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Investigating alterations of Caspian Sea level fluctuations and their impact on ostracodes of Boujagh pond.

INTRODUCTION

Caspian Sea is the largest lake in the world and the history of the Caspian Sea level fluctuations indicate that it has fluctuated around 3 meters in the past 180 years. Rapid fluctuation in water level causes to serious problems facing the developmental plans and coastal management and investments are done with lower confidence Historical volatility data, especially during the Holocene Sea-level is very essential in order to predict future fluctuations in Caspian Sea level. Since micro-fanatic studies have high efficiency in identifying historical ecology, the importance of this research in Caspian Sea which is one of the strategic places in the world, especially in the economic dimension is more pronounced. Therefore, investigating the environmental conditions and changes in water level fluctuations during the Holocene is very important for its maintaining.

For this purpose, the changes in sea level during Holocene were reconstructed in this study, by identification of benthic fossils found in cores taken from the bed of the Caspian Sea.

Regional setting:

Geologic setting:

Caspian is heterogeneous and dividable in to three sections of north, center and south that are separated from each other by major faults in basement. The basement of the northern part is Precambrian continental crust of Russia that has flexures with north to south orientation; the central part has a basement pruning creating with continental characteristics and northwest-southeast trends. The southern part has Basaltic basement with a thickness of 15 to 20 Km, which is surrounded by granitic crust [1] Rich diversity of marine ecosystems of this sea include ponds, forests, rivers, vast plains and pastures, beautiful lines, coastal and river mouth. One of its beautiful ponds in southern coasts is Boujagh pond that is very important in with River delta placement, point of view.

Boujagh pond is located at 20 Km from Kiashahr port to Zybakener and is included a part of Caspian Sea coastline and has 260.3 hectors extant. Hence core sampling was performed according to the location of this pond to the Caspian Sea and the influence of changes in Sea-level fluctuations, in order to identifying the fanatic content and sea level fluctuation reconstruction.

Methods:

The sampling stations were determined based on geological and topographic maps. Four stations were selected in Caspian Sea and Boujagh pond (figure).

Samples were extracted from southern coasts of Caspian Sea and Boujagh pond by 2 meters cores and packed in the amount of 200 gr based on changes and transferred to laboratory by plastic bags in order to performing sedimentary studies and identifying Ostracodes.

After corning and comporting big fractions of sediments (particles higher than 125 micron), 50 g of samples were countered in order to investigate the Ostracodes existed in sediments. Moreover, samples were studied by SEM tool for explicit identifying of Ostracodes species and identifying surface texture of particles.

Discussion:

Performing quantities studies in 4 stations of southern part of Caspian Sea led to identifying Ostracodes in this part, so that 21 species of Ostracodes of this region were identified by these studies (Cohen and Layback 2013).

The frequency of Ostracodes in under study samples and in various depth, in type and species points of view have been shown in 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 tables.

Number 1 located in geographical position of 49.52 '54, 56 "E and 37.27'5.20"N with sedimentary depth of 112.centimeters and according to age measurement of Carbon 14, the sediment rate in understudy region is 4 mm per year. Therefore the age of sediments in the depth of 112 cm is 280000 years old. According to the diagram (1), in this region the river sediments have Non-marine samples that include following cases:

Candona (Caspiocypris) elongata (Schweyer), Candona (Caspiolla) balcanica (Zalanyi),Candona (Caspiolla) gracilis (Livental), Candonu (Candona) altoides (Petkovsk),Candona sp1., Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Sarscypridopsis aculeata (Costa), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird)

The dark brown sediments that are related to delta environment were dominated in the depths of 37 to 39 cm and indicate the start point of sea level up wording. They can clearly seen in Non-marine samples, especially in the samples of bring and soft waters that are the characteristics of delta environment. They included following cases:

Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird), Candona (Caspiolla) gracilis (Livental)

The Elphidiumadvenium and Ammonia becari samples were observed in the depths of 0 to 39 cm. these species are related to sea environments, but have clear and thin membrane due to the high syntonic with bio environment condition and locating near to soft water. The sea condition was observed after the depth of 39 cm but iron particles were observed in the depths of 39 to 50 cm due to the sediments egressing from water and subject to air or the seepage of plants' root to lower layers and Oxygen transferring to these layers and oxidation. The sediment particles were smaller in the depths of 80 to 95 cm that indicated the deep sea environment. After the depth of 95 cm, the only observed sea species was Leprosy there.

