted in a federal trial on numerous charges stemming from the investigation, which determined that the detectives were working for a New York organized crime family.

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Combined DNA Index System Unit

In September 2006 Timothy William Brown, an inmate at the Corcoran State Prison in San Jose, California, was literally hours away from being paroled when DNA testing linked him to the 1979 rape and murder of Virginia Correa. Twenty-seven years after Correa's murder, her family may finally have closure on this case, thanks to the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS).

The FBI Laboratory's CODIS Unit directs both the CODIS Program and the National DNA Index System (NDIS). The CODIS Program allows forensic DNA laboratories to store, maintain, and search DNA profiles from crime scenes, offenders, and missing persons. The CODIS Unit provides to partner agencies the CODIS software as well as enhancements, support, training, help-desk services, and a yearly national meeting for all CODIS administrators. International law enforcement laboratories also may receive CODIS software to help them establish a DNA database program. Forty law enforcement laboratories in 26 countries now have the CODIS software.

CODIS's three-tiered hierarchy of databases includes the NDIS, which is the highest, followed by the State DNA Index System (SDIS) and the Local DNA Index System (LDIS). There are currently 178 NDIS-participating sites consisting of 126 local laboratories and 52 state laboratories, including the FBI Laboratory and the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory. The NDIS contains DNA profiles contributed by participating federal, state, and local forensic DNA laboratories and currently contains more than 4 million profiles of offenders, crime scenes, and missing persons.

The success of CODIS depends on maintaining a database of a state's convicted offender profiles and using it to solve crimes for which there are no suspects. Today all 50 states have laws requiring that offenders convicted of sexual offenses and other violent crimes provide DNA samples. These DNA samples are analyzed and entered into the state and national DNA databases.

CODIS uses several indexes to generate investigative leads in cases where biological evidence is recovered from the crime scene. The Offender Index contains profiles of individuals convicted of felony offenses and other crimes and also includes profiles of arrested persons if state law permits such collection. The Forensic Index contains DNA profiles developed from crime scene evidence, such as semen stains and blood. There are also three missing-person-related indexes. The Relatives of Missing Persons Index contains DNA samples voluntarily contributed from the relatives of missing persons and is searched against the Unidentified Human Remains Index and the Missing Persons Index.

When a DNA profile of a suspect is developed from crime scene evidence, the laboratory searches the DNA profile against the Forensic and Offender Indexes. If a match occurs in the Offender Index, the laboratory will confirm the sample and release the identity of the suspected perpetrator. If a match occurs in the Forensic Index, the laboratory has linked two or more crimes, and the law enforcement agencies involved in the cases can pool investigative information and resources. The chart below depicts how the CODIS system works.

CODIS Facts

* CODIS began as a pilot project in 1990.

* The DNA Identification Act of 1994 formalized the FBI's authority to establish a national DNA index for law enforcement.

* NDIS became operational in October 1998.

* The CODIS database originally was used to collect only the DNA of convicted sex offenders.

* The primary purpose of CODIS is to help solve crimes in which there are no suspects.

* CODIS contains only information necessary for making matches; it does not contain any personal identifying information--including names, dates of birth, Social Security numbers, criminal history, or case-related information.

* A CODIS profile consists of a specimen identifier, an identifier for the laboratory responsible for the profile, a DNA personnel identifier associated with the analysis, and the actual DNA characteristics (DNA profile).

* Only noncoding regions of a person's DNA are used to develop a profile because those regions give absolutely no genetic information about race, medical history, or predisposition to disease.

* A "hit" is a match that provides law enforcement with an investigative lead that would not otherwise have been developed.

* CODIS is designed so that forensic laboratories have control over their own data.

* State law governs which specific crimes are eligible for CODIS.

* All 50 states have passed DNA legislation authorizing the collection of a DNA profile from convicted offenders for submission to CODIS.

* Identical twins have the same DNA profile.

* DNA is present in white blood cells, not red blood cells, which lack nuclei.

* Saliva itself does not contain DNA, but cells that line the inner cheek and contain DNA are almost always found in saliva.

Cryptanalysis and Racketeering Records Unit

A drug dealer codes the list of his best customers; a member of a terrorist cell hoping to strike in the United States sends an encrypted e-mail to his cohorts; a prison inmate sends a coded message to his brother on the outside, confessing to a crime. All of these possible scenarios involve the work of the Laboratory's Cryptanalysis and Racketeering Records Unit (CRRU). The CRRU supports all FBI investigative programs by examining manually encrypted records and communications from a variety of sources. The case described below illustrates some of the unit's work.

400-Year-Old Cipher Used to Send Murder Hit

On August 26, 1997, an innocent-looking letter announcing the birth of a grandson was mailed from the Federal Bureau of Prisons Supermax facility in Florence, Colorado, to an address in California. However, the writer of the letter was not a new grandpa, and the letter was anything but innocent. The letter was written by a senior member of the Aryan Brotherhood (AB) prison gang, and secretly imbedded within the characters of the letter was an AB declaration of war against black inmates throughout the federal prison system. Shortly after the letter was sent, AB operatives in a federal prison in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, executed a carefully coordinated, simultaneous attack on black inmates, killing two and severely wounding four.

