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Investigation of the relationship between quality of work life and customer relationship management in the police force of one of the cities in the west of Iran.

INTRODUCTION

Imam Ali: "The attempt to improve the affairs of the people is the perfection of welfare."

Quality of work life as an important part of the experience of employees in the workplace was entered to the literature since 1970. And in the few decades that have passed from its emergence it is remembered as a variable that can provide employee's satisfaction. In recent years, the quality of work life programs play an important role in increasing labor productivity and as a result, it has the responsibility of the efficiency and effectiveness of large organizations. The strategic plans of improving the work life quality of human resources in organizations are an internal and comprehensive approach. This means that efficient human resources play a pivotal role in the organization transformation. Previously, only non-work life has been considered and emphasized. But in today's society improving quality of working life is a comprehensive program that is designed for employee's satisfaction and attention, and helping them to manage the changes and keeping employees in organization.

Dissatisfaction of the work life quality is a fundamental problem that regardless of the post and position could affect negatively on job satisfaction of all employees [4]. Quality of life is one of the most important issues facing the world today and it is considered as one of the basic issues in the development of social policy that covers issues such as welfare, promotion of health -oriented life quality, obviation the basic needs, growth of life satisfaction, altruism and devotion among congregations [6].

With regard to the importance of quality of life for individuals, attempting to promote it is one of the main principles and priorities of planners, administrators, social executives, and government officials in each community and country. Therefore, it can be said that all of programs, policies and executive operations in a society are in order to improve the quality of life of the community. The results of studies of life quality can help assess policies, rate places, develop management strategies in the community, and facilitate the understanding and classification of social issues and priorities for community planners and managers to promote its citizens' quality of life. Furthermore, findings of life quality can be used for recognizing the previous political strategies and designing future planning and policies.

In addition, quality of life studies can help identify problematic areas, the reasons of discontent of people, the citizens' priorities in life, the effects of socio-demographic factors on quality of life, and monitoring and evaluating of policies and strategies on quality of life [1].

Background of the study:

A study entitled "Quality of life and depression for police officers in Kaohsiung, Taiwan" has been done. The results have been shown that stress, anxiety and depression are associated with lower quality of life for workers. Feelings of stress, anxiety and depression has inverse relation with the quality of life, therefore, data have been shown that stress has an inverse relation with the quality of life, social relationships and environmental conditions. Therefore, feeling less stress predicts higher perceptions of quality of life related to environmental conditions and social relations [5].

Another study with the aim of "Investigating the quality of work life and job satisfaction of faculty members of Tehran and Sharif industrial universities" has been conducted. 144 faculty members were selected by using correlational method with regard to academic rank and based on stratified sampling. After collecting the data, they were analyzed based on the research questions and by applying the Pearson correlation method, T-test for independent groups, and stepwise regression. The obtained results were indicated that

1. Tehran and Sharif Industrial universities' professors in terms of quality of work life are in fairly undesirable levels, and in terms of job satisfaction they are in relatively high levels.

2. There is a positive relationship between quality of work life and job satisfaction components;

3. There is no significant difference between quality of work life and job satisfaction of professors of mentioned universities,

4. There is a slight difference only from the dimension of the integration and social cohesion which considers as the quality of work life. In other words, Sharif Industrial University faculty members have higher integration and social cohesion rather than Tehran University professors.

5. Stepwise regression results indicate that in the order of legality priority in the organization, providing opportunities for growth and continuous security, and developing of human capabilities as a dimension of work life qualities have multiple correlations with job satisfaction [2].

In a research entitled "Analysis of quality of life dimension in the urban areas of Iran" has been done by Morris method, 253 urban areas in terms of quality of life were compared with each other. With regard to the findings of research, it can be found that different urban areas of Iran have a significant gap in terms of indicators of the quality of urban life. Only 24 of the 253 studied cities, i.e. 9/5% are in the high levels, approximately 50 percent of the studied urban areas are as deprived ones. In other words, 24 of the country's urban areas are prosperous, 116 ones are semi-prosperous and 113 are deprived urban areas. Tehran as a heterogeneous urban area is separated itself from other urban areas. The results of this study demonstrate that based on Objective Indicators of quality of life in 6 sections of socio-economic, demographic - education, employment, housing, health-care facilities, and natural-economic infrastructures quality of life in the majority of cities of Iran (90 percent) are not in optimal status. About 45% of urban areas are totally deprived and 45% are semi-prosperous and is far from the existing universal standards. This could be a threatening alarm for achieving the goals of Perspective Document that based on it Iran in 1404 should have first rank in the region in terms of the development and well-being [3].