It has the geographical position of 49.53' 34.6" E and 37, 27', 31, 6 "N with the sedimentary depth of 133 cm is 3325000 years old. According to the diagram (2), the depth of 0 to 32 cm had river sediment but Lagan sediment was seen in the depth of 8 to 13 cm. Generally, these river sediments were included Non-marine species as follow:

Candona (Caspiocypris) elongata (Schweyer), Candona (Caspiolla) balcanica (Zalanyi), Candona (Caspiolla) gracilis (Livental), Candonu (Candona) altoides (Petkovsk), Candona sp1 Bacunella dorsoarcuata( Zalanyi), Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird)

Delta sediments were observed in the depths of 32 to 5 cm that indicated the start point of sea H level water tidal the Non-marine species that were seen include following cases:

Sarscypridopsis aculeata (Costa), Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird), Candona (Caspiocypris) elongata (Schweyer)

From up to 35 cm depths, sandy, mean grain and gray sediments were observed that related to sea environment and smaller particles of sediments were observed in 71 to 82 cm depths that indicated the deeper environment. The found species in these depths included:

Loxoconcha schweyeri (Suzin), Loxoconcha lepida (Stepanaitys), Leptocythere cymbula (Livental), Argilloeciasp

The so called species were more observed in 130 to 133 cm depths. Generally a period of sea intertidal was observed.

In has the geographical position of 9.57' and 36.29" E and 37.26', 16.08" N and its age in this depth is 6125 years old. According to the diagram (3), the pool sediments and Cypridopsisvidua (Mullen species were observed in 0 to 27 cm depths delta sediment with cypridopsisvidua (Muliar), Sarseypridosisa culteata (costa), Limnocythereinopinata (Baird) species were observed in 27 to 33 cm depths.

Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Sarscypridopsis aculeata (Costa), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird)

In 33 to 54 depths, again pool sediment with following species was observed:

Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Sarscypridopsis aculeata (Costa), Bacunella dorsoarcuata(Zalanyi)

River sediments with Non-marine species were observed in 54 to 61 depths. They included:

Candona (Caspiolla) balcanica (Zalanyi), Candona (Caspiolla) gracilis

Delta sediments with following species were observed in 61 to 10 depths:

Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird), Candona (Caspiocypris) elongata

Sandy and big particle sediments with light gray colour were observed in the 70 to 90 depth and indicated the low deep sea environment. Their species included:

Loxoconcha lepida (Stepanaitys), Loxoconcha imodulata (Stepanaitys), Leptocythere cymbula (Livental)

Dark colour delta sediments with species were syntonic with briny and soft water observed in 90 to 118 depths. They included:

Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Sarscypridopsis aculeata (Costa), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird), Candona (Caspiolla) balcanica (Zalanyi), Candona (Caspiolla) gracilis(Livental), Candona (Caspiocypris) elongata (Schweyer), Cyprideis torosa (Jones)

From the existence of Cyprideis aculeate (Jones) which is capable to exist in bring water; one can conclude that the water of delta was brine. In 118 to 124 depths in pool environment, the following species were observed:

Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Cyprideis torosa (Jones), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird)

In 124 to 136 depths and with pull away of sea water, the river sediments with following species were observed:

Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Sarscypridopsis aculeata (Costa), Candona (Caspiolla) balcanica (Zalanyi), Candona (Caspiocypris) elongata (Schweyer

Sediments with high density of organic materials related to delta environment were observed in 136 to 141 cm depth with following species:

Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Candona (Caspiocypris) elongata (Schweyer),

Limnocythere inopinata (Baird)

Candona (Caspiocypris) elongate (Schweyer) species indicate the low brine environment or trend to soft. In 141 to 155 cm depth, the river sediments with following species were observed:

Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Candona (Caspiolla) balcanica (Zalanyi), Candona (Caspiocypris) elongata (Schweyer), Candona (Caspiolla) gracilis(Livental)

Following sediments were observed in 155 to 169 cm depths:

Bacunella dorsoarcuata(Zalanyi), Tyrrhenocythere donetziensis (Dubowsky), Tyrrhenocythere sp.

These species were related to pool environment.

