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Inventory of Ethno-veterinary Practices used for the Control of Parasitic Infections in District Jhang, Pakistan.

Byline: ZIA UD DIN SINDHU, SHAFIQ ULLAH, RAO ZAHID ABBAS, ZAFAR IQBAL AND MANSOOR HAMEED

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at documentation of ethno-veterinary practices (EVPs) to treat parasitic ailments in animals in District Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan. An initial appraisal was conducted to identify the traditional veterinary healers (n=200) among the local farmers. Interviews, group discussions and field visits were organized to collect the information over a period of six months. A total of 96 EVPs were documented, out of which 66 were based on medicinal plants and 30 on other organic and inorganic matters. A total of 35 plants representing 23 families were documented for the treatment of different parasitic diseases.

The top10 most frequently used plants were: Eruca vesicaria (n=69), Azadirachta indica (n=47), Citrullus colocynthis (n=32), Brassica rapa (n=25), Ocimum basilicum (n=22), Ferula asafetida (n=15), Nicotiana tabacum (n=13), Allium cepa (n=8), Withania coagulans (n=8) and Aloe vera (n=6). There was diversity in the use of plants in their dosage, mode of preparation, part used and indications. The most frequently reported prescriptions were for the treatment of mange (n=111) followed by helminthiasis (n=63), tick infestation (n=57) and fly infestation (n=39). On an overall basis, farmers expressed their satisfaction for the documented EVPs.

Findings of the study indicated richness of the indigenous knowledge and its effective use in treating parasitic diseases prevalent in the area by the local farming communities. Value addition by standardization of doses of plants and their validation using scientific procedures would be of interest to the farmers, scientific community and pharmaceutical industry. (c) 2012 Friends Science Publishers

Key Words: Ethno-veterinary; Medicinal plants; Folk medicine; Documentation; Livestock

INTRODUCTION

Livestock sector, major subsector of agriculture, is contributing 11% to total export of Pakistan. This important sector is not only providing animal food to the nation but also contributing in the poverty alleviation by providing draught power and employment to rural population of the country (Anonymous, 2011). Approximately, 53 million people living in rural areas derive their livelihood from livestock through different ways. At present, annual growth rate of milk and meat production is very slow i.e., 3.0 and 2.7%, respectively (Pakistan Economic Survey, 2011), which is mainly attributed to high incidence of diseases, poor prophylaxis and high cost of modern veterinary medicine. In countries like Pakistan, where majority of the farmers own 5-6 animals per family (Anonymous, 2011), it is hard to provide veterinary facility at door step and to economically treat the animals with modern drugs. Even if the veterinarian is available, poor farmers cannot afford to pay for the modern drugs (Sindhu et al., 2010).

Under these circumstances, promotion of ethno-veterinary medicine (EVM) could be helpful in improving the livestock productivity in rural areas of Pakistan and improving the economic condition of small holders. Therefore, on farm in hand information available for the treatment in form of EVM is considered as the only viable alternative.

EVM is a system based on folk beliefs and traditional knowledge as well as skills/methods and practices used for the maintenance of animal health and treatment of diseases (Mathius-Mundy and McCorkle, 1989). This knowledge and skills of ethno-veterinary practices (EVPs) is learnt through experience and transmitted orally from generation to generation (McCorkle et al., 1996). Now a day, due to industrial development, this traditional knowledge has been vanished in some parts of the developed world (Tabuti et al., 2003). On the other hand, EVM is still playing an important role in sustainable livestock farming in different areas of globe (Lin et al., 2003). Use of medicinal plants is an important part of EVM. In Indo-Pakistan subcontinent, the tradition of using plants for treatment and curing of ailments is very old.

This old traditional system of health care using plants for treatment and curing was documented in the form of Rigveda and Ayurveda (Somvanshi, 2006). Even in this modern world, plant materials are being used as the major source of health care by 80% of the world's population (Farnsworth et al., 1985). To date, a very little literature is available in Pakistan on EVM in the form of few research articles (Farooq et al., 2008; Dilshad et al., 2008; 2010; Sindhu et al., 2010), in contrast to other countries where field manuals have been published for treatment of animals using EVM (Anonymous, 1996). In the light of above, this study was carried out to document the EVM used for control of parasitic infections in District Jhang of Pakistan.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area: District Jhang lies between 30deg-37deg to 31deg-59deg north latitudes and 71deg-37deg to 73deg-13deg east longitudes of Punjab, Pakistan with an area of 8.809 square kilometers. The annual rainfall is about 288.8 mm and this area has extremes of climate with mean maximum and minimum temperature of 45 and 28oC in summer and 27 and 6oC in winter, respectively. Jhang region is blessed with agricultural land including major crops like sugarcane, wheat and rice. The livestock population of the study area has been estimated as 872819 cattle, 1175170 buffaloes, 385050 sheep, 1006992 goats, 8289 camels, 15123 horses, 1310 mules and 1425237 poultry (Livestock Population Census, 2006). These animals are mainly used for milk, meat and draught purpose. Major source of income is agriculture for the people who have a rich history of traditional livestock farming.

