Printer Friendly

Investigating the robustness of the nonparametric Levene test with more than two groups.

A common practice in statistical data analysis in the psychological, behavioral and educational research is the comparison of means from two or more groups using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) type statistical test. A typical step in this accepted statistical practice is to conduct a test of equality of variances prior to the running of the ANOVA to determine whether or not the assumption of homogeneity of variances is tenable. Heterogeneity of variance occurs in when one or more groups of sample scores have a wider dispersion of scores than other groups to be used in a between groups analysis. The consequence of heterogeneity of variances is that each group will contribute differentially to the estimation of the within groups variance parameter, and thus the sums of squares within groups will be a biased estimate of the population variance parameter leading to increases in the frequency of Type I and Type II errors and thus impacting the power of the test being used by reducing its capacity to correctly reject the null hypothesis.

Box (1953) noted that the F-test for equality of variances was overly sensitive in terms of inflated Type I error rates when the data distributions were sampled from non-normal (i.e., highly skewed or kurtotic distributions). Subsequent to Box's work, numerous tests of equality of variances have been developed (e.g., Levene, 1960; Brown & Forsythe, 1974). These tests were developed to be more robust to the violations of the assumptions of normality. Often these procedures involved transforming the raw score and carrying out an ANOVA on the transformed score. For example, the mean based Levene test transforms scores on the dependent variable by subtracting the mean from each score. Subsequent to this step, a one-way ANOVA is conducted using the transformed scores.

A nonparametric Levene (NPL) test was introduced by Nordstokke and Zumbo (2007) and has been shown to have good statistical properties in both simulated and real data settings (Nordstokke & Zumbo, 2010; Nordstokke, Zumbo, Cairns, & Saklofske, 2011). The NPL was developed as an extension of the mean based Levene where a rank transformation is applied to the data prior to conducting the ANOVA. This equates to using a parametric ANOVA on rank transformed data. The utilization of rank based transformations to avoid the assumption of normality was suggested by Friedman (1937) and more recently by Conover and Iman (1981) as a viable solution to nonnormal distributions. Statisticians and researchers generally agree that replacement of scores on the dependent variable by ranks before performing a parametric analysis of location yields the same decision as a nonparametric test (Zimmerman, 2012). The utilization of this approach is what gives the NPL its strengths for use in practical data analysis settings where data may come from nonnormal population distributions as the rank transformation reduces the impact of non-normal data and outliers (Friedman, 1937).

As Nordstokke and Zumbo (2007; 2010) describe it, the steps of the NPL involves pooling the data from all groups, ranking the scores allowing, if necessary, for ties, placing the rank values back into their original groups, and running the Levene test on the ranks. The NPL test can be written as

ANOVA ([absolute value of ([R.sub.ij] - [[bar.X].sup.R.sub.j])]), (1)

which is a one-way analysis of variance that is conducted on the absolute value of the mean of the ranks for each group, denoted [[bar.X].sup.R.sub.j], subtracted from each individual's rank [R.sub.ij], for individual i in group j. SPSS syntax used to compute the NPL for this study is listed in Appendix 1.

The purpose of the current study is to extend the simulation findings from Nordstokke and Zumbo (2010) to the three, four and five group ANOVA cases. To be consistent with Nordstokke and Zumbo (2010), the simulation includes results of the test that is often considered the "gold standard" of tests for equal variances, the Levene median (ML) test developed by Brown and Forsythe (1974) because, as Conover, Johnson and Johnson (1981) showed, one of the top performing tests for equality of variances in their simulation that compared 56 tests for equality of variances was the median based Levene test. The ML test for equality of variances can be expressed as,

ANOVA ([absolute value of ([X.sub.ij] - [Mdn.sub.j])]),

wherein, the analysis of variance is conducted on the absolute deviations of an individual's score, denoted [X.sub.ij], from their groups median value, denoted [Mdn.sub.j], for each individual i in group j.

This study will investigate the Type I error rates and statistical power of the NPL and ML in the three, four and five group ANOVA cases across several overall sample sizes with varying degrees of skew present in the population distribution, group imbalance and variance imbalance. The purpose of using a wide variety of conditions is to attempt to simulate a wide variety of conditions that might be found across a wide variety of research settings.

METHOD

Data Generation

Standard simulation methodology was employed to perform a computer simulation (e.g., Nordstokke & Zumbo, 2007; 2010; Zimmerman, 1987; 2004). Population distributions were generated and the statistical tests were performed using the statistical software package for the social sciences, SPSS 20. A pseudo random number sampling method with the initial seed selected randomly was used to produce [chi square] distributions. An example of the syntax used to create the population distribution of one group belonging to a normal distribution can be found in Appendix 1 of Nordstokke and Zumbo (2010). Building from Nordstokke and Zumbo (2007; 2010), the design of the three group simulation study was a 4 x 3 x 5 x 9 completely crossed design with: (a) four levels of skew of the population distribution, (b) three levels of sample size, (c) five levels of sample size ratio, niln2ln3, and (d) nine levels of ratios of variances. The dependent variables in this part of the simulation design are the proportion of rejections of the null hypothesis in each cell of the design and, more specifically, the Type I error rates (when the variances are equal), and power under the eight conditions of unequal variances. The design of the four group simulation study was a 4 x 3 x 7 x 7 completely crossed design with: (a) four levels of skew of the population distribution, (b) three levels of sample size, (c) seven levels of sample size ratio, nil n2/ n3/ n4, and (d) seven levels of ratios of variances. Again, the dependent variables in this section of the simulation design are once again the proportion of rejections of the null hypothesis in each cell of the design and, more specifically, the Type I error rates (when the variances are equal), and power under the six conditions of unequal variances. The design for the five group simulation study was 4 x 3 x 3 x 5 completely crossed design with (a) four levels of skew, (b) three levels of sample size, (c) three levels of sample size ratio, n1/n2/n3/n4/n5, and (d) five levels of variance ratio.

Staying consistent with Nordstokke and Zumbo (2007; 2010), we only investigate and discuss statistical power in those conditions wherein the nominal Type I error rate, in our study .05([+ or -] 0.025), is maintained.

Shape of the population distributions (1)

Four levels of skew 0, 1, 2, and 3 were investigated. As is well known, as the degrees of freedom of a [chi square] distribution increase it more closely approximates a normal distribution. The skew of the distributions for both groups were always the same for every replication.

Sample Sizes

For the three group simulation, three different sample sizes, N = [n.sub.1] + [n.sub.2] + [n.sub.3], were investigated: 30, 60, and 90. Five levels of ratio of group sizes ([n.sub.1]/[n.sub.2]/[n.sub.3]: 1/1/1, 1/1/4, 1/2/3, 3/2/1, and 4/1/1) were investigated. For the four group simulation, three different sample sizes, N = [n.sub.1] + [n.sub.2] + [n.sub.3] + [n.sub.4], were investigated: 40, 80, and 120. Seven levels of ratio of group sizes, ([n.sub.1]/[n.sub.2]/[n.sub.3]/[n.sub.4]: 1/1/1/1, 1/1/4/4, 1/1/2/4, 1/1/1/2, 2/1/1/1, 4/2/1/1, 4/4/1/1) were investigated. For the five group simulations, three different sample sizes, N = [n.sub.1] + [n.sub.2] + [n.sub.3] + [n.sub.4] + [n.sub.5], were investigated: 30, 60, and 120. Three levels of ratio of group sizes, ([n.sub.1]/[n.sub.2]/[n.sub.3]/[n.sub.4]/[n.sub.5]: 1/1/1/1/1, 1/1/1/1/2 and 1/1/2/2/4) were used.