Candona (Caspiocypris) elongata (Schweyer), Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird) The 180 to 188 cm depths were again pool environment and included following species:

Bacunella dorsoarcuata (Zalanyi), Tyrrhenocythere donetziensis (Dubowsky)

Sea sediments in 188 to 211 depths indicated the sea water onrush which had following species:

Loxoconcha schweyeri (Suzin), Loxoconcha imodulata (Stepanaitys), Loxoconcha lepida (Stepanaitys), Loxoconcha petasa (Livental), Leptocythere cymbula (Livental), Argilloecia conoidea (Sars)

The 211 to 214 depths had sediments included Cypridopsisvidua (Muller), Bacunelladorsoarcuata (Zalanyi) and Cyprideistorsoa (Jones) species which related to river environment with briny water. 214 to 220 cm depth had Cypridopsisvidua (Muller) sediment related to pool environment. 220 to 227 cm depths had delta sediments with following species:

Cypridopsis vidua (Muller) ' Limnocythere inopinata (Baird) ' Candona (Caspiolla) balcanica (Zalanyi) Candona (Caspiolla) gracilis (Livental)

Sea sediments were observed up to 233 cm depth that include following species:

Loxoconcha schweyeri (Suzin) ' Loxoconcha imodulata (Stepanaitys) ' Leptocythere cymbula (Livental), Argilloecia conoidea (Sars)

River sediments with following species were observed in 233 to 234 cm depth.

Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Candona sp.

The depths of 234 to 242 cm related to pool environment had following species.

Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird)

The depths of 242 to 245 cm related to open sea environment had following species:

Loxoconcha schweyeri (Suzin), Loxoconcha petasa (Livental), Leptocythere cymbula (Livental), Argilloecia conoidea (Sars)

Four intertidal periods were observed there which according to diagram (3), the non-sea environment indexes increased with the decrease of sea level and decreased with increase of sea level. This decreasing and increasing is converse for sea environment species.

It has the geographical position of 49.58787" E and 37 25' 47.57" N with sediment depth of 136 cm and with 340000 years age. The following pool sediments were observed in depths of 0 to 4 cm.

Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Sarscypridopsis aculeata (Costa), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird), Bacunella dorsoarcuata) Zalanyi)

The following sediments were observed in depths of 4 to 13 cm.

Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird), Bacunella dorsoarcuata) Zalanyi)

The 7 to 13 cm depths were related to sediments of pool environment that no species found there. The sea sediments with following species were found in 13 to 62 cm depth:

Loxoconcha schweyeri (Suzin) 'Loxoconcha imodulata(Stepanaitys) Loxoconcha lepida (Stepanaitys), Loxoconchapetasa (Livental), Leptocythere cymbula (Livental), Argilloecia conoidea (Sars), Polycope sp.

Delta sediments with following species observed in 62 to 66 cm depths:

Sarscypridopsis aculeata (Costa), Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird), Bacunella dorsoarcuata)Zalanyi)

In the depths of 66 to 112 cm and with sea water onrushing, again sea sediments with following species were observed:

Sarscypridopsis aculeata (Costa), Cypridopsis vidua (Muller), Bacunella dorsoarcuata) Zalanyi)

Smaller particles of sea sediments with following species were observed at up to 116 cm depths.

Loxoconcha imodulata (Stepanaitys), Loxoconcha lepida (Stepanaitys), Leptocythere cymbula (Livental), Argilloecia conoidea (Sars)

Three periods of sea water intertidal were observed according to the location of this station and weak effect of main sea streams on this region.

The investigation of Ostrocodes of Holocene sediments of Boujagh pond indicated following sea species:

Loxoconcha schweyeri (Suzin, 1956), Loxoconcha imodulata (Stepanaitys, 1958), Loxoconcha lepida (Stepanaitys, 1962), Loxoconcha petasa (Livental), Leptocythere cymbula (Livental) Argilloecia sp. (Stepanova et al., 2003)

And also the pond and delta species included:

Candona (Caspiocypris) elongata Schweyer' Candona (Caspiolla) balcanica (Zalanyi, 1929) ' Candona (Caspiolla) gracilis (Livental, 1929), Candonu (Candona) altoides (Petkovsk), Candona sp., Cyprideis torosa (Jones, 1850), Ilyocypris getica (Masi, 1906) ' Cypridopsis vidua (0.F. Muller, 1776), Sarscypridopsis aculeata (Costa, 1847) ' Limnocythere inopinata (Baird) '

These species change in to each other by sea level fluctuation or changes in geo-morphology of low altitude and coast parts. The fluctuation patterns are not identic due to the changes occur in the location of sediment under or out of sea water, but generally it can be said that 4 periods of water intertidal have been seen since 6125000 years ago (figure 3).