Eight years after the Lewisburg murders, 40 members of the Aryan Brotherhood were caught up in a sweeping federal Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) indictment in California. The 1997 letter containing the enciphered declaration of war was recognized as a key piece of evidence and submitted to the CRRU for analysis and decryption.

In May 2006 a cryptanalyst/forensic examiner from the CRRU explained the complex encipherment process to a federal jury in Southern California. The message was enciphered using a double encryption method developed by Sir Francis Bacon (1562-1626). The Baconian cipher was designed as a method of concealing a secret message within a larger body of text referred to as "covertext." The first step of the encipherment involved replacing each character of the secret message with a unique string of "A" and "B" values from the chart below. For example, to encipher the word "BACON," each character is replaced with five A's and B's as follows:

"Plaintext": B A C O N

"Ciphertext": BABBB BBABB BBBAA AAABB ABAAA

In the second step, the string of A and B values is matched to each letter of the covertext and is used to determine the style of writing used for each letter. Covertext characters assigned an A value will appear in one style, and the covertext characters assigned a B value appear in a different style. In the submitted document, plaintext was recovered by assigning an A to covertext letters appearing as Roman type and assigning a B to the covertext letters appearing as italicized or cursive writing.

The ciphertext string of A and B values was then parsed into groups of five and deciphered as follows:

The complete message was a confirmation of an order to coordinate the murder of black inmates from the District of Columbia:

CONFIRM MESSAGE FROM CHRIS TO MOVE ON DC

The CRRU decryption was a key piece of evidence linking the Aryan Brotherhood leadership in Colorado with the murders in Pennsylvania, and the jury found the four defendants guilty on multiple charges of murder, extortion, and racketeering.

DNA Analysis Unit I

The DNA Analysis Unit I (DNAUI) performs serological and nuclear DNA analyses on biological evidence collected from crime scenes. Serological analysis involves examining evidence for the presence of biological materials such as blood and semen. Nuclear DNA analysis involves further characterizing biological material through DNA typing in an effort to determine if a particular individual is or is not the source of the DNA present within a biological material. Nuclear DNA analysis is also performed on evidentiary materials that may not require serological testing, such as cigarette butts, cans, bottles, and envelopes.

DNAUI also maintains the Federal Convicted Offender (FCO) Program. The FCO Program oversees the collection and processing of samples from any individual convicted of a federal felony. The DNA-typing results from these samples are entered and uploaded into the National DNA Index System (NDIS) for nationwide database searches. The FCO Program began in mid-2001. During the first four years of its existence, the FCO Program received approximately 100,000 samples. New legislation passed by Congress in November 2004 increased the number of samples received the following year by an additional 100,000, bringing the total to more than 200,000. The FCO Program is currently using robotics and automation to process the high volume of samples required by the new legislation.

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DNAUI personnel often provide training on the science behind serology and nuclear DNA analysis as well as on the collection and preservation of evidence to be submitted for serological and nuclear DNA examinations. Other instruction given involves the quality assurance measures required for laboratories that perform DNA analysis. More than 2700 court officials and law enforcement and forensic laboratory personnel were trained by DNAUI personnel in 2006 through separate in-services, schools, seminars, and conferences.

Several DNAUI personnel are also involved in the administration of two of the scientific working groups: the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) and the Scientific Working Group on Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (SWGSTAIN). DNAUI personnel serve as chair, vice chair, or members of various committees of the two working groups, where technical information and potential improvements to the disciplines are discussed among experts in the related fields.

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Homicide, Assault, and Arson in the Virgin Islands

Renell Lettsom was charged with homicide, assault, and arson in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. The victims in this case were a father, David Geiger, and his son, Nathan, who was 14. David died as a result of a brutal assault. Nathan survived his injuries; however, he now suffers from memory loss and seizures as a result of the incident. Nuclear DNA testing was performed on blood evidence recovered from the Geiger household, as well as from the mouth area of a water jug found at the scene. Nuclear DNA profiles developed from both sets of evidence samples matched the DNA profile from the suspect charged with the offense. In August 2006 the defendant was convicted of all charges and sentenced to life in prison without parole.

DNA Analysis Unit II

The FBI Laboratory's DNA Analysis Unit II (DNAUII) examines a different type of DNA than the DNAUI. While the DNAUI examines nuclear DNA, the DNAUII examines mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from the mother, and the cells may contain thousands of copies of mtDNA. For this reason, even old items of evidence and small pieces--such as hair, bones, and teeth--may be analyzed for their mtDNA content. Mitochondrial DNA analysis also makes it possible to identify missing persons through their maternal relatives.

Because mtDNA can link missing persons to their relatives, the DNAUII participates in the National Missing Person DNA Database. The unit also has program responsibility for the Regional Mitochondrial DNA Laboratory Program and the SWGDAM mtDNA Population Database.

Serial Suspect Stopped

On the morning of March 25, 2004, Garland Hall broke into the apartment of a University of Michigan student. He attempted to rape her, but she fought him off. Before fleeing the victim's residence, Hall stole her laptop computer. Soon after the attack, police arrested Hall driving with his car lights off. He was in possession of the student's laptop, as well as the cell phone of a victim of a previous home invasion. After Hall's arrest, the police discovered that he was wanted on a warrant for window peeping. He was also the prime suspect in a series of home invasions and sexual assaults involving University of Michigan and Eastern Michigan University students.