In a case study entitled "Evaluation of the role of customer relationship management (CRM) in customer satisfaction" has been done in the Karafarin Insurance Company in Isfahan. The results of the study indicate that customer satisfaction of the customer relationship management system in the Karafarin Insurance Company was above the average level. Moreover, the results have been shown that from the customers' perspectives regarding their satisfaction rate there is a significant difference among the factors of the method of quality service response, service cost, and electronic services, that from the customers' perspectives the highest satisfaction is about service quality and level of satisfaction with e-services is minimal [7].

In another study, "the relationship between the quality of work life and productivity of human resources in one of the oil firms in Iran" has been studied. The results have been shown that there is a relationship between all aspects of the quality of life and productivity of human resources [8].

The significance and necessity of the study:

The quality of work life is an approach which with regard to improving the general conditions of the workplace, justifies the adoption of policies and procedures that cause a work to be designed in such a way that reduces its uniformity and increases its diversity and stimulating for the staffs that is a simple concept and from the functional standpoint, it is possible and feasible, and extremely humanistic.

Undoubtedly, today's world is organizations' world and the trustees of these organizations are humans. Humans blow the spirit in the organizations, move and manage it; organizations without human not only have no meaning, but also it won't be possible to manage them. Thus, human resources are the most valuable resource for organizations; they form the organizational decisions and provide solutions, and ultimately solve the problems of organization. Such a person for presenting a desirable behavior toward organizational goals should have either motivation as well it should be raised properly. One of the most interesting motivation methods is paying attention to work system quality programs with the quality of work life. Since the start of the debate of quality of work life so far, hundreds of books, articles, and theories such as the theory of Walton, Tuttle, Belcher and Desler are presented. That the efforts of them were been the understanding of the meaning of work life quality and their measurement methods. In addition, numerous seminars and conferences have been done in this regard. But unfortunately, often its dimensions and effects are not considered properly. "The quality of work life for many managers is an unfamiliar subject therefore, its concept is inconvenient for them" [9].

Methodology:

This research is based on practical purpose and according to the method of data collection it is correlational descriptive, it is practical because the results of the project can improve the police force performance of studied city, and it is descriptive because the study of the current status and quality of work life of customer relationship management is concerned.

The population:

It is consist of all city police personnel who currently (2013- 2014) have worked in the studied city, that in terms of safety and security considerations it is refused to mention its classified figures and statistics.

Participants and sampling:

Among all personnel are working in (2013- 2014) 50 participants as the sample were selected randomly and considered to fill out the questionnaires.

Validity:

Each test was performed in a group of 20 and the validity of the life quality test was obtained from the split- half method that is equivalent to 72% and validity of management clientele test is 70%.

Quality of Life:

Since this questionnaire has been used in the World Health Organization and also it is softened in Iran; thus, it has good reliability and validity. However, for more ensuring it is implemented in two groups of 20 persons and the obtained Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 72%. Which shows the validity of the test is considerable.

Customer Relationship Management:

Because this questionnaire has been used by researchers in Iran's offices well as it is softened, so has good reliability and validity. However, for more ensuring it was also implemented in two groups of 20 and the obtained Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 70%, which demonstrates the validity of the test is considerable

1.2 Hypotheses:

A-The main hypothesis:

There is a significant relationship between the quality of work life and client relationship management of studied city police employees.

B-Sub-hypotheses:

1. There is a relationship between the hygiene and security of the workplace and customer relationship management.

2. There is a relationship among payment of salaries, cash bonuses, using of welfare facilities, and client relationship management.

3. There is a relationship among the rates of legislating, client reverence and client relationship management in police force of studied city.

4. There is a relationship among the selection method, and job-related education rate, with police employees' jobs with client relationship management of studied city.

First hypothesis:

There is a significant relationship between the quality of work life and client relationship management of police employees of studied city.

Initially, the table of scores for the hypothesis with numbers of frequencies and frequency percentages is set, and then the graph is plotted for the frequency scores of two variables. After that, in third table the mean scores of two related tests of hypothesis are plotted that with comparing them with mean scores can compare obtained mean scores in the two test scores in each test with the mean.

In Table 1, which is named under the title of hypothesis testing, inferential statistics such as the Pearson correlation coefficient (R) is used. This formula is used for determining the relationship between two variables. In the current hypothesis the researcher also has used two variables; quality of life and client relationship management, and two tests with this title were applied. The obtained scores of two tests are put to test to investigate the rate of relationship between two variables. After the test, it was determined that because calculated R or the obtained result of the Pearson correlation coefficient formula at the end of hypothesis is larger than indicative size of table (35%) at 1% probability of error, or in other words, it is in the 99% confidence level. Therefore, there is a positive relationship between the two variables. It can be inferred that there is a meaningful and significant relationship between two mentioned variables at the 99% confidence level. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected and the researcher hypothesis has been approved statistically.