REFERENCES

[1] Bossio, A., 1976. Prima utilizzaztione degli ostracodi per la biostratigraphia e la paleoecologya del Miocene dell, arciplagomaltese. Boll. Soc.Paleont. Ital., 15(2): 215-227

[2] Bronshtein, Z.S., 1947. Fresh-water Ostracoda. Amerind Publishing, New Delhi: pp: 470.

[3] Cohen, Anne C., Dawn E. Peterson and Rosalie F. Maddocks, 2007. Ostracoda, pp.417-446, In: James T. Carlton, ed., The Light & Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon. Fourth Edition. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.

[4] Dall' Antonia, B. and A. Bossio, 2001. Middle Miocene Ostracoda from the Salentine Peninsula. Rivista Italian di paleontologia, 107(3): 395-424.

[5] Dall' Antonia, B., 2003. Miocene ostracods from the Trimiti Island and Hyblean plateau: biostratigraphy and description of new poorly known species. Geobios, 36: 27-54.

[6] FAZELI, 2011. Land environmental effect on the Caspian Sea basin. Fifth National Conference of environmental crisis and ways to improve their work. Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran.

[7] Keatings, K., J. Holmes, R. Flower, D. Horne, E. John Whittaker, H. Ramadan, Abu-Zied Ostracods and the Holocene palaeolimnology of Lake Qarun, with special reference to past human-environment interactions in the Faiyum (Egypt)

[8] Keyser, D., 2005. Histological peculiarities of the noding process in Cyprideis torosa (Jones) (Crustacea, Ostracoda). Hydrobiologia, 538: 95-106.

[9] Kilenyi, T.I., 1971. Some basic questions in the paleoecology of ostracods. In: Oertli, H.J., (Ed.),

[10] Langer, W., 1973. Zur Ultastruktur, Micromorphologie und Tahanomie des ostracoda--Carapas. Paleontographica, Abt. A., 144: 1-54.l.

[11] Lerback Jory, 2013. Ostracoda Taxonomic Identification Guide Guadalupe Mountains National Park.

[12] Leroy, S.A.G., H.A.K. Lahijani, M. Djamali, A. Naqinezhad, M.V. Moghadam, K. Arpe, M. Shah-Hosseini, M. Hosseindoust, S. Miller Ch., V. Tavakoli, P. Habibi, M. Naderi Beni, a Institute Late Little Ice Age palaeoenvironmental records from the Anzali and Amirkola Lagoons (south Caspian Sea): Vegetation and sea level changes pp: 519-530.

[13] Malkin, D.S., 1953. Biostratigraphic study of Miocene Ostracoda of Newjersey, Muryland and Virginia. Journal of Paleontology, 27(6): 761-798.

[14] Malkin, D.S., 1953. Biostratigraphic study of Miocene Ostracoda of Newjersey, Muryland and Virginia. Journal of Paleontology, 27(6): 761-798.

[15] Morkhoven, F.P.C.M. Van, 1983. Post-paleozoic ostracoda. Vols. 1,2. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 204

[16] Mosavi, Rohbakhsh, M., 2008. Stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the Caspian Sea

[17] Nazari, 2009. debris contaminated with hydrocarbons originating in the Caspian Sea. Spike Magazine. pp: 180

[18] Neale, J.V., 1988. Ostracods and paleosalinity reconstruction. In De Deckker, P., J. P. Colin & J. P. Peypouquet (eds), Ostracoda in the Earth Sciences. Amsterdam, Elsevier: pp: 125-155.

[19] Paleoecologie d ostracodes, pau 1970. Bull. Center Rech. PAU-SNPA., 5: 31-44.

[20] Pokorny, V., 1978. Ostracods. Introducation to Marine Micropaleontology. Elsevier, New york.

[21] Puri, H.S., 1956. Two new Tertiary Ostracode genera from Florida. Journal of Paleontology, 3(2): 274-77 Tulsa, oklaha.