Documentation of EVM: For identification of traditional veterinary healers (TVHs), a small scale survey was performed using rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. During this phase of survey, 600 local farmers were contacted and a list of 200 TVHs was prepared, who are practicing EVM in the study area. Information was collected about the prevailing parasitic diseases in the area and the EVPs for their treatment by conducting interviews and focused group discussions by the survey team comprising of a veterinarian and a representative of local community. The interviews were conducted in local language "Punjabi".

Different plants being used in EVPs were also collected by organizing field visits with the help of TVHs. Species of the medicinal plants used by the TVHs were identified by a botanist Dr. Mansoor Hameed, Associate Professor at Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan; UAF). The plant specimens were submitted to Ethnoveterinary Research and Development Laboratory, Department of Parasitology, UAF after assigning the voucher numbers to the plant species.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The average age of TVH was 50-60 years. They gained EVM knowledge from their parents, relatives and from the local community. Knowledge of EVM is stored in memories of TVHs and they transfer this knowledge to their next generations by word of mouth (Wanzala et al., 2005). These people usually have a long history EVM in the family and have a good knowledge of their environment as well (Nfi et al., 2001). Most of the TVHs reported that their new generation is not taking interest in the EVM and this knowledge may vanish if not documented properly.

During the survey, respondents reported seven parasitic diseases/conditions of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, horse, donkey and dog, which are being treated by EVM. Among these diseases, mange was recorded as highest (n=110/200; 55%) followed by helminthiasis (n=64/200; 32%), ticks infestation (n= 60/200; 30%), fly infestation (n=40/200; 20%), lice infestation (n=28/200; 14%), myiasis (n=24/200; 12%) and fleas (n=18/200; 9%). For the treatment of these diseases/conditions, a total of 99 EVPs were recorded, 66 based on medicinal plants and 30 based on other organic and inorganic materials.

Twenty seven out of the 96 documented remedies were for the treatment of mange, 28 for helminthiasis and 21 for tick infestation. Different EVPs recorded for the treatment of parasitic diseases/conditions in district Jhang has been presented in Table I.

Thirty five plants belonging to 23 families were reported to be used in the study area. Most frequently used plant was Eruca vesicaria (69 times), which is being used for the treatment of mange, ticks, lice, flies and helminthiasis. Azadirachta indica was recorded as 2nd most frequently used plant (47 times) for the treatment of mange, ticks, lice and flies. Other plants in order of their frequency of use were Citrullus colocynthis (32 times), Brassica rapa (25 times), Ocimum basilicum (22 times), Ferula foetida (15 times), Nicotiana tabacum (13 times), Allium cepa (08 times), Withania coagulans (08 times) and Aloe vera (06 times). Inventory of these plants along with local names and indications has been presented in Table II.

North-East area of Punjab in Pakistan is blessed with a valuable and good repository of medicinal plants. Various properties of plants have long been known for their effect and documented since 4500 B.C. (Somvanshi, 2006). Similar type of documentation has also been done in other parts of the world (Lans et al., 2000; Uncini Manganelli et al., 2001; Alawa et al., 2002; Guarrera, 2005). Plants like B. rapa, C. colocynthis, Capsicum annuum, Foneiculum vulgarap, E. vesicaria, C. frutescens, Piper nigrum, Ruta graveolens, Solanum surratens, Amomum subulatum, A. vera, Lawsonia inermis, Butea monosperema, Syzygium cumini and Acacia nilotica, have also been previously reported by Jabbar et al. (2006), Farooq et al. (2008), Hussain et al. (2008), Dilshad et al. (2008, 2010) and Sindhu et al. (2010) in other parts of Pakistan for their anti- parasitic and anti-microbial activity.