Population variance ratios

For the three group simulation, nine levels of variance ratios were investigated ([[sigma].sup.2.sub.1]/[[sigma].sup.2.sub.2]/[[sigma].sup.2.sub.3]: 1/1/4, 1/4/4, 1/1/2, 1/2/2, 1/1/1, 2/2/1, 2/1/1, 4/4/1, and 4/1/1). For the four group simulation, seven levels of variance ratios were investigated ([[sigma].sup.2.sub.1]/[[sigma].sup.2.sub.2]/[[sigma].sup.2.sub.3]/[[sigma].sup.2.sub.4]: 1/1/4/4, 1/1/2/4, 1/1/1/2, 1/1/1/1, 2/1/1/1, 4/2/1/1, and 4/4/1/1). For the five group simulation, five levels of variance ratios were investigated (1/1/1/1/4, 1/1/1/1/2, 1/1/1/1/1, 2/1/1/1/1, and 4/1/1/1/1). Variance ratios were manipulated by multiplying the population of one or more of the groups in the design by a constant to create an imbalance in the variance ratios. The value of the constant was dependent on the amount of variance imbalance that was required for the cell of the design. For example, to create a variance ratio of 2/1/1, the scores of group whose variance is to be changed will have their variances adjusted by multiplying the selected group's variance by the square root of 2. The design was created so that there were direct pairing and inverse pairing in relation to unbalanced groups and direction of variance imbalance. Direct pairing occurs when the larger sample sizes are paired with the larger variance and inverse pairing occurs when the smaller sample size is paired with the larger variance (Tomarken & Serlin, 1986). This was done to investigate a more complete range of data possibilities. In addition, Keyes and Levy (1997) drew our attention to concern with unequal sample sizes, particularly in the case of factorial designs--see also O'Brien (1978, 1979) for discussion of Levene's test in additive models for variances. Findings suggest that the validity and efficiency of a statistical test is somewhat dependent on the direction of the pairing of sample sizes with the ratio of variance.

As a whole, the complex multivariate variable space represented by our simulation design captures many of the possibilities that might be found in day-to-day research practice.

Determining Type I Error Rates & Power

The frequency of Type I errors was tabulated for each cell in the design. For the three, four, and five group simulations, there were 540, 588, and 180 cells in each of the simulation designs respectively. As a description of our methodology, the following will describe the procedure for the ML and NPL tests for completing the steps for one cell in the design for the three group case as its description is generalizable to the four and five group scenarios. First, for both tests, three similarly distributed populations are generated and sampled from; for this example, it was three normally distributed populations that were sampled to create three groups. In this cell of the simulation design, each group had 10 members, and the population variances of the three groups are equal. This example tests the Type I errors for the two tests under the current conditions on the same set of data. For the ML, the absolute deviation from the median is calculated for each value in the sampled distribution and a one-way ANOVA is performed on these values to test if the variances are significantly different at the nominal alpha value of .05 ([+ or -].025). For the NPL, values are pooled and ranked, then partitioned back into their respective groups. A one-way ANOVA is then performed on the ranked data of the three groups to determine if the variances are statistically significantly different at the nominal alpha value of .05 ([+ or -].025). The value of [+ or -].025 represents a liberal indicator of robustness and comes from Bradley (1978). The choice of Bradley's criterion is somewhat arbitrary, although it is the most liberal choice between the alternatives, and some of our conclusions may change with the other criteria. It should be noted that when Type I error rates are less than .05, the validity of the test is not jeopardized to the same extent as they are when they are inflated. This makes a test invalid if the rate of Type I errors are inflated, but when they decrease, the test becomes more conservative, reducing power. Reducing power does not invalidate the results of a test, so tests will be considered to be invalid only if the Type I error rate is inflated. This procedure was replicated 5000 times for each cell in the design.

In the cells where the ratio of variances was not equal and that maintained their Type I error rates, statistical power is represented by the proportion of times that the ML test, and the NPL test, correctly rejected the null hypothesis.

RESULTS

Three group simulation

The Type I error rates for the ML test and the NPL test for all of the conditions in the study are illustrated in Table 1. In all of the conditions of the simulation, both tests maintain their Type I error rate, with the ML test being somewhat conservative in many of the conditions. For example, the first row in Table 1 (reading across the row left to right), for a skew of 0, with an overall sample size of 30 with [n.sub.1]/[n.sub.2]/[n.sub.3] = (5/5/20), the Type I error rate for the NPL test is .056 and the Type I error rate for the ML test is .022.

It was the case that the Type I error rates of both tests was maintained in all of the conditions of the present study, thus power values for all of the simulated conditions will be reported. Table 2 reports the power values of the ML test and the NPL tests when the population skew is equal to 0. In nearly all of the cells of the Table 2 the two tests performed in a similar nature. For example, in the first row of the table are the results for the NPL test, which, for a sample size of 30 with [n.sub.1]/[n.sub.2]/[n.sub.3] = (5/5/20), and a ratio of variances of 1/1/4), the power is .385; that is, 38.5 percent of the null hypotheses were correctly rejected. In comparison, the power of the ML test (the next row in the table) under the same conditions was .247. When the total sample size was 30 the NPL test had a slight power advantage over the ML test in many of the cells of the design (i.e., 18 of the 24 cells in this section of the design); however, these power differences were small and in the cases when the ML had a power advantage, the differences were also small. When the sample size increased to 60 the power values of the two tests were very similar. When sample sizes were 90, the ML had a power advantage of the NPL in many of the cells of the design.

The next condition investigated in the three group simulation was where the skew of the population distribution was equal to 1. Table 3 illustrates the power values of the NPL and the ML tests. When the sample size was 30, the NPL had small to moderate power differences with the ML test. For example, in Table 3 for the condition where N = 30, n1/n2/n3 = 5/5/20 and the variance ratio is 1/1/4, the NPL has a power value of .424 and the ML has a power value of .184. In 23 of the 24 cells when the total sample size was equal to 30, the NPL possessed higher power values than the ML. As sample size increased to 60 and 90, the power differences between the two tests become smaller with the two tests performing quite similarly across the cells of the design.

The power values of the three group case where the skew of the population distribution is equal to 2 are listed in table 4. The NPL had higher power values than the ML in every cell of this part of the design. The magnitude of the power differences between the two tests ranged from moderate to large. For example, in the condition where N = 30, n1/n2/n3 was 5/5/20 and the variance ratio was 1/1/4, the power of the NPL was .556, whereas the power for the ML was .092.

Table 5 lists the power values of the ML and the NPL tests when the skew of the population distribution is equal to 3. The NPL possessed higher power values that the ML in every cell with power differences that are generally large. For example, in the condition where N = 30, n1/n2/n3 was 5/5/20 and the variance ratio was 1/1/4, the power of the NPL was .713, whereas the power for the ML was .025.

Four group simulation

The Type I error rates for the NPL and ML are presented in Table 6. Type I error rates were maintained in every cell in the four group simulation. It should be noted that the Type I error of the NPL exceed .07 in few of the cells, but stayed within the bounds of .075 allowing for the interpretation of the power values. For example, the condition where the total sample size is 40, n1/n2/n3/n4 4/4/16/16, the NPL has a Type I error rate of .070 and the ML has a Type I error rate of .061.

Table 7 presents the power values of the two tests when the skew of the population distribution is equal to 0. Overall, power differences between the NPL and the ML are small. The NPL has a small power advantage over the ML in 16 of the 24 cells in the condition where total sample size is equal to 40. For example, in the condition where the total sample size is 40, n1/n2/n3/n4 is 4/4/16/16 and the ratio of variances is 1/1/2/4, the power of the NPL is .285 and the power for the ML is .189. When the total sample size is equal to 80 or 120, the ML has a small to moderate power advantage over the ML in 45 of the 48 cells. For example, when the total sample size is 80, n1/n2/n3/n/4 is 8/8/32/32 and the ratio of variances is 4/4/1/1 the NPL has a power value of .374, whereas the ML's power is equal to .692.