[22], Panahy, R.g., 2007. A review of the Caspian Sea environment. Monthly Development. pp: 59.

[23] Riha, J., 1989. Ostracod interpretation of paleodepth of Miocene (Lawer Badenian) calcareous clays near Brno, Czechoslovakia. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, 113: 103-116.

[24] Stampfli, O.G., 1978. L Elburzdans la Tectoniqe des Plaques Pub No. LTD

[25] Stepanova 'A. Yu. 2006. Late Pleistocene-Holocene and Recent Ostracoda of the Laptev Sea and Their Importance for Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions

[26] Swain, F.M., 1978. Ostracoda from the River Bend Formation of North Carolina. Minneapolis, Minnesota, Micropaleontology of Atlantic Basin and Borderlands 55455. Abhandlungen und Verhandlungen Naturwissenschaftliches Vereins, Hamburg (NF), 18/19 (Suppl.): 103-118.

[27] Vesper, B., 1975. To the problem of noding on Cyprideis torosa (Jones, 1850). Bulletin of American Paleontology, 65: 205-216.

[28] Whatley, R., 1991. The platycopid signal: a means of detecting kenoxic events using Ostracoda. Journal of Micropaleontology, 10: 181-185.

[29] Yang, F., 1988. Distribution of the brackish salt water ostracods in North-western Qinghai Plateau and its geological significance. In Hanai, T., N. Ikeya & K. Ishizaki (eds),Evolutionary Biology of Ostracoda. Elsevier, Amsterdam:

(1) Mohammadi Parvane, Mahnaz, (2) Lak, Razieh, (3) Fatemi, Seyd Mohamad Reza and (4) Khaksar Keyvan

(1) Department of, Geology (Stratigraphy and Paleontology), Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

(2) Department of, Sedimentology (Marine Geology) Institute of Earth Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

(3) Department of, Marine Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

(4) Department of, Geology Islamic Azad University, Qom Branch, Iran.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 18 October 2014

Received in revised form 31 December 2014

Accepted 18 January 2015

Available online 1 March 2015

Corresponding Author: Lak Razieh, Department of, Sedimentology (Marine Geology) Institute of Earth Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Table 1: species of ostracoda at different depths in
the core (1)

Depth of   Ostracoda
sediment

           Cypridopsis   Sarscyprid   Limnocythe   Leptocyt
           vidua         opsis        re           here
                         aculeata     inopinata    cymbula

           21            1            0            0
           98            2            0            0
           102           8            1            0
           3             0            6            0
           0             0            0            0
           1             0            0            0
           2             0            1            0
           0             0            0            1
           0             0            0            0
           0             0            0            0
           0             0            0            0
           0             0            0            0
           0             0            0            0
           0             0            0            0
           0             0            0            0

Depth of
sediment

           Candona          Candona       Candona       Candona
           (Caspiocypris)   (Caspiolla)   (Caspiolla)   sp1.
           elongata         balcanica     gracilis

           1                8             2             0
           0                24            24            1
           2                18            23            0
           2                24            1             0
           0                2             0             0
           0                0             0             1
           0                0             1             0
           0                0             0             0
           0                0             0             0
           0                0             0             0
           0                0             0             0
           0                0             0             0
           0                0             0             0
           0                0             0             0
           0                0             0             0

Table 2: species of ostracoda at different depths in the core (2)

Depth of   Ostracoda
sediment

           Cyprid opsis   Sarscyp    Limnoc      Leptocyt
           vidua          ridopsis   ythere      herecymbula
                          aculeata   inopinata

           187            0          39          0
           2              0          1           0
           6              0          0           0
           1              0          0           0
           2              2          1           0
           0              0          0           0
           0              0          0           0
           0              0          0           0
           0              0          0           1
           0              0          0           0
           0              0          0           0
           0              0          0           0
           0              0          0           0
           0              0          0           0
           0              0          0           0

           0              0          0           0
           0              0          1           0

Depth of   Ostracoda
sediment

           Loxoconcha    Loxoconch   Candona          Candona
           schweyeri     alepida     (Caspiocypris)   (Caspiolla)
                                     elongata         balcanica

           0             0           85               81
           0             0           3                2
           0             0           0                0
           0             0           3                1
           0             0           3                0
           0             0           0                0
           0             0           0                0
           0             0           0                0
           0             0           0                0
           0             0           0                0
           0             0           0                0
           0             0           0                0
           0             0           0                0
           0             0           0                0
           0             0           0                0