New plant species documented in this study for parasitic diseases are C. frutescens, Curcuma picta, Jasminum humile, Lepidium sativum, Nerium oleander, O. basilicum, Peganum harmala, R. graveolens, Sorghum bicolor, S. aromaticum, Trigonella foenumgraecum and Vitis vinifera. A number of plants have also been reported previously for possessing different biological activities in animals like; anthelmintic, growth

Table I: List of plant based ethno-veterinary practices used for the treatment of different parasitic diseases as reported by the traditional veterinary healers (n=200) in district Jhang, Pakistan

S. No.###Botanical Name###Parts###Animal###Dosages/Administration###No. of

###Used###Respondents

Mange

1###Azadirachta indica###Leaf###Buffalo###Boil 250 g leaves in 1L water and apply topically for 4-5 days.###3

2###i. A. indica###i. Leaf###Buffalo###Paste is prepared by grinding 250 g of plant "ii" in decoction prepared by 250###3

###ii.Citrullus colocynthis###ii. Fruit###g of plant "i". Paste is topically applied for 1 week.

3###Eruca vesicaria###Oil###Buffalo###Topical application for 4-5 days.###26

4###E. vesicaria###Oil###Buffalo###Mix 500 ml oil in 1L Lasi1. Administer PO for 4-5 days.###2

5###Trachyspermum ammi###Seed###Buffalo###Mix 50 g of each in 50 g Russ2 and 250 g molasses, administer PO for 2-3 days.###1

###Piper nigrum###Seed

###Curcuma picta###Bulb

###Saussurea costus###Rhizome

###A. indica###leaf

6###C. colocynthis###Fruit###Buffalo###Cook two fruits in hot sand, mix with 200 g molasses and give PO for 2-3 days.###2

7###Aloe vera###Leaf###Buffalo###Mix 200 g leave with 50 g salt, administer PO early in the morning for 3 days.###3

8###E. vesicaria###Oil###Buffalo###Mix 250 ml oil in 500 g yoghurt, administer PO for 2-3 days.###10

9###E. vesicaria###Oil###Cattle###Administer 250 g oil PO for 4 days.###4

10###Peganum harmala###Seed###Buffalo###Boil 100 g seed in 500 ml water and administer PO, repeat after one day.###1

11###C. colocynthis###Fruit###Buffalo###Mix 1 fruit + 50 g leaves with 100 g black salt3, administer PO for 3 days.###2

###Withania coagulans###Leaf

12###A. indica###Leaf###Buffalo###Mix and grind 250 g leaves of both plants with 1 fruit, administer PO for 3###6

###W. coagulans###Leaf###days.

###C. colocynthis###Fruit

13###Nicotiana tabacum###Leaf###Cattle###Boil 50 g leave in 500 ml water and mix with 200 ml oil, apply topically for###3

###E. vesicaria###Oil###one week.

14###E. vesicaria###Oil###Cattle###Mix 500 ml oil with 250 g Russ and 500 g desi ghee, make a bolus and 2-3

###A. indica###Leaf###administer PO for 2-3 days.

15###E. vesicaria###Oil###Cattle###Grind 250 g bulb in 250 ml oil and administer PO for 4-5 days.###1

###A. cepa Bulb

16###A. indica###Leaf###Cattle###Mix 250 g leaves and 100 g seed, give PO for 4-5 days.###1

###T. ammi###Seed

17###E. vesicaria###Oil###Cattle###Administer 250 ml oil PO for 4 days.###4

18###Capsicum frutescens###Fruit###Cattle###Mix 100 g each in 200 g molasses and administer PO in 4 equal doses for 4###5

###Allium cepa###Bulb###days.

###A. indica###Leaf

19###A. indica###Leaf###Sheep###Boil 250 g leaves in 500 ml oil and topically apply for 1 week.###3

###Brassica rapa###Oil

20###E. vesicaria###Oil###Goat###Topical application for 10 days.###3

Ticks infestation

21###B. rapa###Oil###Buffalo###Topical application for one week.###9

22###Melia azedarach###Fruit###Buffalo###Mix 250 g fruit with 500 ml oil to make a paste, topical application for 2-3###2

###B. rapa Oil###days.

23###C. colocynthis###Fruit###Buffalo###Cut the fruit and applied topically.###2

24###E. vesicaria###Oil###Buffalo###Mix 100 g oil with 100 ml kerosene oil and 20 g naswar4, applied topically###1

###for 3 days.