Table 8 lists the power values of the NPL and the ML tests when the skew of the population distribution is equal to 1. The NPL has a small to moderate power advantage over the ML in 20 of the 24 cells when the sample size is equal to 40. For example, when the total sample size is 40, n1/n2/n3/n4 is 4/4/16/16 and the ratio of variances is 1/1/2/4, the NPL has a power value of .332, whereas the ML has a power value of .148.

Table 9 presents the power values of the two tests when the skew of the population distribution is equal to 2. The NPL has moderate to large power advantages over the ML in nearly every cell of the design. For example, when the total sample size is 40, n1/n2/n3/n4 is 4/4/16/16 and the ratio of variances is 1/1/2/4, the power of the NPL is .464 and the power of the ML is .094. In the conditions where the total sample size is 80 and 120, the NPL has small to moderate power differentials with the ML. For example, when the total sample size is 80, n1/n2/n3/n4 is 10/10/20/40 and the ratio of variance is 4/4/1/1, the NPL's power is .651, whereas the ML's power is .484.

Table 10 lists the power values of the two tests when the skew of the population distribution is equal to 3. The NPL possesses moderate to large power advantages over the ML. For example, in the condition where the total sample size is 40, n1/n2/n3/n4 is 8/8/8/16 and the ratio of variances is 4/4/1/1, the NPL has a power value of .656 and the ML's power is equal to .173. When the total sample size is 80 or 120, the NPL is more powerful than the ML in every cell of the design and in many cases the power difference is very large. For example, when the total sample size is 80, n1/n2/n3/n4 is 8/8/32/32 and the ratio of variances is 4/4/1/1, the power of the NPL is .697 and the power of the ML is .335.

Five group simulation

Table 11 lists the Type I error rates for the ML and the NPL tests. Once again, the nominal Type I error rate was maintained for both tests in every cell of the design. The NPL did have some slightly elevated error rates in some of the cells of the design compared to the ML; however, these values are within the liberal criteria for robustness. For example, when the total sample size is 30, n1/n2/n3/n4/n5 is 3/3/6/6/12 and skew is zero, the NPL has a Type I error rate of .071 and the ML has a Type I error rate of .021.

Table 12 presents the power values for the ML and the NPL tests when the skew of the population distribution is equal to 0. When the sample size was small the NPL has a small to moderate power advantage of the ML. For example, when the total sample size is 30, n1/n2/n3/n4/n5 is 3/3/6/6/12 and the ratio of variances is 1/1/1/1/4, the NPL has a power value of .317 and the ML's power is.189. When the overall sample size 60 or 90, the ML possesses small to moderate power advantage over the NPL in most cells. For example, when the overall sample size is 60, n1/n2/n3/n4/n5 is 6/6/12/12/24 and the variance ratio is 1/1/1/1/4, the power of the NPL is .576 and the power of the ML is .63. Overall, when the skew was equal to zero both tests performed similarly with the NPL performing slightly better when the sample sizes was small and the ML performing better when the sample sizes were larger.

Table 13 lists the power values for the two tests when the skew of the population distribution is equal to 1. The NPL had a power advantage over the ML in every cell in the table except for two. The differences in power between the two tests are small in some cases (e.g., when N = 30, n1/n2/n3/n4/n5 = 3/3/6/6/12 and the variance ratio is 1/1/1/1/2, the NPL has a power value of .112 whereas the ML has a power value of .047. In many cells the differences in power are quite large (e.g., when N = 30, n1/n2/n3/n4/n5 = 6/6/6/6/6 and the variance ratio is 1/1/1/1/2, the NPL has a power value of .527 and the ML's power is .072.

Table 14 lists the power values for the two tests when the skew of the population distribution is equal to 2. The NPL demonstrated a power advantage over the ML in every cell of the table. Once again the power differences ranged from small to large. For example, when the total sample size was 30, the ratio of sample sizes was 3/3/6/6/12 and the ratio of variances was 1/1/1/1/2, the NPL had a small power advantage over the ML with values of .113 and .044 respectively. Whereas, when the total sample size was 30, the ratio of sample sizes was 3/3/6/6/12 and the ratio of variances was 1/1/1/1/2, the NPL had quite a large power advantage over the ML with values of .529 and .080 respectively.

Table 15 lists the power values for the two tests when the skew of the population distribution is equal to 3. Once again, the NPL possessed a power advantage over the ML in every cell of the table. Once again the power differences ranged from small to large. For example, when the total sample size was 30, the ratio of sample sizes was 3/3/6/6/12 and the ratio of variances was 1/1/1/1/2, the NPL had a small power advantage over the ML with values of .119 and .039 respectively. Whereas, when the total sample size was 30, the ratio of sample sizes was 3/3/6/6/12 and the ratio of variances was 1/1/1/1/2, the NPL had quite a large power advantage over the ML with values of .534 and .081 respectively.

DISCUSSION

The findings from the series of simulations that were conducted provide further support for the usefulness of the NPL when data are sampled from distributions that tend to be more heavily skewed. In general, the Type I error rates of the ML tended to be consistently lower than the NPL; however, the overly conservative nature of the ML tends to result in lower power values, which was demonstrated in the current simulations. In some of the cells in the current simulation design, the NPL had slightly elevated Type I error rates in comparison to the ML; however, they remained within the liberal criteria set out by Bradley (1978). Results support the utility of the NPL across a wide variety of ANOVA designs, especially when sample sizes are small and population distributions may be skewed or unknown.

When the overall sample sizes were in the larger two categories (e.g., 60 and 90 for the five group simulation) and the skew of the population distribution was equal to 0, the ML had an overall power advantage over the NPL; however, when the overall sample sizes were smaller and the skew of the distribution was 1 or larger, the NPL was consistently more powerful than the ML.

Interestingly, the power of both of the tests were impacted by the imbalance between the numbers in each group with more group imbalance leading to both increases and decreases in power. One pattern that tended to emerge in the results was that in the direct pairing condition, as the groups became more unbalanced the power of the NPL tended to increase and the power of the ML tended to decrease. Whereas, in the indirect pairing conditions, as the groups become imbalanced, the power of the ML tended to go up and the power of the NPL tended to decrease. This pattern was not consistent across all conditions but did tend to coincide with the conditions where skew was higher (i.e., 2 or 3). In addition, the magnitude of the differences in the variances between the groups impacted the results. This finding makes intuitive sense as the magnitude difference between the variances essentially represents the effect size for this simulation study.

More interesting is the interaction of ratio of sample sizes and the ratio of variances. Note that in terms of impact of direct versus indirect pairing between the degree of imbalance between the groups sizes and the degree of inequality of the variances, the findings support those of Nordstokke and Zumbo (2010) whereby the NPL had a power advantage when the pairings were direct and the ML had a power advantage when the pairings were indirect. As noted by Nordstokke and Zumbo (2010), the direction of pairing impacts the mean square values in the model resulting in distorted expressions of variance.

Even though the median version of the Levene test has been demonstrated to have good statistical properties and robustness, using it as the only comparison test reduces the generalizability of the results; however, future studies will include a broader spectrum of tests of variance (e.g., bootstrapping approaches) to further support the potential utility of the NPL. Nevertheless, the results of the current study are an important first step in establishing the usefulness of the NPL as a practical statistical tool that may be utilize in a wide variety of research settings where small sample sizes or skewed data are often found.