A judge ruled that the search of the vehicle was illegal, making the laptop inadmissible as evidence. Hall pleaded guilty to lesser charges and served several months in jail.

Hours before the attack on the University of Michigan student, an Eastern Michigan University student had been attacked and sexually assaulted in her home. The suspect left near the crime scene a knit hat that the victim was later able to identify. A hair was found on the hat and analyzed by the DNAUII. The mtDNA sequence from the hat matched that of Garland Hall. After several trial delays, Hall finally went to trial in October 2006 on charges of first- and third-degree sexual assault and first-degree home invasion. An examiner from the DNAUII testified to the mtDNA results, and Hall was subsequently convicted on all charges. This suspected serial sexual assaulter will now serve many years in prison.

Automated Analysis

The DNAUII validated two robotic platforms that automate the analysis of the entire control region of mtDNA. Two Biomek 2000 robotic workstations perform DNA extraction and preparation for polymerase chain reaction amplification. Amplification and mtDNA sequencing are accomplished using the TECAN Genesis Freedom robot. These robotic systems have greatly decreased the time required to perform mtDNA analysis on population database samples in the DNAUII. The robotic platforms are able to expeditiously process bloodstains and buccal swabs to enter into the SWGDAM mtDNA Population Database. In the future, automated analysis also will benefit the National Missing Person DNA Database by allowing the processing of samples from relatives of missing persons submitted for entry into the database.

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The National Missing Person DNA Database

Established in 2000, the National Missing Person DNA Database (NMPDD) Program provides investigators with an opportunity to identify missing and unidentified persons on a national level. It contains three indexes in which DNA profiles can be entered: Biological Relatives of Missing Persons, Unidentified Human Remains, and Missing Persons. Both of the FBI Laboratory's DNA Analysis Units perform DNA analysis on samples for these indexes.

Since the program's inception, the DNAUII has completed 1058 missing-person cases submitted by local, state, and federal agencies. These have resulted in 130 mtDNA associations for samples from the Unidentified Human Remains and Biological Relatives of Missing Persons Indexes. In 2006, 340 cases were submitted to the NMPDD for analysis, and the DNAUII processed 370 cases for mtDNA analysis.

In addition to processing cases, members of the NMPDD have been active in educating the forensic and law enforcement communities about the value of this program to investigators of missing-person cases. Presentations detailing the purpose of the program and submission guidelines were provided to various agencies and organizations, including the National Association of Medical Examiners, International Homicide Investigators, and the FBI's Child Abduction Rapid Deployment Teams. NMPDD examiners also participated in a series of conferences sponsored by the National Institute of Justice concerning the identification of missing persons. The conferences targeted a diverse audience, ranging from law enforcement officers, forensic scientists, coroners, medical examiners, and family members of individuals who have been missing a long time.

Regional Mitochondrial DNA Laboratory Program

To enhance the nation's capacity to perform mtDNA analysis in forensic and missing-person cases, the FBI Laboratory partners with four regional crime laboratories in Phoenix, Arizona; Meriden, Connecticut; St. Paul, Minnesota; and Hamilton, New Jersey. Prior to the regional laboratories' inception in 2003, the FBI Laboratory was the only crime laboratory in the United States providing no-cost mtDNA examinations to state and local law enforcement agencies.

Since the program began accepting casework in late 2005, more than 285 cases have been assigned to the four regional laboratories. The work provided by the regional laboratories has produced investigative leads for local law enforcement and aided in the identification of unidentified human remains. The first testimony by a regional laboratory analyst took place in New Hampshire in 2006, and several subpoenas have been received for testimony across the United States. Each of the four laboratories underwent external audits in 2006 to gain approval to upload mtDNA profiles into the National Missing Person DNA Database.

Firearms-Toolmarks Unit

When a subject uses a weapon or a tool to commit a crime, personnel in the Firearms-Toolmarks Unit (FTU) examine the evidence. Evidence in a typical case may include weapons such as rifles, pistols, and shotguns; silencers and other muzzle attachments; magazines; holsters; and both fired and unfired cartridges. Firearms-related evidence--including lead and other metal fragments, shot wads, shot cups, and bullets--also may be removed from bodies at autopsy and submitted to the unit. Toolmark evidence includes everything from screwdrivers and crowbars to sheet metal, safety-deposit boxes, and pieces of human bone and cartilage.

Forensic firearms examinations involve determining whether a bullet, cartridge case, or other ammunition component was fired using a particular firearm. Bullets and ammunition components are microscopically compared with each other and with any number of firearms to determine whether an association exists between the items submitted as evidence and items whose origins are known. Forensic toolmark identifications involve determining whether a particular tool produced a particular mark. Micro- and macroscopic features of toolmarked items are compared with known and questioned tools that may have produced them.

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FTU personnel also perform other examinations, including trigger-pull tests, function tests, full-auto conversion tests, shot-pattern examinations, gunshot residue examinations on victims' clothing, ejection-pattern testing, trajectory analysis examinations, silencer testing, and serial-number restorations.