25###E. vesicaria###Oil###Buffalo###Mix 250 ml oil with 250 g seed, administer PO for 3-4 days.###1

###L. sativum###Seed###

26###A. indica###Leave###Buffalo###Boil 250 g leaves in 500 ml oil and apply topically for 1 week.###4

###B. rapa###Oil###

27###Capparis decidua###Root###Cattle###Boil 250 g roots in 1 L water, apply topically for 4-5 days.###1

28###Trigonella foenumgraecum###Seed###Cattle###Administer 50 g seeds PO for 2-3 days. 1

29###A. indica###Leaf###Cattle###Boil 250 g leaves in 500 ml oil, apply topically for 3 days.###2

###E. vesicaria###Oil###

30###N. tabacum###Leaf###Sheep###Boil 100 g leaves in 500 ml water, apply topically for 2-3 days.###2

31###E. vesicaria###Oil###Goat###Topical application. 6

Lice infestation

32###N. tabacum###Leaf###Buffalo###Boil equal quantity (250 g) of leave and fruit in 1 L water, apply topically for###4

###C. colocynthis###Fruit###2-3 days.

33###L. sativum###Seed###Cattle###Mix 50 g seed of each plant with 250 g molasses, administer PO for 2-3 days.###1

###E. vesicaria###

34###B. rapa###Oil###Buffalo###Boil the oil and apply topically.###2

35###A. indica###Leaf###Sheep###Boil 200 g leaves and 2 fruits in 1 L water, topically apply for 4 days.###4

###C. colocynthis###Fruit###

36###A. indica###Leaf###Goat###Boil 200 g leaves in 1 L water, topically apply for 3 days.###2

promoter and immune-modulatory effects (Alawa et al.,2010; Awaad et al., 2010; Badar et al., 2011; Iqbal et al.,2012). Some of the plants documented in this survey have already been scientifically validated for their anthelmintic activity. These plants include A. indica (Iqbal et al., 2012), Baccharoides (Vernonia) anthelmintica (Iqbal et al., 2006) and A. nilotica (Badar et al., 2011). Activity of these medicinal plants used for the treatment of various parasitic diseases, based on empirical evidence, may be attributed to their chemical contents like phenolics, terpenoids, polyphenols and alkaloids and polypeptide, which have long run biological effects (Cowan, 1999). In this study, parts of the plants mostly documented were leaf, oil, fruit, seed, resin, bulb, stem, flower, Rhizome, Root and whole plant.

Thirty EVPs, which do not include the use of medicinal plants, were also documented to be used for the treatment of different parasitic diseases (Table III). These indigenous recipes include the use of dairy products, and

Table II: Plants used for treatment of parasitic infections in ethno-veterinary medicine system of District Jhang,

Punjab Pakistan

Botanical name of plant###Common name of plant (Urdu, Botanical family Diseases treated###No. of respondents

###English

A ilium cepa L.###Piyaz, ONION###Amaryllidaceae###Mange, helminthiasis###8

A. sativum L.###Thoam, GARLIC###Amaryllidaceae###Hehninthiasis###2

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f'.###Kanwar gandal, BARBADOS Amaryllidaceae###Mange, helminthiasis###6

###ALOE.

Azadirachta indica A. Juss.###Neem, NEEM###Meliaceae###Mange, tick infestation, lice infestation,###47

###fly infestation, helminthiasis

Brassica rapa L. subsp. oiejfera###Sarson, FIELD JVITJSTARD Brassicaceae###Mange, tick infestation, lice infestation,###25

(DC.) Metzg.###fly infestation, helminthiasis

Calotropisprocera (Aiton) W.T.Aiton Aak, SODOM APPLE###Apocynaceae###Helminthiasis###1

Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew.###Karae, CAPPER###Capparaceae###Ticks infestation, helminthiasis###4

Capsicum annuum L.###Surkh mirch, CHILI PEPPER Solanaceae###Helminthiasis###2

C.frutescens L.###Sabz mirch, HOT PEPPER###Solanaceae###Mange###5

Citrulius colocynthis (L.) Schrad.###Korr###tumma, BITTER###Cucurbitaceae###Mange, tick infestation, lice infestation,###32

###CUCUMBER###fly infestation, helminthiasis

Convolvulus arvensis L.###Wun wehri, FIELD

###BIND WEED###Convolvulaceae###Helminthiasis###1

Coriandrum sativum L.###Dhanya, CORIANDER###Apiaceae###Helminthiasis###1

Curcumapicta Roxb. ex Skornick.###Kachoor, ZEDOARY###Zingiberaceae###Mange###1

Eruca vesicaria (L) Cay. subsp.###Taramira, SWEET ROCKET###Cruciferae###Mange, tick infestation, lice infestation,###69

sativa (Mill.) Thell.###fly infestation.

Ferulafoetida (Bunge) Regel###Heing, ASAFETIDA###Apiaceae###Helminthiasis###15

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.###Sounf, FENNEL###Apiaceae###Hehninthiasis###2

Jasminum humile L###Chumba, ITALIAN JASMINE###Oleaceae###Helminthiasis###5

Lepidium sativum L.###Halya, GARDEN CRESS###Brassicaceae###Tick infestation, lice infestation###2

Ma/lotus philipensis (Lam.) MUll.###Kamala, KAMALA TREE###Euphorbiaceae###Helminthiasis###2

Arg.