One caveat that was present in Nordstokke and Zumbo (2010) is also present in this paper relates to the generalizability of the results. Since only Chi-square distributions were used in the simulation study, the results could reflect some idiosyncrasy present within the data generation method. This was done purposefully to replicate the method used by Nordstokke and Zumbo (2010). As mentioned in that paper, this does not invalidate the findings of the present study, but instead illustrates that a wider variety of distributions need to be used in future studies. It is also important to note that this study used more liberal alpha criterion for assessing robustness than was used by Nordstokke and Zumbo (2010). In their study, .05 ([+ or -] .01) and the current study used .05 ([+ or -] .025). This allowed for a broader discussion of the results in terms of power; however, if the more strict criterion of .05 ([+ or -] .01) had been used then there would have been several cells of the design where the Type I error of the NPL would have been elevated beyond the .06 level. This was evident in the four and five group cases and for the small sample size condition (e.g., N = 40). A problem inherent the interpretation of simulation research of this nature is that no studies have been conducted that inform us on the limits of the allowable differences in variances for analysis of variance type tests. Put another way, we do not know what degree of variance heterogeneity (in combination with distributional disturbances, sample size, direct or inverse pairing of group size, etc.) is necessary to increase the Type I error rate of, for example, the ANOVA test of means to an unacceptable level. Future research will investigate these bounds so that less arbitrary criterion for simulation studies can be established.

A point that deserves attention at this juncture has to do with the precision of the results. This simulation study was based on 5000 replications and is intended to be used to inform about the statistical properties of the tests being investigated. The results that are presented are essentially point estimates of the "true" Type I errors and power of the tests under investigation and by are not presented as proof of the validity of the robustness of the NPL, but as evidence of its potential utility as a data analytic tool. Future studies will focus on investigating its further utility.

To summarize, the simulation results demonstrate the potential utility of the NPL when data come from heavily skewed population distributions. This supports the findings of Nordstokke and Zumbo (2010) where the NPL maintained its Type I error rate and possessed high power values when population distributions were heavily skewed. It is important to note that the NPL has higher power when the total sample size is small across the three simulation studies. This suggests that the NPL has utility for research settings that tend to have yield smaller sample sizes and group membership often tends to be imbalanced or when data tend to be heavily skewed. This often occurs in psychological and health based research setting where access to participant populations can be challenging due to small populations or limited access to participants from their populations of interest.

APPENDIX 1

SPSS syntax used to run the NPL for the present simulation study
* Creating Absolute Rank Difference Value for ANOVA'Nonparametric
Levene.

GET FILE = 'G:\Input FilesvSimulated Population x 1x2x3.sav'.

SORT CASES BYNdraw.
SPLIT FILE LAYERED BY Ndraw.
RANK VARIABLES=dv (A)
 /RANK
 /PRINT=YES
 /TIES=MEAN.
SPLIT FILE OFF.

AGGREGATE
 /OUTFILE=* MODE=ADDVARIABLES O VER W RITE VARS=YE S
 /BREAK=Ndraw group
 /Rdv_mean=MEAN(Rdv).

COMPUTE Rdifference=ABS(Rdv-Rdv mean).
EXECUTE.

SAVE OUTFILE-G:.Input Files 'Simulated Population x 1x2x3. sav'
/KEEP=all 'COMPRESSED.
EXECUTE.

*Running ANOVA for Nonparametric Levene.

GET FILE = 'G: Input Files'Simulated Population xlx2x3.sav'.

SORT CASES BY Ndraw (A).

SPLIT FILE by ndraw.
EXECUTE.

OMS
 /SELECT TABLES
/IF COMMANDS=['Oneway']
     SUBTYPES=['ANOVA']
 /DESTINATION FORMAT=SAV
           OUTFILE='G:\Input Files.Nonparametric Results.sav'
           VIEWER =no.

ONEWAY
 Rdifference BY group
 /STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES EFFECTS
 /MISSING ANALYSIS .

OMSEND.
EXECUTE.


REFERENCES

Box, G. E. P. (1953). Non-normality and tests on variance. Biometrika, 40, 318-335.

Bradley, J.V. (1978). Robustness? British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 31, 144-152.

Brown, M.B., & Forsythe, A.B. (1974). Robust tests for the equality of variances. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 69(2), 364-367.

Conover, W. J., & Iman, R. L. (1981). Rank transformations as a bridge between parametric and nonparametric statistics. American Statistician, 35, 124-129.

Conover, W.J., Johnson, M.E., & Johnson, M. M. (1981). A comparative study of tests for homogeneity of variances, with applications to the outer continental shelf bidding data. Technometrics, 23(4), 351- 361.

Friedman, M. (1937). The use of ranks to avoid the assumption of normality implicit in the analysis of variance. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 32, 675-701.

Keyes, T. M., & Levy, M. S. (1997). Analysis of Levene's test under design imbalance. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 22, 227-236.

Levene, H. (1960). Robust tests for equality of variances. In I. Olkin et al. (Eds.), Contributions to probability and statistics: Essay in honor of Harold Hotelling (pp. 2 78-292). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Nordstokke, D.W., & Zumbo, B.D. (2007). A cautionary tale about Levene's tests for equality of variances. Journal of Educational Research and Policy Studies, 7, 1-14.

Nordstokke, D.W., & Zumbo, B.D. (2010). A new non-parametric test for equal variances. Psicologica, 31, 401-430.

Nordstokke, D.W., Zumbo, D.W., Cairns, S.L., & Saklofske, D.H. (2011). The operating characteristics of the nonparametric Levene test for equal variances with assessment and evaluation data. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 16(5), 1-8.

O'Brien, R. G. (1978). Robust Techniques for Testing Heterogeneity of Variance Effects in Factorial Designs. Psychometrika, 43, 327-344.

O'Brien, R. G. (1979). A General ANOVA Method for Robust Tests of Additive Models for Variances. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 74, 877-880.

Tomarken, A.J., & Serlin, R. C. (1986). Comparison of ANOVA alternatives under variance heterogeneity and specific noncentrality structures. Psychological Bulletin, 99(1), 90-99.

Zimmerman, D.W. (1987). Comparative power of Student t test and Mann-Whitney U test for unequal sample sizes and variances. Journal of Experimental Education, 55, 171-174.

Zimmerman, D.W. (2004). A note on preliminary test of equality of variances. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 57, 173-181.

Zimmerman, D.W. (2012). A note on consistency of non-parametric rank tests and related rank transformations. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 65, 122-144.

(Manuscript received: 10 March 2014; accepted: 13 May 2014)

David W. Nordstokke * and S. Mitchell Colp

University of Calgary, Canada

* Address correspondence to: David W. Nordstokke, Ph.D. Educational Studies in School Psychology. Werklund School of Education. University of Calgary. 2500 University Drive NW. Education Tower 302. Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4. Email: dnordsto@ucalgary.ca

(1) It should be noted that the population skew was determined empirically for large sample sizes of 120,000 values with 1000, 7.4, 2.2, and .83 degrees of freedom resulting in skew values of 0.03, 1.03, 1.92, and 3.06, respectively; because the degrees of freedom are not whole numbers, the distributions are approximations. The mathematical relation is [[gamma].sub.1] = [square root of (8/df)].
Table 1. Three group Type I error rates of the Nonparametric and
Median versions of the Levene tests under equivalent variance
conditions.