To help achieve its mission, the FTU maintains two reference collections: the Reference Firearms Collection and the Reference Ammunition File. The unit's firearms collection contains more than 5600 handguns and shoulder firearms. The ammunition file includes more than 16,000 military and commercial ammunition specimens from both domestic and international manufacturers.

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In addition to examining evidence in the Laboratory, FTU examiners also assist field agents and other federal, state, local, and international law enforcement agencies. FTU personnel support FBI investigations and administrative inquiries, providing crime scene trajectory reconstruction and analyses. Training and liaison with national and international forensic laboratories and law enforcement agencies also represent important components of the FTU's mission.

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Latent Print Operations Unit

The Latent Print Operations Unit (LPOU) comprises six teams of forensic examiners, an Administrative Review Program, and a Case Flow Management Program. Forensic examiners conduct friction ridge examinations, produce written reports of their findings, present expert testimony in legal proceedings, and provide training and field support to national and international law enforcement personnel. The Administrative Review Program Manager reviews all reports issued by the LPOU. The Case Flow Management Program Manager ensures efficient work flow by coordinating case assignments. The Case Flow Manager also handles questions from the field regarding evidence submissions.

Identifying a Serial Rapist

Local law enforcement officers and FBI investigators formed a task force in Mobile, Alabama, to investigate the activities of a serial rapist. In February 2005 the Evidence Response Team (ERT) from the FBI's Mobile Field Office was called to process a crime scene for evidence. The ERT found a latent palm print on the wall over the victim's bed. In March 2005 the print was submitted to the LPOU for comparison.

Johnny Moffett had been arrested in previous assaults, but there had never been any physical evidence linking him to the crimes. Moffett's prints were submitted to the LPOU for comparison with the palm print from the victim's bedroom. The LPOU examiner identified the palm print from the crime scene with the submitted palm prints of Moffett and reported the identification the same week. In September 2006 the examiner testified in the trial. The palm print was the most important piece of physical evidence linking Moffett to the crime. He was given four life sentences for first-degree rape, sodomy, sexual abuse, and burglary.

Latent Print Support Unit

The Latent Print Support Unit (LPSU) covers five program areas. The Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) Program coordinates, tests, evaluates, and implements new IAFIS hardware and software from the latent print perspective and coordinates with the FBI's Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division and the criminal justice community on all latent-print-related IAFIS issues. The IAFIS Program is currently working with the CJIS Division on a number of joint issues, most notably, the design of the next generation of IAFIS, known as Next Generation Identification.

The Major Incident Management Program serves as the point of contact to deploy the Disaster Squad and other special operations teams. The Standards and Practices Program manages the quality assurance program for the LPOU and LPSU. This includes drafting, implementing, and maintaining the Latent Print Quality Assurance Manual and the Latent Print Operations Manual. The Technology Development Program operates the Latent Print Digital Imaging System and coordinates, tests, evaluates, and implements advances in biometric technology to improve friction ridge analysis.

The Training Program manages all aspects of training for both the LPOU and the LPSU. This comprehensive training program covers training for latent print physical scientists/forensic examiners; in-service training for both FBI employees and law enforcement personnel from outside agencies; continuing education training for latent print employees; latent print training for Indian Country Evidence Task Force and Evidence Response Team personnel; and training for new agents at the FBI and DEA academies.

The LPSU's five programs ensure the continued high quality of friction ridge examinations, as well as compliance with FBI, Laboratory Division, and accreditation board policies, procedures, and guidelines.

Disaster Squad Deployments: Iraq and Afghanistan

The bodies of service members killed in combat are shipped to Dover Air Force Base Mortuary for identification and burial preparation. In 2006, 52 examiners from the LPOU and LPSU were deployed to Dover for 216 days. Along with other members of the Disaster Squad, they examined the bodies or body parts of approximately 1000 soldiers killed in Iraq and Afghanistan, identifying 813 victims by their fingerprints. In addition to identifying soldiers, the Disaster Squad also identifies the bodies of civilians killed in the war.

Photographic Operations and Imaging Services Unit

The Photographic Operations and Imaging Services Unit (POISU) coordinates and manages photographic services for the FBI. These services include operational, investigative, and forensic photography; technical assistance; camera and darkroom equipment procurement and repair; and forensic imaging training. Although digital imaging techniques have become standard practice, POISU also uses traditional silver-based methods to capture, process, and produce photographic images.

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Managing both the FBI Photographic Program and the Field Photographic Program involves overseeing more than 125 full-time and backup photographers in the FBI's 56 field offices. In addition, POISU provides investigative and forensic photography, imaging, and photographic-processing support for federal, state, local, and international law enforcement investigations.

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POISU is divided into three separate subunits with very distinct and specific responsibilities.

The Operations and Training Subunit provides photographic support and services to the Laboratory, FBI Headquarters divisions, and all FBI field offices. Scientific and technical photographers in this subunit deploy to major crime scenes, agent-involved shootings, and other operational or investigative events. The increase in terrorism-related investigations means that scientific and technical photographers must deploy to document scenes involving chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive devices. This subunit also provides a large percentage of the photographic training conducted in the FBI. These classes include new agents, field photographers, and outside agencies and cover virtually every aspect of forensic imaging.