           0             0           0                0
           1             4           0                0

Depth of   Ostracoda
sediment

           Candona       Cando   Bacunella      Argill
           (Caspiolla)   nasp1   dorsoarcuata   oeciasp.
           gracilis

           108           1       2              0
           5             0       0              0
           0             0       0              0
           2             0       0              0
           0             0       0              0
           0             o       0              0
           0             0       o              0
           0             0       o              0
           0             0       o              0
           0             0       o              0
           0             0       o              0
           0             0       o              0
           0             0       o              0
           0             0       o              0
           0             0       o              0

           0             0       0              0
           0             0       0              2

Table 3: species of ostracoda at different depths in the core (3)

Depth of   Ostracoda
sediment

           Cypridopsis   Sarscypridopsis   Limnocythere   Leptocythere
           vidua         aculeata          inopinata      cymbula

0-5        13            0                 0              0
5-10       2             0                 0              0
15-25      0             0                 0              0
27-33      8             2                 1              0
30-33      0             0                 1              0
45-50      6             0                 0              0
50-54      4             10                0              0
55-60      0             0                 0              0
60-65      0             0                 1              0
65-70      1             0                 3              0
70-75      0             0                 0              1
80-85      0             0                 0              0
90-95      3             0                 0              0
100-105    4             2                 5              0
110-115    19            0                 0              0
118-123    2             9                 2              0
124-130    1             5                 0              0
133-136    3             12                0              0
136-141    15            0                 7              0
141-145    3             0                 0              0

Depth of   Ostracoda
sediment

           Loxoconcha   Loxoconcha   Loxoconcha   Tyrrhenocythere
           schweyeri    imodulata    lepida       donetziensis

0-5        0            0            0            0
5-10       0            0            0            0
15-25      0            0            0            0
27-33      0            0            0            0
30-33      0            0            0            0
45-50      0            0            0            0
50-54      0            0            0            0
55-60      0            0            0            0
60-65      0            0            0            0
65-70      0            0            0            0
70-75      0            0            2            0
80-85      1            3            1            0
90-95      0            0            0            2
100-105    0            0            0            0
110-115    0            0            0            0
118-123    0            0            0            0
124-130    0            0            0            0
133-136    0            0            0            0
136-141    0            0            0            0
141-145    0            0            0            0

Depth of   Ostracoda
sediment

           Candona           Candona       Candona
           (Caspiocypris)    (Caspiolla)   (Caspiolla)
           eloneata          balcanica     gracilis

0-5        0                 0             0
5-10       0                 0             0
15-25      0                 0             0
27-33      0                 0             0
30-33      0                 0             0
45-50      2                 0             1
50-54      0                 0             0
55-60      0                 3             2
60-65      3                 0             0
65-70      0                 0             0
70-75      0                 0             0
80-85      0                 0             0
90-95      0                 0             0
100-105    0                 8             2
110-115    2                 1             0
118-123    0                 0             0
124-130    23                0             0
133-136    7                 2             0
136-141    3                 0             0
141-145    19                8             9

Depth of   Ostracoda
sediment

           Candona   Bacunella      Cyprideis
           sp2.      dorsoarcuata   torosa

0-5        0         0              0
5-10       0         0              0
15-25      0         0              0
27-33      0         0              0
30-33      0         0              0
45-50      0         0              0
50-54      0         3              0
55-60      0         0              0
60-65      0         0              0
65-70      0         0              0
70-75      0         0              0
80-85      0         0              0
90-95      0         7              0
100-105    0         0              0
110-115    0         0              0
118-123    0         0              3
124-130    0         0              0
133-136    0         0              0
136-141    0         0              0
141-145    1         0              0

Table 4 species of ostracoda at different depths in the core (4)

Depth of   Ostracoda
sediment

           Cypridopsis   Limnocythere   Leptocythere   Loxoconcha
           vidua         inopinata      cymbula        schweyeri

155-160    0             0              0              0
160-165    5             3              0              0
170-175    11            0              0              0
180-184    0             0              0              0
184-188    0             0              0              0
190-200    0             0              0              1
200-211    0             0              0              2
211-214    2             0              0              0
214-220    2             0              0              0
220-224    3             0              0              0
224-227    5             2              0              0
227-233    0             0              1              5
233-234    1             0              0              0
234-242    2             2              0              0
242-245    0             0              2              2