                 Skew = 0      Skew = 1      Skew = 2      Skew = 3

N     n1/n2/n3   NPL     ML    NPL     ML    NPL     ML    NPL     ML

30    5/5/20    .056   .022   .057   .023   .060   .027   .059   .038
30   5/10/15    .057   .027   .056   .027   .058   .039   .059   .033
30   10/10/10   .047   .033   .050   .041   .050   .049   .048   .058
60   10/10/40   .054   .033   .058   .041   .057   .038   .058   .048
60   10/20/30   .047   .034   .056   .045   .055   .050   .048   .047
60   20/20/20   .047   .032   .051   .043   .049   .042   .045   .046
90   15/15/60   .050   .036   .052   .035   .062   .043   .056   .046
90   15/30/45   .050   .040   .048   .040   .051   .045   .051   .043
90   30/30/30   .055   .044   .053   .045   .050   .051   .053   .046

Note. NPL = Nonparametric Levene; ML = Median Levene.

Table 2. Three group power values of the Nonparametric and Median
version of the Levene test for equality of variances for skew of zero.

                           Population Variance Ratio

                                Direct Pairings

Test   N    nl/n2/n3   1/1/4   1/4/4   1/1/2   1/2/2

NPL    30    5/5/20    .385    .218    .152    .111
ML     30    5/5/20    .247    .077    .069    .039
NPL    30   5/10/15    .377    .205    .148    .092
ML     30   5/10/15    .330    .085    .088    .040
NPL    30   10/10/10   .298    .293     .in    .094
ML     30   10/10/10   .381    .241    .099    .076

NPL    60   10/10/40   .705    .457    .255    .163
ML     60   10/10/40   .706    .343    .201    .111
NPL    60   10/20/30   .705    .456    .247    .147
ML     60   10/20/30   .796    .349    .263    .105
NPL    60   20/20/20   .581    .629    .193    .189
ML     60   20/20/20   .772    .673    .244    .189

NPL    90   15/15/60   .869    .676    .338    .221
ML     90   15/15/60   .920    .638    .334    .178
NPL    90   15/30/45   .882    .653    .339    .203
ML     90   15/30 45   .956    .622    .397    .170
NPL    90   30/30/30   .792    .834    .288    .291
ML     90   30/30/30   .932    .906    .383    .325

           Population Variance Ratio

              Indirect Pairings

Test   2/2/1   2/1/1   4/4/1   4/1/1

NPL    .085    .082    .235    .158
ML     .055    .047    .260    .194
NPL    .106    .076    .302    .153
ML     .080    .053    .305    .197
NPL    .100    .107    .289    .284
ML     .081    .102    .241    .347

NPL    .154    .119    .485    .321
ML     .236    .174    .745    .594
NPL    .190    .111    .620    .321
ML     .240    .170    .775    .572
NPL    .193    .199    .624    .567
ML     .196    .249    .675    .760

NPL    .236    .166    .707    .495
ML     .345    .259    .909    .779
NPL    .293    .159    .836    .504
ML     .380    .251    .945    .780
NPL    .280    .267    .838    .787
ML     .319    .364    .915    .936

Note. NPL = Nonparametric Levene; ML = Median Levene.

Table 3. Three group power values of the Nonparametric and Median
version of the Levene test for equality of variances for skew of
one.

                           Papulation Variance Ratio

                                Direct Pairings

Test   N    n1/n2/n3   1/1/4   1/4/4   1/1/2   1/2/2

NPL    30    5/5/20    .424    .249    .166    .111
ML     30    5/5/20    .184    .072    .055    .036
NPL    30   5/10/15    .425    .235    .157    .107
ML     30   5/10/15    .262    .081    .075    .044
NPL    30   10/10/10   .316    .327    .127    .120
ML     30   10/10/10   .313    .203    .090    .081

NPL    60   10/10/40   .765    .523    .298    .177
ML     60   10/10/40   .547    .252    .156    .092
NPL    60   10/20/30   .774    .516    .282    .173
ML     60   10/20/30   .691    .258    .207    .083
NPL    60   20/20/20   .642    .708    .238    .221
ML     60   20/20/20   .669    .563    .211    .155

NPL    90   15/15/60   .922    .750    .399    .252
ML     90   15/15/60   .821    .481    .259    .135
NPL    90   15/30/45   .929    .733    .419    .244
ML     90   15/30/45   .897    .469    .329    .133
NPL    90   30/30/30   .840    .885    .337    .335
ML     90   30/30/30   .870    .804    .321    .257

           Population Variance Ratio

               Indirect Pairings

Test   2/2/1   2/1/1   4/4/1   4/1/1

NPL    .099    .087    .256    .226
ML     .061    .050    .177    .182
NPL    .126    .088    .338    .162
ML     .090    .058    .266    .171
NPL    .128    .122    .330    .333
ML     .085    .100    .206    .316

NPL    .175    .143    .545    .374
ML     .211    .160    .668    .517
NPL    .229    .128    .695    .360
ML     .209    .154    .677    .512
NPL    .226    .237    .705    .648
ML     .161    .201    .554    .681

NPL    .280    .182    .765    .542
ML     .301    .211    .851    .690
NPL    .353    .190    .893    .549
ML     .315    .210    .888    .701
NPL    .340    .342    .890    .846
ML     .262    .317    .803    .882

Note. NPL = Nonparametric Levene; ML = Median Levene.

Table 4. Three group power values of the Nonparametric and Median
version of the Levene test for equality of variances for skew of
two.

                           Population Variance Ratio

                               Direct Pairings

Test   N    n1/n2/n3   1/1/4   1/4/4   1/1/2   1/2/2

NPL    30    5/5/20    .556    .335    .238    .159
ML     30    5/5/20    .092    .053    .039    .035
NPL    30   5/10/15    .543    .314    .230    .132
ML     30   5/10/15    .155    .060    .054    .043
NPL    30   10/10/10   .415    .439    .180    .178
ML     30   10/10/10   .220    .159    .084    .079

NPL    60   10/10/40   .904    .694    .451    .276
ML     60   10/10/40   .295    .132    .080    .064
NPL    60   10/20/30   .893    .684    .454    .260
ML     60   10/20/30   .460    .127    .126    .064
NPL    60   20/20/20   .759    .860    .356    .364
ML     60   20/20/20   .464    .339    .145    .108

NPL    90   15/15/60   .985    .902    .618    .405
ML     90   15/15 60   .532    .247    .137    .090
NPL    90   15/30/45   .981    .890    .642    .392
ML     90   15/30/45   .679    .246    .193    .084
NPL    90   30/30/30   .929    .971    .526    .567
ML     90   30/30/30   .694    .561    .201    .170

            Population Variance Ratio

               Indirect Pairings

Test   2/2/1   2/1/1   4/4/1   4/1/1

NPL    .141    .118    .333    .230
ML     .080    .060    .199    .146
NPL    .188    .108    .437    .211
ML     .079    .067    .198    .158
NPL    .175    .177    .442    .404
ML     .073    .079    .149    .211

NPL    .288    .197    .686    .441
ML     .185    .126    .510    .383
NPL    .376    .193    .841    .433
ML     .147    .135    .481    .376
NPL    .365    .361    .857    .768
ML     .116    .144    .334    .483

NPL    .454    .308    .875    .659
ML     .228    .168    .691    .517
NPL    .566    .288    .968    .660
ML     .217    .170    .685    .535
NPL    .547    .514    .974    .927
ML     .159    .208    .565    .680

Note. NPL = Nonparametric Levene; ML = Median Levene.

Table 5. Three group power values of the Nonparametric and Median
version of the Levene test for equality of variances for skew of
three.