The Photographic Equipment and Support Subunit has many responsibilities. Personnel assigned to this subunit design and install photographic camera concealments; procure, disseminate, and repair photographic equipment, including digital darkrooms with video workstations; manage field-office equipment transitions and upgrades; and manage all photographic production for the FBI. This subunit annually produces more than 1.5 million images in both hard copy (photographic prints in sizes ranging from 4 by 6 inches to 4 by 8 feet) and in digital form (CDs and DVDs). This subunit also oversees three regional photographic minilabs, in Atlanta, Chicago, and San Francisco.

The Photographic Services Subunit oversees the Portrait and Events Studio at FBI Headquarters, the Tactical Site Survey Program, the Aerial Photography Program, and the Technical Imaging Group. The Portrait and Events Studio photographs special events and official portraits for executive management and documents the anniversaries and retirements of FBI personnel. Personnel assigned to the Tactical Site Survey Program work directly with the FBI's Hostage Rescue Team, Special Weapons and Tactics Teams, and other government agencies, such as the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, to create virtual walk-throughs of special-event venues or high-risk locations. The Aerial Photography Program provides vertical images of infrastructure, crime scenes, special-event venues, and other areas for investigative and tactical planning. The eight photographers assigned to the Technical Imaging Group (TIG) use digital and conventional forensic photographic techniques to capture, process, and print high-quality images of latent fingerprints for the Laboratory's Latent Print Units. In addition to conducting criminal casework, TIG photographers also capture a high volume of latent impressions in support of the Terrorist Explosive Device Analytical Center.

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Questioned Documents Unit

The Questioned Documents Unit (QDU) serves the law enforcement community by providing forensic support to federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. The QDU conducts a variety of examinations on crime scene evidence submitted to the Laboratory. These include analysis of handwriting, typewriting, shoe prints, tire treads, alterations, obliterations, rubber stamps, plastic bags, and shredded documents.

Combating Identity Theft

The QDU was integral in the successful prosecution of a major theft ring that operated out of Cleveland, Ohio, and surrounding states. The case, United States v. Richard Tisdale et al., involved an organized ring of shoplifters who used the stolen identities of children to conceal their true identities and launder nearly $1 million in proceeds through federally insured financial institutions in Ohio. Tisdale and members of his group stole computer merchandise from stores throughout Ohio and surrounding states, then sold the merchandise to a Cleveland-based, Russian-born computer store owner, Gregory Khabner. Khabner repackaged the stolen merchandise and sold it at discounted prices to other Russian store owners and the general public. Tisdale, whose extensive criminal history dates back more than 40 years, manufactured drivers' licenses, Social Security cards, and other identity documents for himself and members of his theft ring using the identities of children and, in one case, a kidney dialysis patient at the Cleveland Clinic.

The QDU examined a laminated Social Security card and 13 copies of Social Security cards that were found in a hotel room where Tisdale manufactured his fraudulent documents. Through microscopic examination of the laminated card and the 13 copies, the QDU determined that the cards originated from a color ink-jet office machine. The questioned Social Security card was compared side by side with genuine Social Security cards from the QDU standards file.

The QDU determined that the questioned card was a counterfeit. The 13 copies appeared to be at various stages of manipulation in an effort to counterfeit Social Security cards. On one copy, the Social Security number and cardholder's name were obliterated with correction fluid. Using special lighting techniques, the QDU was able to decipher the obliterated name and Social Security number, which were later revealed to be those of the suspect's brother, Jon Tisdale. The QDU compared this manipulated copy to the counterfeit card and was able to positively identify it as the model for the counterfeit.

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A QDU examiner testified at Tisdale's trial in Akron, Ohio. This testimony was crucial in supporting the identity-theft charges.

Richard Tisdale was sentenced to 15 years' incarceration, to be followed by 3 years' supervised release. In addition to Tisdale's conviction, the investigation resulted in guilty pleas from Tisdale's brother, Jon Tisdale, and Gregory Khabner, both of whom are currently serving prison time for their roles in the scheme. The Government also obtained a conviction against Tisdale's girlfriend, Andrea Dent, who participated in the identity thefts and shoplifting and refused to cooperate during the investigation.

SoleSearcher

SoleSearcher is an innovative investigative tool the QDU uses to help determine the brand name or manufacturer of footwear from questioned footwear impressions left behind at crime scenes. Hundreds of these database searches are requested annually by law enforcement agencies in cases that range from burglary to terrorism. The database contains more than 11,000 different shoe outsole designs from more than 370 different footwear manufacturers from around the world. New outsole images are added to the database daily. With so many different manufacturers and a majority of shoes being manufactured overseas, keeping up with all of these shoes is a monumental task.

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SoleSearcher was designed using different design icons commonly found on the outsole of shoes. These different design icons are placed on a blank shoe canvas to resemble the questioned footwear impressions. The image is then searched through the database using the specific criteria. If the database produces a shoe outsole that is consistent with the questioned impression, a printout of this shoe outsole is sent back to the contributor. If the contributor has or develops a suspect or a person of interest, the contributor can use this print during a search to obtain the shoes needed to conduct further footwear examinations.