Second hypothesis:

There is a relationship among hygiene and security of the work environment, and client relationship management.

First, the table of the related scores to the hypothesis with the number of frequencies is obtained and frequency percentages are adjusted, then frequency scores graphs for the two variables are plotted. After that mean scores of the two tests related to hypothesis are plotted in the third table that with comparing them can compare obtained mean scores in the two tests with mean scores in each test.

In Table 2, which has been named as hypothesis testing inferential statistics known as Pearson correlation coefficient (R) is used. This formula is used for determining the relationship between two variables. In the present hypothesis, the researcher also has used two quality of life variables (two components of hygiene and security at workplace) and client relationship management and two tests with this title are applied. The obtained scores of two tests for determining the relationship between two variables are applied. After the test, it is found that because calculated R or the obtained result is larger than indicative size of table (35%) at 1% probability of error, or in other words, it is in the 99% confidence level. Therefore, there is a positive relationship between the two variables. It can be inferred that there is a meaningful and significant relationship between two mentioned variables at the 99% confidence level. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected and the researcher hypothesis has been statistically confirmed.

Third hypothesis:

There are relationships among salaries, cash bonuses, use of welfare facilities, and customer relationship management.

First, the table of the related scores to the hypothesis along with the number of frequencies is obtained and frequency percentages are adjusted; then frequency scores graphs for the two variables are plotted. After that mean scores of the two tests related to hypothesis are plotted in the third table that with comparing them can compare obtained mean scores in the two tests with mean scores in each test.

In Table 3, which has been named as hypothesis testing, inferential statistics known as Pearson correlation coefficient (R) is used. This formula is used for determining the relationship between two variables. In the present hypothesis, the researcher also has used two quality of life variables (two components of salary and bonus) and client relationship management. Two tests with these titles are applied. The obtained scores of two tests for determining the relationship between two variables are examined. After the test, it is found that because calculated R or the obtained results of Pearson correlation coefficient is larger than indicative size of table (35%) at 1% probability of error, or in other words, it is in the confidence level of 99%. Therefore, there is a positive relationship between the two variables. It can be inferred that there is a meaningful and significant relationship between two mentioned variables at the 99% confidence level. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected and the researcher hypothesis has been statistically confirmed.

Fourth hypothesis:

There is a relationship among the rates of legislating, client reverence, and client relationship management in police force of the studied city.

First, the table of the related scores to the hypothesis along with the number of frequencies is obtained and frequency percentages are adjusted; then frequency scores graphs for the two variables are plotted. After that mean scores of the two tests related to hypothesis are plotted in the third table that with comparing them can compare obtained mean scores in the two tests with mean scores in each test.

In Table 4, which has been named as hypothesis testing, inferential statistics known as Pearson correlation coefficient (R) is used. This formula is used for determining the relationship between two variables. In the present hypothesis, the researcher also has used two quality of life variables (the rates of legislating and client reverence) and client relationship management. Two tests with these titles are applied. The obtained scores of two tests for determining the relationship between two variables are examined. After the test, it is found that because calculated R or the obtained results of Pearson correlation coefficient is larger than indicative size of table (35%) at 1% probability of error, or in other words, it is in the confidence level of 99%. Therefore, there is a positive relationship between the two variables. It can be inferred that there is a meaningful and significant relationship between two mentioned variables at the 99% confidence level. Thus, null hypothesis is rejected and the researcher hypothesis has been statistically confirmed.

Fifth hypothesis:

There is a relationship among the selection method, job-related education level, and police force staffs jobs with client relationship management of the studied city.

The scores related to hypothesis along with the number of frequencies table are adjusted and frequency percentages of each level of education are obtained separately. Then, the frequency scores diagrams for the three academic levels of two variables are plotted. Next, in the third table, the mean of test scores for three levels of education related to hypothesis such as Diploma, Associate Diploma, and Bachelor are plotted separately that with comparing them obtained mean scores in the two tests can be compared with mean scores in each test.

In the table which has been set and named as hypothesis testing, inferential statistics known as Pearson correlation coefficient (R) is used. This formula is used for determining the relationship between two variables. In the present hypothesis, the researcher also has used two quality of life variables (the rates of legislating and client reverence) and client relationship management. Two tests with these titles are applied. The obtained scores of two tests are examined for determining the relationship between the two mentioned variables (for three separate levels of education i.e. Diploma, Associate Diploma, and Bachelor degrees have been exposed to test separately. After the test, it is found that because the calculated R or the obtained results of Pearson correlation coefficient for all the three mentioned levels of education is larger than indicative size of table at 1% probability of error, or in other words, it is in the 99% confidence level; therefore, there is a positive relationship between the two variables. It can be inferred that there is a significant and meaningful relationship between two mentioned variables at the 99% confidence level. Therefore, null hypothesis is rejected and the researcher hypothesis has been confirmed statistically.