                           Population Variance Ratio

                                Direct Pairings

Test   N    n1/n2/n3   1/1/4   1/4/4   1/1/2   1/2/2

NPL    30    5/5/20    .713    .463    .510    .303
ML     30    5/5,20    .025    .036    .021    .029
NPL    30   5/10/15    .674    .450    .498    .273
ML     30   5/10/15    .062    .040    .036    .040
NPL    30   10/10/10   .531    .629    .365    .397
ML     30   10/10/10   .127    .097    .071    .064

NPL    60   10/10/40   .989    .914    .866    .619
ML     60   10/10/40   .065    .060    .029    .038
NPL    60   10/20/30   .964    .908    .852    .613
ML     60   10/20/30   .165    .055    .053    .040
NPL    60   20/20,20   .867    .978    .717    .795
ML     60   20/20/20   .231    .161    .098    .072

NPL    90   15/15/60   1.000   .991    .966    .838
ML     90   15/15/60   .157    .079    .043    .048
NPL    90   15/30/45   .998    .991    .968    .833
ML     90   15/30/45   .304    .088    .088    .050
NPL    90   30/30/30   .967    .999    .895    .947
ML     90   30/30/30   .376    .253    .120    .098

           Population Variance Ratio

               Indirect Pairings

Test   2/2/1   2/1/1   4/4/1   4/1/1

NPL    .307    .197    .483    .336
ML     .089    .062    .167    .125
NPL    .399    .201    .621    .305
ML     .072    .069    .137    .123
NPL    .395    .359    .626    .540
ML     .064    .069    .096    .120

NPL    .616    .388    .837    .563
ML     .139    .096    .332    .242
NPL    .776    .395    .948    .560
ML     .106    .105    .274    .242
NPL    .801    .716    .975    .865
ML     .073    .087    .173    .231

NPL    .835    .589    .965    .766
ML     .167    .120    .462    .328
NPL    .944    .581    .997    .757
ML     .146    .127    .384    .334
NPL    .947    .901    .999    .966
ML     .097    .119    .260    .355

Note. NPL = Nonparametric Levene; ML = Median Levene.

Table 6. Four group Type I error rates of the Nonparametric and
Median versions of the Levene tests under equivalent variance
conditions.

                      Skew = 0      Skew = 1

N     n1/n2/n3/n4   NPL     ML    NPL     ML

40     4/4/16/16    .070   .039   .071   .049
40     5/5/10/20    .061   .019   .064   .023
40     8/8/8/16     .060   .030   .055   .040
40    10/10/10/10   .053   .033   .058   .043
80     8/8/32/32    .054   .034   .060   .038
80    10/10/20/40   .050   .038   .053   .041
80    16/16/16/32   .046   .031   .056   .039
80    20/20/20/20   .052   .030   .051   .037
120   12/12/48/48   .055   .041   .056   .041
120   15/15/30/60   .053   .038   .059   .040
120   24/24/24/48   .051   .040   .051   .045
120   30/30/30/30   .057   .045   .045   .043

       Skew = 2      Skew = 3

N     NPL     ML    NPL     ML

40    .069   .055   .066   .050
40    .057   .029   .056   .042
40    .056   .052   .056   .054
40    .055   .046   .050   .052
80    .064   .044   .060   .049
80    .061   .045   .051   .045
80    .054   .051   .053   .045
80    .058   .042   .046   .048
120   .059   .047   .055   .049
120   .057   .046   .052   .050
120   .048   .046   .052   .043
120   .051   .045   .054   .046

Note. NPL = Nonparametric Levene; ML = Median Levene.

Table 7. Four group power values of the Nonparametric and Median
version of the Levene test for equality of variances for skew of
zero.

                             Population Variance Ratio

                                   Direct Parings

Test    N    n1/n2/n3/n4   1/1/4/4   1/1/2/4   1/1/1/2

NPL    40     4/4/16/16     .303      .285      .159
ML     40     4/4/16/16     .114      .189      .118
NPL    40     5/5/10/20     .306      .299      .141
ML     40     5/5/10/20     .142      .180      .066
NPL    40     8/8/8/16      .397      .356      .151
ML     40     8/8/8/16      .338      .322      .105
NPL    40    10/10/10/10    .375      .271      .113
ML     40    10/10/10/10    .394      .321      .105

NPL    80     8/8/32/32     .626      .543      .269
ML     80     8/8/32/32     .510      .568      .289
NPL    80    10/10/20/40    .638      .569      .240
ML     80    10/10/20/40    .594      .599      .245
NPL    80    16/16/16/32    .742      .672      .258
ML     80    16/16/16/32    .812      .774      .283
NPL    80    20/20/20/20    .734      .555      .180
ML     80    20/20/20/20    .860      .716      .228

NPL    120   12/12/48/48    .821      .739      .386
ML     120   12/12/48/48    .811      .817      .473
NPL    120   15/15/30/60    .875      .834      .403
ML     120   15/15/30/60    .903      .896      .465
NPL    120   24/24/24/48    .919      .870      .363
ML     120   24/24/24/48    .967      .952      .456
NPL    120   30/30/30/30    .915      .768      .266
ML     120   30/30/30/30    .978      .914      .373

         Population Variance Ratio

              Indirect Pairings

Test   2/1/1/1   4/2/1/1   4/4/1/1

NPL     .073      .145      .180
ML      .078      .265      .381
NPL     .081      .150      .218
ML      .036      .144      .210
NPL     .091      .226      .328
ML      .090      .304      .419
NPL     .107      .258      .371
ML      .097      .302      .388

NPL     .100      .256      .374
ML      .140      .509      .692
NPL     .103      .310      .455
ML      .144      .539      .723
NPL     .152      .481      .672
ML      .209      .691      .857
NPL     .188      .539      .738
ML      .252      .711      .856

NPL     .109      .398      .577
ML      .188      .722      .887
NPL     .143      .495      .706
ML      .223      .785      .931
NPL     .235      .700      .874
ML      .349      .893      .976
NPL     .283      .765      .920
ML      .391      .913      .982

Note. NPL = Nonparametric Levene; ML = Median Levene.

Table 8. Four group power values of the Nonparametric and Median
version of the Levene test for equality of variances for skew of
one.

                             Population Variance Ratio

                                    Direct Parings

Test    N    n1/n2/n3/n4   1/1/4/4   1/1/2/4   1/1/1/2

NPL    40    4/4/16/ 1G     .345      .332      .187
ML     40     4/4/16/16     .096      .148      .100
NPL    40     5/5/10/20     .347      .339      .168
ML     40     5/5/10/20     .118      .140      .064
NPL    40     8/8/8/16      .441      .401      .175
ML     40     8/8,8/16      .270      .262      .103
NPL    40    10/10/10/10    .419      .310      .127
ML     40    10/10/10/10    .324      .256      .099

NPL    80     8/8/32/32     .695      .619      .320
ML     80     8/8/32/32     .355      .437      .223
NPL    80    10/10/20/40    .701      .634      .276
ML     80    10/10/20/40    .438      .460      .185
NPL    80    16/16/16/32    .818      .747      .311
ML     80    16/16/16/32    .687      .643      .229
NPL    80    20/20/20/20    .790      .616      .221
ML     80    20/20/20/20    .747      .601      .206

NPL    120   12/12/48/48    .887      .830      .449
ML     120   12/12/48/48    .650      .693      .367
NPL    120   15/15/30/60    .924      .900      .487
ML     120   15/15/30/60    .768      .790      .360
NPL    120   24/24/24/48    .962      .915      .435
ML     120   24/24/24/48    .915      .871      .364
NPL    120   30/30/30/30    .952      .829      .319
ML     120   30/30/30/30    .937      .832      .303

         Population Variance Ratio

              Indirect Pairings

Test   2/1/1/1   4/2/1/1   4/4/1/I

NPL     .087      .156      .206
ML      .094      .243      .340
NPL     .086      .185      .244
ML      .045      .142      .186
NPL     .105      .269      .362
ML      .091      .276      .359
NPL     .126      .300      .421
ML      .096      .258      .325

NPL     .099      .285      .426
ML      .126      .439      .622
NPL     .128      .351      .513
ML      .138      .447      .627
NPL     .180      .539      .742
ML      .177      .596      .765
NPL     .211      .631      .800
ML      .193      .617      .751

NPL     .142      .458      .636
ML      .184      .633      .808
NPL     .182      .571      .772
ML      .199      .705      .867
NPL     .270      .771      .912
ML      .274      .809      .931
NPL     .340      .827      .949
ML      .310      .832      .933

Note. NPL = Nonparametric Levene; ML = Median Levene.