SoleSearcher Success Story

Over the years, SoleSearcher has provided valuable leads to investigators and law enforcement agencies around the country. One case in particular involved a double homicide that occurred in New Hampshire.

Two Dartmouth professors, Suzanne and Half Zantop, were found brutally murdered in their home in Hanover, New Hampshire. At the crime scene, investigators located a bloody footwear impression that did not match either of the victims' shoes. This bloody footwear impression was submitted to the FBI Laboratory in an attempt to determine the brand name or manufacturer. The impression was searched through the database, and a possible match was located. The footwear impression matched a VASQUE-style boot in the database. Descriptive information concerning the type of boot that left the bloody footwear impression was sent back to the investigators. Two teenagers were soon developed as suspects. When investigators asked one of the suspects, Robert Tulloch, if he owned a pair of VASQUE boots, he answered yes. Investigators collected the boots, compared them to the impression left behind at the crime scene, and determined that one of Tulloch's VASQUE boots had made the bloody impression. Tulloch pleaded guilty to life in prison without parole. The other suspect, James Parker, cooperated with police but still received a sentence of 25 years to life.

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The History of the Footwear Reference Collection

The FBI Laboratory's first footwear reference collection dates back to around 1935. This collection consisted of a series of photographs of shoe soles and heels. These photographs were placed in file cabinets according to manufacturer. The reference-file searches were all conducted by hand. Back in the 1930s, this collection was considered complete because all shoes at that time were manufactured in the United States. The shoes were primarily dress shoes and perhaps a small number of casual shoes. Specialty athletic shoes were not introduced until the 1950s and 1960s.

The first computerized footwear database was introduced in the mid-1980s and was housed on a mainframe computer system. In the early 1990s, the footwear database was placed on a personal computer. The manufacturer would send in catalogs, and these outsole images would be scanned into the database. At that time, the database had approximately 2000 outsole images. Today, the database contains more than 11,000 images. In the future, the Laboratory plans to make SoleSearcher available through a secure network so other law enforcement agencies may electronically contribute and search footwear images in the database.

Special Projects Unit

The Investigative and Prosecutive Graphic Unit (IPGU) and the Structural Design Unit (SDU) worked closely for years to produce a multitude of two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) operational and demonstrative materials. These items are used to provide direct investigative, operational, and prosecutorial support for FBI agents and U.S. attorneys. Additionally, when circumstances warrant, these services are also provided to state and local law enforcement. In 2006 the IPGU and the SDU were merged to form the Special Projects Unit (SPU) in order to more efficiently serve the criminal justice community.

Forensic Facial Imaging

In 2006, SPU personnel handled numerous cases requiring the production of facial imagery. These included requests for the preparation of artist composite drawings, 2-D and 3-D facial reconstructions from skeletal remains, postmortem drawings, and digital photographic retouches and manipulations. This imagery was provided in direct support of FBI counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigations and was used both domestically and internationally. In addition, support was provided for the Department of Defense and intelligence personnel on the ground in Afghanistan, Somalia, and Iraq.

The following images were prepared through witness interviews and used to locate individuals wanted by the FBI. These individuals were located as a direct result of these drawings.

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To further enhance and expand its response capabilities in the facial-imaging arena, in 2006 the SPU entered into a working agreement with the University of Tennessee at Knoxville (UTK) on several research projects. When completed, these projects will help lay a new foundation for many areas of facial imaging. One of these projects involves the 3-D scanning of human skulls that also have available life photos of those same individuals from the Anthropological Research Facility at UTK. The data collected from these scans will be used to develop a highly accurate reference database that will be used by forensic anthropologists and artists. This process will more clearly delineate the influence the skull has on the life appearance of the deceased individual. Information gained through this research will also be used in ongoing research to create a computer program that will produce lifelike images from skeletal remains in an automatic manner and with accurate and consistent results.

The images below depict SPU personnel collecting digital data of skeletal remains at the Anthropological Research Facility at UTK.

An associative research proposal will work to develop a national database of all facial reconstructions, which currently number more than 40,000 unidentified individuals. This database will provide the platform through which any examiner can search all of the forensic reconstruction imagery entered into the database.

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Situational Awareness and Special-Event Support

SPU personnel provide a wide array of specialized support in the areas of situational awareness and special-event management. This support comes in the form of 3-D laser scanning and LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), 360-degree spherical video, panoramic photography, GIS (Geographic Information System) mapping, and interactive presentations. Most SPU efforts in this area go toward the documentation and digital reconstruction of the sites of major events or venues. The product prepared by SPU is used by command and tactical personnel for documenting venues to determine ingress and egress points, breaching points, sniper and counter-sniper locations, emergency evacuation plans, helicopter landing areas, desirable routes of travel, and other important information.

In 2006, SPU personnel responded to numerous requests for these types of services, such as operational/ tactical packages for the NBA All-Star Game, the NFL Super Bowl, the MLB All-Star Game, the Kentucky Derby, the Little League World Series, and the Rose Bowl and Rose Parade, as well as the documentation of the football stadium and two basketball arenas at The Ohio State University.

The image below of Dolphin Stadium was "stitched" together using multiple scans to form a complete 3-D digital reconstruction of the stadium. This completed image is being used by operational and security personnel for event planning and security.

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Crime Scene Survey, Documentation, and Reconstruction

Throughout the year the SPU prepared numerous crime scene reconstructions in both 2-D and 3-D. Many of the requests for these services required unit personnel to travel to crime scenes and physically conduct site surveys and secure digital documentation data. These data enabled personnel to produce both physical and digital scale models and exhibits. To accomplish these duties, unit personnel use a wide array of equipment and methodologies, ranging from traditional manual equipment and methods to state-of-the-art digital and laser data-collection devices. Three-dimensional, high-resolution laser scanners were used to survey and document crime scenes that required high-end digital data collection. Often these types of scenes need to be accurately documented and reconstructed in order to show line of sight, bullet trajectories, evidence/debris disbursement, or the movement and relative location of individuals, vehicles, and other objects.

The SPU works closely with all of the operational entities within the FBI. However, its primary customers are the field Evidence Response Teams (ERTs) and the Evidence Response Team Unit (ERTU) in the Laboratory. Through this working relationship, SPU personnel provide support for all of the major crime scene investigations conducted by the FBI. Twenty FBI field office ERTs have personnel who are specially trained in the use of the Total Station survey equipment. A forensic engineer on staff in the SPU, along with personnel from the ERTU, oversees the operation of the field's Total Stations. As a result of this working relationship, in 2006 two to three submissions of Total Station data were received from each field team, totaling approximately 60 field-wide submissions. Each one of these was reviewed and processed for the participating field ERT survey team. In addition to the operational support provided by the SPU, unit personnel also provided training for the Total Station to ERT personnel.

Demonstrative Evidence

The SPU's production of demonstrative evidence for courtroom presentation is as significant as its investigative and operational support efforts. This is exemplified by the support provided by the unit following the attacks of September 11, 2001. From the time the first airplane slammed into the World Trade Center until Zacarias Moussaoui was sentenced, SPU personnel produced hundreds of investigative and prosecutive items. These ranged from simple organizational charts, to the building of physical scale models of the Pentagon and the World Trade Center, to the creation of complex, digitally interactive displays that exhibit time-sensitive, multilayered interactions between individuals and events. These interactive presentations often included video and audio clips, scanned images of documents, digital telemetry from aircraft, and typed transcripts of telephone conversations. SPU's efforts in this area proved to be a major reason why the sentencing phase of Moussaoui's trial was successful.

Throughout the year SPU personnel routinely produced items of demonstrative evidence that proved pivotal to the successful outcome of many prosecutions. To accomplish this, unit personnel traveled to field locations, conducted interviews, met with investigators and prosecutors, and reviewed evidence and data. Through these efforts, they were able to create charts, maps, diagrams, models, and numerous types of trial aids and exhibits.

Training

During 2006 the SPU provided both basic and advanced training for FBI, state, local, and international law enforcement personnel. This training included traditional courses held at the training academy in Quantico, Virginia, as well as seminars and workshops at various venues throughout the United States. These included Forensic Facial Imaging; Crime Scene Survey, Documentation, and Reconstruction; the Florida Division of the International Association for Identification Annual Educational Training Conference; the 42nd Annual Forensic Dental Identification and Emerging Technologies Seminar; the Wisconsin Law Enforcement Executive Development Seminar; the Society of Manufacturing Engineers annual meeting; the Law Enforcement Executive Development Seminar; Total Station training for the Lebanese Police; training for FBI Field Photographers; Evidence Response Team Total Station training; and Evidence Response Team Bullet Trajectory training.

The SPU was also involved in the establishment and oversight of technology and programs directly related to its area of expertise. In this capacity, unit personnel were involved in or served on the following committees: the Imaging Technology Coordinating Committee, the International Association of Forensic and Security Metrology, and the International Association for Identification.

Terrorist Explosive Device Analytical Center

Every day, sophisticated homemade bombs explode in Iraq, Afghanistan, and other places around the globe. These improvised explosive devices, or IEDs, sometimes claim hundreds of victims, both military and civilian. To stem the flow of attacks, the Terrorist Explosive Device Analytical Center (TEDAC) is working diligently to identify the terrorists and organizations that make and detonate these deadly devices.

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Established at the FBI Laboratory in 2003, the TEDAC comprises personnel from law enforcement, intelligence, and military agencies. TEDAC experts examine thousands of pieces of evidence--often tiny fragments--to determine the form and function of the IEDs and, if possible, who built them.

The information developed at the TEDAC is compiled in a secure, accessible, central database and also serves as the basis for intelligence reports issued by the center. By functioning as a repository for both physical evidence and intelligence on IEDs, the TEDAC provides vital information to the intelligence community and especially to U.S. and allied military forces fighting in Iraq and other overseas operations.

The work of TEDAC personnel is sensitive and includes successes that may never be published in the news. However, the people who depend on TEDAC's efforts both in the United States and abroad can rest assured that TEDAC personnel are working hard to accomplish their mission of keeping U.S. interests and allies safe.

Trace Evidence Unit

Physical contact between two people or between a person and an object often results in the transfer of trace materials. Identifying and comparing these materials may link a suspect to a victim or a crime scene.

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The Trace Evidence Unit (TEU) identifies and compares these trace materials. Scientific examinations of physical evidence include the areas of hairs, fibers, fabric, cordage, soil, glass, building materials, feathers, wood, gemstones, and physical anthropology. Unit personnel also provide expert testimony relating to these examinations in legal proceedings, provide training to the law enforcement community, provide forensic field support in FBI cases, and develop and implement new technologies to enhance scientific examinations.

In support of the caseworking mission of the FBI Laboratory, in 2006 the TEU completed analysis on approximately 11,000 items of evidence in 2700 cases. These cases were received from city, county, state, federal, and international law enforcement agencies. Approximately 1700 cases were completed in support of the Terrorist Explosive Device Analytical Center, while approximately 200 cases were completed in support of the Indian Country Evidence Task Force. Each case may have involved several examinations and literally thousands of pieces of evidence.

To support the mission of training, the TEU sponsored or participated in numerous ventures. Members of the unit taught one- to two-week courses in hair and fiber analysis and Indian Country crime scene analysis to audiences in Quantico, Virginia; Asheville, North Carolina; Tucson, Arizona; and Marquette, Michigan.

To support the mission of FBI field offices, TEU personnel assisted in crime scene response in two body-recovery operations, lending assistance in the areas of forensic anthropology and mineralogy.

In support of the Regional Mitochondrial DNA Laboratory Program, the TEU trained one hair examiner who will work in one of the four regional laboratories. These laboratories partner with the FBI Laboratory to augment their capacity for mitochondrial DNA analysis in forensic and missing-person cases.

Pit Bull Predators

Dorothy Sullivan, age 82, was fatally mauled by three pit bulls in her yard in Spotsylvania, Virginia. The dogs also killed Sullivan's shi tzu, Buttons. The TEU examined evidence recovered from the stomachs of the pit bulls and found hairs consistent with hairs recovered from the victim's hairbrush. The owner of the dogs, Deanna Large, was found guilty of involuntary manslaughter. This case marks the State's first successful prosecution of involuntary manslaughter in connection with a dog attack.

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 Convicted OfFender
Forensic to Forensic to Forensic

Matches between samples in the Matches between a forensic sample
Forensic Index car link crime and the Offender Index provide
scenes together, possibly investigators with the identify of
identifying serial offenders. a perpetrator. After CODIS
Based on a match, agencies in Identifies a potential match,
multiple jurisdictions can qualified DNA, analysis in the
coordinate their respective laboratorieseach other validate
investigations and share leads refute thecontact to or match.
developed independently.

Forensic b Forensic Missing Persons

Matches between samples in the Combines the use of nuclear DNA
Forensic Index car link crime with mitochondrial DNA to identify
scenes together, possibly or match biological specimens in
identifying serial offenders. cases of missing persons.
Based on a match, agencies in
multiple jurisdictions can
coordinate their respective
investigations and share leads
developed independently.

The charts below depict the statistics tallied by CODIS through the
2006 calendar year.

CODIS Statistics Through 2006

Category Total Number

Investigations Aided 43,156
Forensic Index Hits 9,529
Offender Index Hits 32,439 (28,163 at SDIS and 4,276 at NDIS)

NDIS Statistics Through 2006

Category Total Samples

Offender Index 3,977,433
Forensic Index 160,582

Participants

Domestic Laboratories 178 state and local laboratories
 plus NDIS

International Laboratories 40 laboratories in 26 countries

Training 1,173 individuals in more than 220
 laboratories have received CODIS
 training.

 2001 2002 2003

Offender Profiles 750,929 750,929 1,493,536
Forensic Profiles 27,897 27,897 70,931
Investigations Aided 3,635 3,635 11,220
Forensic Hits 1,031 1,031 3,004
Offender Hits Total 2,371 2,371 8,269
--National 167 167 1,151
--State 2,204 2,204 7,118

 2004 2005 2006

Offender Profiles 2,038,514 2,826,505 3,977,433
Forensic Profiles 93,956 126,315 160,582
Investigations Aided 20,792 30,455 43,156
Forensic Hits 5,147 7,071 9,529
Offender Hits Total 13,855 21,519 32,439
--National 1,864 2,855 4,276
--State 11,991 18,664 28,163

Investigations Aided

2001 3,635
2002 6,670
2003 11,200
2004 20,792
2005 30,455
2006 43,156

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Baconian Cipher Key

Plaintext Ciphertext

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B BABBB
C BBBAA
D BBABA
E BABBA
F BABAB
G BAABB
H BBAAA
I BABAA
J BAAAA
K AAAAB
L AAABA
M AABAA
N ABAAA
O AAABB
P AABAB
Q ABAAB
R ABABA
S ABBAA
T AABBB
U ABABB
V ABBAB
W ABBBA
X ABBBB
Y BBBBA
Z BBBAB
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Publication:FBI Laboratory Annual Report
Date:Jan 1, 2006
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