Conclusion:

The general aim of this study was determining the relationship between quality of life and client relationship management and from the obtained results through questionnaires, statistics, tables, diagrams and other research tools, and corresponding with similar studies in abroad and Iran, it can be concluded that there is a direct relationship between quality of life of the police force employees and client relationship management; and some elements such as salaries and benefits, hygienic and safety workplace, legislation and client reverence can have a direct impact on getting better or worse the employee performance quality. Finally, it must be stated that organizations are born in an environment as dynamic creatures and with providing the necessary facilities they grow and develop. By providing valuable products and services cause they meet the needs of society and environment, and facilitate the growth and prosperity of the community. Increase of customer relationship management is not a one dimensional step, but also is an ongoing work; that in addition to the quality of work life of the employees' components, it is affected by other key components such as supplying the personnel, developing and empowering them, guaranteeing organizational justice, job security, etc. Therefore, if senior executives demand to have the energetic, hardworking and happy staffs and totally a popular human communication unit they must create a lively and scientific atmosphere and provide a field for their employees to do the client's affairs without any concern and overall, keep the organization's clients satisfied with providing fast and lawful services and the organization besides having popular support can continue to its growth and survive.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 11 June 2014

Received in revised form 21 September 2014

Accepted 25 November 2014

Available online 29 December 2014

REFERENCES

[1] Ahmadi Renani, Z., 2006. Examination of the quality of work life of Iran Insurance Company's headquarters staff in Tehran. M.A thesis. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University. Faculty of Education and Psychology (p. 23).

[2] Ghaffarzadeh, F., 2010. Study of effective factors on the rate of quality of work life in the general directorate staff of Technical Education and Vocational office of Isfahan. M.A thesis. Isfahan: Islamic Azad University Khorasgan Branch. Department of Public Management.

[3] Ghasemi, M., 2000. The effect of the quality of work life on and human resource productivity. M.A thesis. Tehran: Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs.

[4] Qadiri Banat, L., 2009. The relationship between quality of life and job satisfaction among the Abadan Oil Company staffs. M.A thesis. Tehran : Training Institute of Defense Industries of Tehran.

[5] Rezaei, A.A., 2011. Quality of work life and job security. Tehran: SAMT publication.

[6] Rudaki, M., 2008. Dynamic analysis of the quality of work life. M.A thesis, Tehran: Islamic Azad University of Tehran South branch.

[7] Seifi, H., 2006. Investigation of the relationship between quality of work life and organizational commitment of the university hospitals employees in Sanandaj in 1385. M.A thesis. Tehran: Iran University of Medical Science and Health Services. Faculty of Management and Medical Information.

[8] Shakeri Arqaneh, G., 2007. The effect of the secondary school teacher quality of work life on their performance in Nazarabad . M.A thesis. Nazarabad: Payam Noor University.

[9] Tadayouni, Sh., 2008. The relationship among job satisfaction and mental health, quality of work life of health family personnel of Health Center in Karaj. M.A thesis. Karaj: Payam Noor University.

(1) Dr. Zabih Ullah Hashemi and (2) Mansour Yari Kamrani

(1) Department of Management, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran.

(2) Department of Management, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran.

Corresponding Author: Dr. Zabih Ullah Hashemi, Department of Management, Saveh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Saveh, Iran.
Table 1: The first hypothesis test.

Indicative size of table          df   calculated R

%99                         %95   48       %53
%27                         %35

Table 2: The second hypothesis test.

Indicative of size table          df   Calculated R

%99                         %95   48       %37
%27                         %35

Table 3: Third hypothesis test.

Indicative size of table          df   Calculated R

%99                         %95   48       %41
%27                         %35

Table 4: Fourth hypothesis testing.

Indicative size of table          df   Calculated R

%99                         %95   48       %o54
%27                         %35

Table 5: Calculated R for diploma degree.

Indicative size of table          df   Calculated R

%99                         %95   48       %73
%55                         %68

Table 6: Calculated R for Associate diploma Degree.

Indicate sizes table              df   Calculated R

%99                         95%   48       71%
%39                         60%

Table 7: Calculated R for Bachelor Degree.

Indicative size of table           df   Calculated R

%99                         %95    48       %53
%39                         %50
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Author:Hashemi, Zabih Ullah; Kamrani, Mansour Yari
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Oct 1, 2014
Words:3875
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