Table 9. Four group power values of the Nonparametric and Median
version of the Levene test for equality of variances for skew of
two.

                             Population Variance Ratio

                                   Direct Parings

Test    N    nl/n2/n3/n4   1/1/4/4   1/1/2/4   1/1/1/2

NPL    40    4/4/16/16      .461      .464      .282
ML     40    4/4/16/16      .056      .094      .080
NPL    40    5/5/10/20      .477      .453      .241
ML     40    5/5/10/20      .080      .089      .047
NPL    40    8/8/8/16       .589      .548      .257
ML     40    8/8/8/16       .161      .167      .072
NPL    40    10/10/10/10    .554      .426      .173
ML     40    10/10/10/10    .226      .189      .085

NPL    80    8/8/32/32      .861      .814      .499
ML     80    8/8/32/32      .162      .236      .141
NPL    80    10/10/20/40    .870      .831      .452
ML     80    10/10/20/40    .239      .263      .119
NPL    80    16/16/16/32    .934      .896      .476
ML     80    16/16/16/32    .426      .397      .140
NPL    80    20/20/20/20    .921      .791      .337
ML     80    20/20/20/20    .521      .414      .144

NPL    120   12/12/48/48    .979      .959      .682
ML     120   12/12/48/48    .330      .424      .228
NPL    120   15/15/30/60    .987      .980      .724
ML     120   15/15/30/60    .463      .494      .199
NPL    120   24/24/24/48    .992      .987      .670
ML     120   24/24/24/48    .699      .644      .218
NPL    120   30/30/30/30    .991      .944      .510
ML     120   30/30/30/30    .763      .620      .215

          Population Variance Ratio

             Indirect Pairings

Test   2/1/1/1   4/2/1/1   4/4/1/1

NPL     .101      .200      .266
ML      .091      .214      .289
NPL     .108      .240      .324
ML      .047      .128      .173
NPL     .143      .359      .470
ML      .081      .209      .260
NPL     .183      .419      .546
ML      .089      .173      .233

NPL     .153      .388      .544
ML      .109      .341      .485
NPL     .175      .497      .651
ML      .110      .354      .484
NPL     .295      .712      .863
ML      .142      .423      .545
NPL     .336      .792      .911
ML      .142      .413      .527

NPL     .213      .590      .768
ML      .150      .476      .663
NPL     .257      .718      .860
ML      .162      .519      .712
NPL     .421      .898      .981
ML      .194      .609      .781
NPL     .502      .946      .990
ML      .207      .625      .768

Note. NPL = Nonparametric Levene; ML = Median Levene.

Table 10. Four group power values of the Nonparametric and Median
version of the Levene test for equality of variances for skew of
three.

                              Population Variance Ratio

                                   Direct Parings

Test    N    n1/n2/n3/n4   1/1/4/4   1/1/2/4   1/1/1/2

NPL    40     4/4/16/16     .644      .757      .558
ML     40     4/4/16/16     .029      .046      .059
NPL    40     5/5/10/20     .640      .694      .502
ML     40     5/5/10/20     .045      .035      .044
NPL    40     8/8/8/16      .776      .756      .542
ML     40     8/8/8/16      .080      .073      .047
NPL    40    10/10/10/10    .734      .664      .349
ML     40    10/10/10/10    .127      .121      .063

NPL    80     8/8/32/32     .981      .982      .882
ML     80     8/8/32/32     .045      .081      .069
NPL    80    10/10/20/40    .982      .971      .836
ML     80    10/10/20/40    .079      .090      .048
NPL    80    16/16/16/32              .984      .885
ML     80    16/16/16/32    .175      .160      .069
NPL    80    20/20/20/20    .984      .954      .681
ML     80    20/20/20/20    .253      .207      .091

NPL    120   12/12/48/48    1.000     1.000     .976
ML     120   12/12/48/48    .083      .147      .104
NPL    120   15/15/30/60    1.000     1.000     .989
ML     120   15/15/30/60    .136      .161      .075
NPL    120   24/24/24/48    1.000     1.000     .978
ML     120   24/24/24/48    .306      .282      .096
NPL    120   30/30/30/30    .999      .996      .876
ML     120   30/30/30/30    .404      .311      .118

          Population Variance Ratio

              Indirect Pairings

Test   2/1/1/1   4/2/1/1   4/4/1/1

NPL     .162      .345      .407
ML      .094      .189      .242
NPL     .192      .393      .453
ML      .062      .112      .142
NPL     .267      .572      .656
ML      .074      .150      .173
NPL     .337      .643      .721
ML      .068      .108      .120

NPL     .286      .605      .697
ML      .100      .250      .335
NPL     .356      .706      .809
ML      .087      .219      .305
NPL     .576      .904      .963
ML      .094      .242      .301
NPL     .689      .951      .982
ML      .092      .197      .248

NPL     .426      .814      .888
ML      .114      .330      .441
NPL     .549      .897      .950
ML      .118      .337      .452
NPL     .788      .984      .995
ML      .117      .352      .458
NPL     .875      .994      1.000
ML      .118      .316      .407

Note. NPL = Nonparametric Levene; ML = Median Levene.

Table 11. Five group Type I error rates of the Nonparametric and
Median versions of the Levene tests under equivalent variance
conditions.

                        Skew = 0      Skew = 1

N    nl/n2/nJ/n4/n5   NPL     ML    NPL     ML

30     3/3/6/6/12     .071   .021   .069   .023
30     5/5/5/5/10     .071   .006   .068   .010
30     6/6/6/6Z6      .065   .035   .065   .047
60    6/6/12/12/24    .064   .033   .056   .034
60   10/10/10/10/20   .051   .028   .054   .037
60   12/12/12/12/12   .061   .027   .053   .035
90    9/9/18/18/36    .062   .033   .060   .035
90   15/15/15/15/30   .052   .027   .057   .035
90   18/18/18/18/18   .052   .035   .051   .038

                        Skew = 2      Skew = 3

N    nl/n2/nJ/n4/n5   NPL     ML    NPL     ML

30     3/3/6/6/12     .071   .032   .070   .041
30     5/5/5/5/10     .073   .021   .075   .033
30     6/6/6/6/6      .066   .069   .068   .069
60    6/6/12/12/24    .058   .045   .064   .055
60   10/10/10/10/20   .059   .046   .063   .051
60   12/12/12/12/12   .059   .047   .060   .049
90    9/9/18/18/36    .060   .042   .058   .046
90   15/15/15/15/30   .055   .042   .055   .045
90   18/18/18/18/18   .051   .043   .050   .042

Note. NPL = Nonparametric Levene; ML = Median Levene.

Table 12. Five group power values of the Nonparametric and Median
version of the Levene test for equality of variances for skew of
zero.