Me/ia azedarach L.###Bakain, CHINABERRY###Meliaceae###Tick infestation###2

Nerium oleander L.###Kanair,OLEANDER###Apocynaceae###Helminthiasis###2

Table III: List of ethno-veterinary practices, which do not include medicinal plants, for the treatment of different parasitic diseases reported by the traditional veterinary heaters (n=200) in District Jhang, Pakistan

S. No. Remedies###Animal###Dosages/administration###No. of Respondents

Mange

1###Sulfur###Cattle###Topical application for 4-5 days.###7

2###Buffalo dung###Buffalo###Topical application for 1 week.###1

3###Old Persian well water###Cattle###Give a bath for 3-4 days.###1

4###Kerosene oil###Cattle###Topical application for 4-5 days.###5

5###Used engine oil###Sheep, goat###Topical application for 4-5 days.###12

Tick infestation

6###Diesel oil###Cattle###Mix 100 ml oil and 5 tablets for topical application.###2

###Naphthalene bolus

7###Kerosene oil###Buffalo###Mix 100 ml oil and 20 g of naswar, apply topically.###3

###Naswar (a

###product of tobacco)

8###Canal water###Horse, donkey###Keep the animal in canal for 1 h, ticks will leave the animal.###2

9###Lasi (milk whey)###Cattle###Wash the animal for 2-3 days.###1

10###Hand picking###Buffalo###Remove the ticks with the help of hand and bum in fire.###S

11###Diesel oil Petrol###Cattle###Mix equal quantities of both and apply topically.###6

12###Kerosene oil###Sheep, goat###Spray the animal.###3

13###Used engine oil###Buffalo###Topical application.###2

14###Stone (any stone)###Cattle###Grooming with stone to remove ticks.###2

Fly infestation

15###Diesel oil###Horse, donkey###Spray on the fly at morning and evening.###7

16###Kerosene oil###Buffalo###Spray the kerosene oil on the fly.###6

17###Used engine oil###Cattle, sheep, goat Sufficient quantity of oil is applied topically.###7

18###Diesel oil Kerosene oil###Buffaloes###Mix equal quantities of both and spray the animal.###9

19###Camel bone###Buffalo###Burn 100 g of camel bone in fife and after grinding mix with 100 g###3

###molasses, administer P0 for 4 Days.

Lice infestation

20###Diesel oil###Buffalo###Topical application.###6

21###Kerosene oil###Cattle###Topical application.###4

22###Sump oil###Buffalo###Topical application.###4

Helminthiasis

23###Copper sulfate###Buffalo###Mix 2 g copper sulfate with 200 g molasses, administer P0 and repeat###3

###on alternative day.

24###Naphthalene balls###Buffalo###Mix 2 naphthalene balls in 500 g molasses, administer P0.###2

Fleas

25###Used engine oil###Buffalo###Topical application.###8

26###Kerosene oil###Cattle###Topical application.###5

27###Naswar###Buffalo###Kaslmiri naswar applied topically on the affected area of animal.###4

Myiasis

28###Naphthalene balls###Buffalo, cattle###Mix 2 naphthalene balls in 50 g oil, pour on the wound.###11

29###Petrol###Sheep, goat, dog,

###cat Pour on

###the wound.###4

30###Naphthalene balls###Sheep, goat###Mix 2 naphthalene balls in 50 g oil pour on the wound.###3

other organic and inorganic matter. In EVP, duration of treatment for a particular disease is highly variable and clinical recovery is approximately 100% as reported by some respondents. Therefore, the possibility of complete removal of causative organism for a specific disease might not be attained at the end of treatment. This is in contrast with the western veterinary medicinal practice; in which treatment is continued well until the signs of a disease disappear (Jabbar et al., 2006).

CONCLUSION

This study provided an inventory of medicinal plants used in EVPs against different parasitic diseases. Findings of the study indicated richness of the indigenous knowledge and its effective use in treating parasitic diseases prevalent in the area by the local farming communities. Value addition by standardization of doses of plants and their validation using scientific procedures would be of interest to the farmers, scientific community and pharmaceutical industry.

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Author:Sindhu, Zia Ud Din; Ullah, Shafiq; Abbas, Rao Zahid; Iqbal, Zafar; Hameed, Mansoor
Publication:International Journal of Agriculture and Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Dec 31, 2012
Words:4255
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