Depth of   Ostracoda
sediment

           Loxoconcha   Loxoconcha   Loxoconcha   Tyrrhenocythere
           imodulata    lepida       petasa       donetziensis

155-160    0            0            0            5
160-165    0            0            0            0
170-175    0            0            0            0
180-184    0            0            0            3
184-188    0            0            0            0
190-200    0            0            0            0
200-211    1            1            0            0
211-214    0            0            0            0
214-220    0            0            0            0
220-224    0            0            0            0
224-227    0            0            0            0
227-233    1            0            0            0
233-234    0            0            0            0
234-242    0            0            0            0
242-245    0            0            1            0

Depth of   Ostracoda
sediment

           Tyrrhenocythere   Candona          Candona
           sp.               (Caspiocypris)   (Caspiolla)
                             elongata         balcanica

155-160    i                 0                0
160-165    0                 3                0
170-175    0                 0                0
180-184    0                 0                0
184-188    0                 0                0
190-200    0                 0                0
200-211    0                 0                0
211-214    0                 0                0
214-220    0                 0                0
220-224    0                 0                1
224-227    0                 0                0
227-233    0                 0                0
233-234    0                 0                0
234-242    0                 0                0
242-245    0                 0                0

Depth of   Ostracoda
sediment

           Candona       Bacunella      Argilloecia   Cyprideis
           (Caspiolla)   dorsoarcuata   conoidea      torosa
           gracilis

155-160    0             2              0             0
160-165    0             0              0             0
170-175    0             0              0             0
180-184    0             1              0             1
184-188    0             0              0             2
190-200    0             0              0             0
200-211    0             0              0             0
211-214    0             5              0             0
214-220    0             0              0             3
220-224    1             0              0             0
224-227    3             0              0             0
227-233    0             0              2             0
233-234    0             1              0             0
234-242    0             0              0             0
242-245    0             0              4             0

Table 5: species of ostracoda at different depths in the core (5)

Depth of   Ostracoda
sediment

           Cypridopsis   Sarscypridopsis   Limnocythere   Leptocythere
           vidua         aculeata          inopinata      cymbula

0-4        3             2                 5              0
4-7        8             0                 4              0
7-13       0             0                 0              0
13-20      0             0                 0              6
20-25      0             0                 0              1
25-30      0             0                 0              0
30-35      0             0                 0              3
40-45      0             0                 0              1
50-55      0             0                 0              1
62-65      13            2                 5              0
70-75      0             0                 0              3
80-85      0             0                 0              2
90-95      0             0                 0              6
100-105    0             0                 0              2
112116     3             1                 0              0
120-125    0             0                 0              7
130-136    0             0                 0              2

Depth of   Ostracoda
sediment

           Loxoconcha   Loxoconcha   Loxoconcha   Loxoconcha
           schweyeri    imodulata    lepida       petasa

0-4        0            0            0            0
4-7        0            0            0            0
7-13       0            0            0            0
13-20      1            2            2            3
20-25      2            2            0            0
25-30      2            2            0            0
30-35      1            0            0            0
40-45      4            0            0            0
50-55      2            0            7            5
62-65      0            0            0            0
70-75      0            0            0            0
80-85      0            0            0            0
90-95      0            0            0            0
100-105    0            0            0            0
112116     0            0            0            0
120-125    2            1            3            0
130-136    0            1            1            0

Depth of   Ostracoda
sediment

           Bacunella      Argilloecia   Polycope
           dorsoarcuata   conoidea      sp.

0-4        4              0             0
4-7        12             0             0
7-13       0              0             0
13-20      0              2             0
20-25      0              0             0
25-30      0              1             0
30-35      0              3             0
40-45      0              3             0
50-55      0              1             1
62-65      31             0             0
70-75      0              0             0
80-85      0              0             0
90-95      0              0             0
100-105    0              0             0
112116     2              0             0
120-125    0              0             0
130-136    0              2             0
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Article Details
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Author:Parvane, Mohammadi; Mahnaz; Lak; Razieh; Fatemi; Reza, Seyd Mohamad; Keyvan, Khaksar
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Mar 1, 2015
Words:4313
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