                                   Population
                                 Variance Ratio

                                 Direct Pairings

Test   N    n1/n2/n3/n4/n5   1/1/1/1/4   1/1/1/1/2

NPL    30     3/3/6/6/12       .317        .140
ML     30     3/3/6/6/12       .189        .047
NPL    30     5/5/5/5/10       .277        .129
ML     30     5/5/5/5/10       .181        .041
NPL    30     6/676/6/6        .166        .094
ML     30     6Z6/6/6/6        .198        .068

NPL    60    6/6/12/12/24      .576        .215
ML     60    6/6/12/12/24      .630        .170
NPL    60   10/10/10/10/20     .516        .178
ML     60   10/10/10/10/20     .617        .154
NPL    60   12/12/12/12/12     .321        .119
ML     60   12/12/12/12/12     .489        .118

NPL    90    9/9/18/18/36      .788        .278
ML     90    9/9/18/18/36      .889        .281
NPL    90   15/15/15/15/30     .729        .241
ML     90   15/15/15/15/30     .866        .258
NPL    90   18/18/18/18/18     .496        .162
ML     90   18/18/18/18/18     .737        .202

             Population
           Variance Ratio

           Indirect Parings

Test   2/1/1/1/1   4/1/1/1/1

NPL      .076        .096
ML       .016        .042
NPL      .088        .161
ML       .015        .091
NPL      .094        .175
ML       .073        .198

NPL      .080        .172
ML       .089        .304
NPL      .103        .277
ML       .109        .460
NPL      .117        .335
ML       .111        .512

NPL      .098        .238
ML       .114        .466
NPL      .143        .415
ML       .174        .673
NPL      .169        .484
ML       .208        .736

Note. NPL = Nonparametric Levene; ML = Median Levene.

Table 13. Five group power values of the Nonparametric and Median
version of the Levene test for equality of variances for skew of
one.

                                   Population
                                 Variance Ratio

                                 Direct Pairings

Test   N    n1/n2/n3/n4/n5   1/1/1/1/4   1/1/1/1/2

NPL    30     3/3/6/6/12       .319        .112
ML     30     3/3/6/6/12       .191        .047
NPL    30     5/5/5/5/10       .300        .297
ML     30     5/5/5/5/10       .149        .043
NPL    30     6/6/6/6Z6        .537        .527
ML     30     6/6/6/6/6        .181        .072

NPL    60    6/6/12/12/24      .588        .285
ML     60    6/6/12/12/24      .636        .126
NPL    60   10/10/10/10/20     .884        .885
ML     60   10/10/10/10/20     .501        .116
NPL    60   12/12/12/12/12     1.000       1.000
ML     60   12/12/12/12/12     .411        .113

NPL    90    9/9/18/18/36      .779        .600
ML     90    9/9/18/18/36      .884        .212
NPL    90   15/15/15/15/30     .999        .999
ML     90   15/15/15/15/30     .763        .199
NPL    90   18/18/18/18/18     1.000       1.000
ML     90   18/18/18/18/18     .632        .165

             Population
           Variance Ratio

          Indirect Parings

Test   2/1/1/1/1   4/1/1/1/1

NPL      .333        .323
ML       .028        .045
NPL      .520        .536
ML       .020        .080
NPL      .534        .535
ML       .060        .183

NPL      .991        .990
ML       .090        .278
NPL      .999        .999
ML       .102        .373
NPL      1.000       .999
ML       .109        .426

NPL      1.000       1.000
ML       .106        .411
NPL      1.000       1.000
ML       .144        .565
NPL      1.000       1.000
ML       .167        .645

Note. NPL = Nonparametric Levene; ML = Median Levene.

Table 14. Five group power values of the Nonparametric and Median
version of the Levene test for equality of variances for skew of
two.

                                   Population
                                 Variance Ratio

                                 Direct Pairings

Test   N    n1/n2/nJ/n4/n5   1/1/1/1/4   1/1/1/1/2

NPL    30     3/3/6/6/12       .117        .113
ML     30     3/3/6/6/12       .092        .044
NPL    30     5/5/5/5/10       .298        .296
ML     30     5/5/5/5/10       .107        .038
NPL    30     6/6/6/616        .524        .529
ML     30     6/6/6/616        .141        .080

NPL    60    6/6/12/12/24      .274        .282
ML     60    6/6/12/12/24      .288        .074
NPL    60   10/10/10/10/20     .883        .885
ML     60   10/10/10/10/20     .316        .094
NPL    60   12/12/12/12/12     1.000       1.000
ML     60   12/12/12/12/12     .286        .091

NPL    90    9/9/18/18/36      .621        .608
ML     90    9/9/18/18/36      .510        .126
NPL    90   15/15/15/15/30     .998        .999
ML     90   15/15/15/15/30     .508        .129
NPL    90   18/18/18/18/18     1.000       1.000
ML     90   18/18/18/18/18     .457        .124

             Population
           Variance Ratio

          Indirect Parings

Test   2/1/1/1/1   4/1/1/1/1

NPL      .324        .329
ML       .033        .057
NPL      .525        .540
ML       .031        .068
NPL      .519        .529
ML       .073        .151

NPL      .990        .991
ML       .087        .227
NPL      1.000       1.000
ML       .085        .266
NPL      1.000       1.000
ML       .091        .290

NPL      1.000       1.000
ML       .100        .288
NPL      1.000       1.000
ML       .107        .407
NPL      1.000       1.000
ML       .115        .453

Note. NPL = Nonparametric Levene; ML = Median Levene.

Table 15. Five group power values of the Nonparametric and Median
version of the Levene test for equality of variances for skew of
three.

                                   Population
                                 Variance Ratio

                                 Direct Pairings

Test   N    n1/n2/n3/n4/n5   1/1/1/1/4   1/1/1/1/2

NPL    30     3/3/6/6/12       .114        .119
ML     30     3/3/6/6/12       .046        .039
NPL    30     5/5/5/5/10       .303        .297
ML     30     5/5/5/5/10       .059        .037
NPL    30     6/6/6/6/6        .526        .534
ML     30     6/6/6/6/6        .109        .081

NPL    60    6/6/12/12/24      .280        .275
ML     60    6/6/12/12/24      .091        .044
NPL    60   10/10/10/10/20     .895        .889
ML     60   10/10/10/10/20     .112        .051
NPL    60   12/12/12/12/12     .999        .999
ML     60   12/12/12/12/12     .146        .070

NPL    90    9/9/18/18/36      .600        .619
ML     90    9/9/18/18/36      .177        .050
NPL    90   15/15/15/15/30     .998        .998
ML     90   15/15/15/15/30     .194        .064
NPL    90   18/18/18/18/18     1.000       1.000
ML     90   18/18/18/18/18     .233        .076

             Population
           Variance Ratio

          Indirect Parings

Test   2/1/1/1/1   4/1/1/1/1

NPL      .330        .345
ML       .052        .065
NPL      .539        .528
ML       .039        .065
NPL      .524        .531
ML       .080        .112

NPL      .990        .993
ML       .082        .157
NPL      1.000       .999
ML       .078        .158
NPL      .999        .999
ML       .069        .164

NPL      1.000       1.000
ML       .086        .191
NPL      1.000       1.000
ML       .079        .231
NPL      1.000       1.000
ML       .082        .226

Note. NPL = Nonparametric Levene; ML = Median Levene.
COPYRIGHT 2014 Universidad de Valencia
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Nordstokke, David W.; Colp, S. Mitchell
Publication:Psicologica
Date:Jul 1, 2014
Words:10831
Previous Article:Calibracion con parametros de los items fijos para la evaluacion del funcionamiento diferencial del item en tests adaptativos informatizados.
Next Article:Analisis de la severidad de los calificadores de un examen de expresion escrita mediante el modelo Many Faceted Rasch Measurement.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters