Invasive alien species of terrestrial vegetation of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh.
Invasion of alien plant species in recent times has been recognized as the second worst threat after habitat destruction . The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) defines "alien invasive species" as an alien species which becomes established in natural or seminatural ecosystems or habitat as agent of change and threatens native biological diversity. Identifying the processes that determine the distribution and diversity of exotic species is a major area of research in ecology because exotics impose significant economic, social, and environmental costs, including human health . Biological invasion may be considered as a form of biological pollution and the significant component of anthropogenic changes leading to extinction of native species. The ecological approach to plant invasion has been mostly based on (a) biological and ecological features promoting the invasion success of particular species [3,4] and (b) the character and invasibility of invaded communities . Recently, both approaches are treated as complementary [6, 7]. The phytogeographical and floristic approaches are important for research on alien plants . A number of workers have studied and provided catalogues of the invasive alien plant species in different parts of the world [9-12]. Establishment of a database of naturalized species is the first step in the development of invasion biology. A naturalized species is an introduced species that can consistently reproduce and sustain population over many generations without direct intervention by humans [13,14]. After successful establishment few naturalized species disperse and produce viable offsprings in areas far from the sites of their introduction. Such naturalized species are then called invasive. It is estimated that as many as 50% of invasive species, in general, can be classified as ecologically harmful .
Due to increasing trade and transcontinental transport, the floras of Indian subcontinent have a number of alien species from various parts of the world as evident from the studies made at different parts in India, namely, Upper Gangetic Plain [15, 16], Khandwa Plateau , Kodaikanal and Palani Hills , Kashmir Himalaya [19,20], Ranchi , Gangtok , Allahabad , Rajasthan , South Gujarat , and Doon Valley . This paper presents observations on the habit and nativity of invaders of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh and their impact on the diversity of native plants.
2. The Site, Climate, and Vegetation
The study was conducted in the Terai landscape of northeastern Uttar Pradesh. This area is characterized by even topography and fine alluvial deposits from Rapti and Gandak rivers. Mean altitude of the study area is 95 m amsl. The region slopes gently from north-west to south-east direction. Administratively the study area (~10,000 [km.sup.2]; 27[degrees]5' to 27[degrees]40'N latitude and 83[degrees]30' to 84[degrees]E longitude) falls in Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh state. It is bounded by Nepal in the north and Bihar state of India in the east. The landscape comprises a mosaic of human habitations, agricultural fields, grasslands, commercial plantations, and forests. The climate is typically monsoonic with three distinct seasons, namely, summer (March to mid-June), rainy (mid-June to mid-October), and winter (mid-October to February). The total average annual rainfall is about 1814 mm; about 87% of annual rainfall is received during warm rainy season and the rest 13% is distributed in the form of occasional showers from November to May. Relative humidity ranges between 74 and 87%. The mean maximum temperatures during wet summer, winter, and dry summer season are 35.2[degrees], 27[degrees], and 24-39[degrees]C and mean minimum temperatures are 26.2[degrees], 12.1[degrees], and 24.2[degrees]C, respectively (based on climatic data for 2000-2005). The soil of the region is classified as Gangetic alluvium, ranging from clayey to sandy loam in texture with pH ranging from 6.5 to 7.5. In the northern area there are a few elevated mounds, locally called dhus, which range in size from a few hundred meters to 4-5 km and have brown sandy soil.
3. Data Sources and Methods
Over the period between 1960 and 2013, a comprehensive list of invasive alien plant species of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh was made. The truly aquatic plants were avoided but marshy plants were considered as component of terrestrial vegetation. Several extensive reviews on invasive plant species are available [12, 27-33]. The website http://www.isws.in/invasive-plants-of-india.php  was also searched for information on the origin and nativity of these invaders. Some information pertaining to the nativity of the species in India has been extracted from 18, 21-24, and 36-40.
Invasive alien species occurring in this region were compiled based on the literature survey, field observation, and discussion with local people. They were divided into three categories: naturalized, interfering, and noxious. Self-replacing plant populations by recruitment through seeds/ramets and capable of independent growth were categorized as naturalized. Alien and native plants which impacted agriculture adversely especially on the disturbed sites were taken as noxious. The adverse impact of noxious species was in the form of competition for space with tillage or forage crops and harbouring of pests or disease vectors, harmful to crops/native species. In addition to efficient vegetative mode of propagation the seeds of these species are mostly wind-distributed and may remain viable for several years. The species which were neither injurious nor noxious but caused profuse interference and hindrance to the growth of crop/native species over a large area by virtue of their vast numbers were taken as interfering.
A total of 149 species of invasive aliens of the terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh have been documented. These 149 alien species belonged to 100 genera under 41 families. The alien species amounted to 13.1% of 1135 wild terrestrial plant species of the region. The habit, nativity, and the impact of invasive species on forest, grassland, and agricultural communities were noticed to prepare a catalogue of invasive alien/exotic plant species (Table 1). 100 aliens have their origin in Tropical America compared to 21 species in African continent. About 28 species of alien plants reached the study area from such far off places as Afghanistan, Australia, Brazil, East Indies, Europe, Madagascar, Mascarene Islands, Mediterranean, Mexico, Peru, Temperate South America, Tropical West Asia, West Indies, and Western Europe.
The herbaceous elements predominated the regional alien flora. The number of dicot alien species was 136, under 93 genera and 32 families. On the other hand, there were only 13 species of monocot aliens distributed among 9 genera under 5 families (Amaryllidaceae, Arecaceae, Cyperaceae, Liliaceae, and Poaceae). Of 41 families having alien species, Asteraceae was the most dominant (29 species) followed by Convolvulaceae (11), Amaranthaceae and Solanaceae (9 species each), Euphorbiaceae (8), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (7 each), Poaceae (6), Capparidaceae, Cyperaceae, Tiliaceae, and Verbenaceae (4 each), Asclepiadaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Mimosaceae, and Onagraceae (3 each), Acanthaceae, Oxalidaceae, Papaveraceae, Pedaliaceae, Portulacaceae, and Scrophulariaceae (2 each), and Amaryllidaceae, Apocynaceae, Arecaceae, Brassicaceae, Cannabaceae, Cuscutaceae, Cactaceae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Primulaceae, Passifloraceae, Piperaceae, Rosaceae, Sterculiaceae, Ulmaceae, Urticaceae, and Zygophyllaceae (1 species each). Of these aliens, 15 species were judged as noxious, 43 species as interfering, and 91 as naturalized species (Figure 1). Habit wise analysis shows that 80% of species are herbs, 12% are shrubs, 6% are herbaceous climbers, and 2% are trees (Figure 2). The eight dominant families contributed 47% of the invasive alien flora of wild terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh (Figure 3).
Alien species are nonnative or exotic organisms that occur outside their natural adapted ranges and dispersal potential . These invasive species are widely distributed in all kinds of ecosystems throughout the world and include all categories of living organisms. Nevertheless, plants, mammals, and insects comprise the most common types of invasive alien species in terrestrial environments . Many alien plant species support our farming and forestry systems in a big way. However, some of these aliens become invasive when they are introduced deliberately or unintentionally outside their natural habitats into new areas where they express the capability to establish, invade, and outcompete native species . An important requirement for successful colonization of invaders is open habitat with reduced competition. Generally, the microsites created by grazing may be occupied by invader species [38-40]. The invaders usually dominate the highly disturbed and man-made landscapes. So far, no ready hand catalogue of invasive species is available for this region. The present catalogue of invasive exotic species is likely to serve as basic information for future research towards conservation of native plant species of the region.
As evident from the data, the vegetation of northeastern Uttar Pradesh shows greater incidence of invaders as compared to the whole of Uttar Pradesh  and India . Reddy documented all invasive plant species irrespective of their habitat and use. In the present case, however, only the wild invasive plant species of terrestrial vegetation were considered and truly aquatic and ornamental invasive species were excluded. Many species, recorded as invader of northeastern Uttar Pradesh, are common to Indian Himalayan region and the whole of Uttar Pradesh. For example, 103 invaders are common to the whole of the state of Uttar Pradesh  and 95 species to the whole of India . Among the invasive species of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh, 70.5% are native to American continent. Other such studies vary slightly in percent share of tropical American nativity. While Singh et al.  reported 73% of invasive plant species of Uttar Pradesh, for Indian Himalayan region, however, Sekar  also noticed 73% invaders of American nativity. Reddy  noticed 58% of the invasive flora of India to be natives of American continent.
Alien species have been classified into naturalized and noxious species by various workers [13, 44, 45]. Our field observation and discussion with local people indicate that there are 15 most noxious invasive plant species in this region, namely, Ageratum conyzoides, Antigonon leptopus, Argemone mexicana, Cassia tora, Datura stramonium, Datura innoxia, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eupatorium adenophorum, Lantana camara, Lagascea mollis, Leucaena leucocephala, Mikania micrantha, Parthenium hysterophorus, Opuntia elatior, and Xanthium strumarium. Some species such as Ageratum conyzoides, Eupatorium adenophorum, Lantana camara, and Parthenium hysterophorus are harmful to native species [41, 46,47]. Further, some of these species are known to be highly allergic, causing diseases in human beings [48,49]. Since they are rarely palatable, their dominance drastically reduces the number of grazers by way of reducing the carrying capacity of the pasture and wasteland . Datura innoxia and Datura stramonium are serious threat to the native species of the region and are known to cause delay in seedling growth of neighbouring plants . Leucaena leucocephala alters the natural growth of native plants because not only it obstructs plenty of sunlight to reach surface layer but also its allelopathic exudates cause retardation in seedling growth of neighbouring plants . Mikania micrantha could climb trees and cover the whole habitats through fast vegetative propagation and could also suppress the growth of crops and natural vegetation through competition and allelopathic effects . These species occur as invasive species under shifting agriculture in north-eastern Uttar Pradesh and combine an effective seed based reproduction with clonal propagation . Many invasive species such as species of Eupatorium tend to respond to temporarily nutrient-enriched soil substrata and grow and quickly cover the gaps in disturbed forests. They can destroy arable soil, negatively affect the growth of orchard, and could also supplant grasses in pasture, excreting a toxic volatile that prevents grazing .
The herbaceous invasive plant species were recorded as the dominant invasive flora (80%) of north-east Uttar Pradesh, in the form of 119 invasive species. The greater viability and tolerance to harsh conditions could result in the preponderance of herbs across the region. Invasive species of Asteraceae exhibited a much higher reproductive capacity than those of other families. This high reproductive potential is achieved by partitioning of reproductive capital into a large number of propagules that are minute, light, and wind dispersed . Various other workers have also reported the dominance of Asteraceae among invasive alien species in Uttar Pradesh  and in Indian Himalayan region .
The invasive species cause loss of biodiversity through species extinction and their impact on ecosystem function. Differences between native and invasive plant species in their resource acquisition and consumption may cause a change in soil structure, decomposition, and nutrient content of the soil. Thus, invasive species are a serious hindrance to conservation with significant undesirable impacts on the goods and services provided by ecosystems. Biological invasions now operate on a global scale and are likely to undergo rapid increase in this century due to interaction with other changes such as increasing travel and tourism. A quick monitoring of invasion can, therefore, be done through qualitative approach like species inventory method.
Plant invasions in the new areas alter indigenous community composition, deplete species diversity, affect ecosystem process, and thus cause huge economic and ecological imbalance. A quick inventory and plant identification network are, therefore, needed for early detection and reporting of noxious and naturalized weeds in order to control the spread of invasive plant species.
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.
The authors are thankful to the Head Department of Botany, D.D.U., Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, for providing access to departmental herbarium and other required facilities. They also feel grateful to the anonymous reviewer for his critical comments and suggestions to improve the quality and clarity of the content and to Dr. Robin Reich for very quick response.
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Sumit Srivastava, Ashish Dvivedi, and Ravindra Prasad Shukla
Plant Ecology Laboratory, Department of Botany, DDU, Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, India
Correspondence should be addressed to Sumit Srivastava; firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 19 January 2014; Accepted 21 April 2014; Published 12 May 2014
Academic Editor: Robin Reich
TABLE 1: Wild invasive plant species in terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh. S. No. Name of the Species Family Habit 1 Acacia farnesiana Mimosaceae Tree (L.) Willd 2 Acanthospermum Asteraceae Herb hispidum DC. 3 Aerva tomentosa Amaranthaceae Herb 4 Ageratum conyzoides Asteraceae Herb L. 5 Ageratum Asteraceae Herb houstonianum Mill. 6 Alternanthera Amaranthaceae Herb paronychioides A. St. Hill 7 Alternanthera Amaranthaceae Herb pungens Kunth 8 Alternanthera Amaranthaceae Herb sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC. 9 Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthaceae Herb L. 10 Anagallis arvensis Primulaceae Herb L. 11 Antigonon leptopus Polygonaceae climber Hook and Arn. 12 Argemone mexicana L. Papaveraceae Herb 13 Argemone ochroleuca Papaveraceae Herb Sweet. 14 Asphodelus Liliaceae Herb tenuifolius Cav. 15 Blainvillea acmella Asteraceae Herb (L.) Philipson 16 Blumea eriantha DC. Asteraceae Herb 17 Blumea lacera (Burm Asteraceae Herb f.) DC. 18 Blumea obliqua (L.) Asteraceae Herb Druce 19 Borassus flabellifer Arecaceae Tree L. 20 Calotropis gigantea Asclepiadaceae Shrub (L.) R. Br. 21 Calotropis procera Asclepiadaceae Shrub (Ait) R. Br. 22 Cannabis sativa L. Cannabaceae Herb 23 Cassia absus L. Caesalpiniaceae Herb 24 Cassia alata L. Caesalpiniaceae Shrub 25 Cassia hirsute L. Caesalpiniaceae Herb 26 Cassia Caesalpiniaceae Herb obtusifolia L. 27 Cassia Caesalpiniaceae Herb occidentalis L. 28 Cassia pumila Lam. Caesalpiniaceae Herb 29 Cassia tora L. Caesalpiniaceae Herb 30 Celosia argentea L. Amaranthaceae Herb 31 Chenopodium album L. Chenopodiaceae Herb 32 Chenopodium Chenopodiaceae Herb ambrosioides L. 33 Chenopodium murale Chenopodiaceae Herb L. 34 Chloris barbata Sw. Poaceae Herb 35 Chrozophora rottleri Euphorbiaceae Herb (Geis) Spring 36 Cleome burmanni Capparidaceae Herb 37 Cleome gynandra L. Capparidaceae Herb 38 Cleome rutidosperma Capparidaceae Herb DC. 39 Cleome viscosa L. Capparidaceae Herb 40 Clerodendrum Verbenaceae Climber splendens G. Don 41 Convolvulus arvensis Convolvulaceae Herb L. 42 Corchorus aestuans Tiliaceae Herb L. 43 Corchorus Tiliaceae Herb fascicularis Lam. 44 Corchorus olitorius Tiliaceae Herb L. 45 Coronopus didymus Brassicaceae Herb (L.) Smith 46 Crotalaria Papilionaceae Herb mucronata.Ait 47 Croton bonplandianum Euphorbiaceae Herb Boil. 48 Cryptostegia Asclepiadaceae Herb grandiflora R. Br. 49 Cuscuta reflexa Cuscutaceae Herb Roxb. 50 Cynodon dactylon Poaceae Herb (Linn.) Pers 51 Cyperus difformis L. Cyperaceae Herb 52 Cyperus Cyperaceae Herb flabelliformis Rottb. 53 Cyperus iria L. Cyperaceae Herb 54 Cyperus cyperoides Cyperaceae Herb L. 55 Datura innoxia Mill. Solanaceae Shrub 56 Datura metel L. Solanaceae Shrub 57 Datura stramonium L. Solanaceae Shrub 58 Digera muricata (L.) Amaranthaceae Herb Mart 59 Duranta repens Linn. Verbenaceae Shrub 60 Echinochloa colonum Poaceae Herb (L.) Link 61 Echinochloa crus- Poaceae Herb galli (L.) Beauv. 62 Echinops echinatus Asteraceae Herb Roxb. 63 Eclipta prostrata Asteraceae Herb (L.) Mart. 64 Emilia sonchifolia Asteraceae Herb (L.) DC. 65 Erigeron bonariensis Asteraceae Herb L. 66 Eupatorium Asteraceae Shrub adenophorum Sprengel 67 Eupatorium odoratum Asteraceae Shrub L. 68 Euphorbia chamaesyce Euphorbiaceae Herb L. 69 Euphorbia hirta L Euphorbiaceae Herb 70 Euphorbia Euphorbiaceae Herb heterophylla L. 71 Evolvulus Convolvulaceae Herb nummularius (L.) L. 72 Flaveria trinervia Asteraceae Herb (Spreng.) C. Mohar 73 Galinsoga parviflora Asteraceae Herb Cav. 74 Glossocardia Asteraceae Herb bosvallia (L. f.) DC. 75 Gnaphalium Asteraceae Herb polycaulon Pers. 76 Gomphrena Amaranthaceae Herb celosioides Mart. 77 Gomphrena globosa Amaranthaceae Herb Linn. 78 Grangea Asteraceae Herb maderaspatana (L.) Poir. 79 Hyptis suaveolens Lamiaceae Herb (L.) Poit 80 Imperata cylindrica Poaceae Herb (L.) Raensch. 81 Indigofera Papilionaceae Herb glandulosa Roxb. Ex Willd 82 Indigofera hirsuta Papilionaceae Herb Hook. 83 Indigofera linearis Papilionaceae Herb Ali 84 Indigofera linifolia Papilionaceae Herb (L. f.) Retz. 85 Ipomoea eriocarpa R. Convolvulaceae Climber Br. 86 Ipomoea fistulosa Convolvulaceae Shrub Mart DC. 87 Ipomoea muricata L. Convolvulaceae Climber 88 Ipomoea nil (L.) Convolvulaceae Climber Roth. 89 Ipomoea obscura (L.) Convolvulaceae Climber Ker. Gawl. 90 Ipomoea pes- Convolvulaceae Climber tigridis L. 91 Ipomoea purpurea Convolvulaceae Herb (Linn.) Roth 92 Ipomoea quamoclit L. Convolvulaceae Climber 93 Jatropha curcas Euphorbiaceae Herb 94 Jatropha Euphorbiaceae Shrub gossypifolia L. 95 Lagascea mollis Cav Asteraceae Herb 96 Lantana camara L. Verbenaceae Shrub 97 Leonotis nepetifolia Lamiaceae Herb (L.) R. Br. 98 Leucaena Mimosaceae Herb leucocephala (Lam.) de. Wit 99 Lippia alba Verbenaceae Herb 100 Ludwigia adscendens Onagraceae Herb (L.) Hara 101 Ludwigia octovalvis Onagraceae Herb (Jacq.) Raven 102 Ludwigia parviflora Onagraceae Herb Roxb. 103 Malvastrum Malvaceae Herb coromandelianum (L.) Gar. 104 Martynia annua L. Pedaliaceae Herb 105 Mecardonia Scrophulariaceae Herb procumbens (Mill.) Small 106 Melilotus alba Desv. Papilionaceae Herb 107 Melochia Sterculiaceae Herb corchorifolia L. 108 Merremia dissecta Convolvulaceae Herb (Jacq.) Hallier f. 109 Mikania micrantha Asteraceae Climber Kunth. 110 Mimosa pudica L. Mimosaceae Herb 111 Nicotiana Solanaceae Herb plumbaginifolia Viv. 112 Ocimum americanum L. Lamiaceae Herb 113 Opuntia elatior Cactaceae Herb Mill. 114 Oxalis corniculata Oxalidaceae Herb L. 115 Oxalis corymbosa DC. Oxalidaceae Herb 116 Parthenium Asteraceae Herb hysterophorus L 117 Passiflora foetida Passifloraceae Herb L. 118 Pedalium murex L. Pedaliaceae Herb 119 Peperomia pellucida Piperaceae Herb (L.) Kunth. 120 Peristrophe Acanthaceae Herb paniculata (Forsk.) Brummitt 121 Physalis minima L. Solanaceae Herb 122 Physalis peruviana L Solanaceae Herb 123 Pilea microphylla Urticaceae Herb 124 Portulaca oleracea Portulacaceae Herb L. 125 Portulaca quadrifida Portulacaceae Herb L. 126 Rauvolfia Apocynaceae Herb tetraphylla 127 Ricinus communis Euphorbiaceae Shrub Linn. 128 Rubus ellipticus Rosaceae Shrub Smith 129 Ruellia tuberosa L. Acanthaceae Herb 130 Saccharum spontaneum Poaceae Herb L. 131 Scoparia dulcis L. Scrophulariaceae Herb 132 Sesbania bispinosa Papilionaceae Shrub (Jacq.) W. F. Wight 133 Sida acuta Burm f. Malvaceae Herb 134 Solanum khasianum Solanaceae Herb 135 Solanum nigrum L. Solanaceae Herb 136 Solanum torvum Sw. Solanaceae Shrub 137 Solvia anthemifolia Asteraceae Herb (Juss) R. 138 Sonchus asper Hill. Asteraceae Herb 139 Sonchus oleraceus L. Asteraceae Herb 140 Synedrella nodiflora Asteraceae Herb (L.) Gaertn. 141 Tithonia Asteraceae Shrub diversifolia (Hense) A. Gray 142 Trema orientalis L. Ulmaceae Tree 143 Tribulus terrestris Zygophyllaceae Herb L. 144 Tridax procumbens L. Asteraceae Herb 145 Triumfetta Tiliaceae Herb rhomboidea Jacq. 146 Urena lobata L. Malvaceae Shrub 147 Xanthium strumarium Asteraceae Herb L. 148 Youngia japonica Asteraceae Herb (L.) DC. 149 Zephyranthes candida Amaryllidaceae Herb Lindl. S. No. Name of the Species Nativity Categories 1 Acacia farnesiana Tropical South Naturalized (L.) Willd America 2 Acanthospermum Brazil Naturalized hispidum DC. 3 Aerva tomentosa Tropical America Naturalized 4 Ageratum conyzoides Tropical America Noxious L. 5 Ageratum Tropical America Interfering houstonianum Mill. 6 Alternanthera Tropical America Naturalized paronychioides A. St. Hill 7 Alternanthera Tropical America Naturalized pungens Kunth 8 Alternanthera Tropical America Naturalized sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC. 9 Amaranthus spinosus Tropical America Naturalized L. 10 Anagallis arvensis Europe Naturalized L. 11 Antigonon leptopus Tropical America Noxious Hook and Arn. 12 Argemone mexicana L. Tropical South Noxious America 13 Argemone ochroleuca Mexico Interfering Sweet. 14 Asphodelus Tropical America Naturalized tenuifolius Cav. 15 Blainvillea acmella Tropical America Interfering (L.) Philipson 16 Blumea eriantha DC. Tropical America Interfering 17 Blumea lacera (Burm Tropical America Interfering f.) DC. 18 Blumea obliqua (L.) Tropical America Interfering Druce 19 Borassus flabellifer Tropical Africa Naturalized L. 20 Calotropis gigantea Tropical Africa Interfering (L.) R. Br. 21 Calotropis procera Tropical Africa Interfering (Ait) R. Br. 22 Cannabis sativa L. Central Asia Interfering 23 Cassia absus L. Tropical America Naturalized 24 Cassia alata L. West Indies Naturalized 25 Cassia hirsute L. Tropical America Naturalized 26 Cassia Tropical America Naturalized obtusifolia L. 27 Cassia Tropical South Naturalized occidentalis L. America 28 Cassia pumila Lam. Tropical America Naturalized 29 Cassia tora L. Tropical South Noxious America 30 Celosia argentea L. Tropical Africa Naturalized 31 Chenopodium album L. Europe Interfering 32 Chenopodium Tropical America Interfering ambrosioides L. 33 Chenopodium murale Tropical America Naturalized L. 34 Chloris barbata Sw. Tropical America Naturalized 35 Chrozophora rottleri Tropical Africa Naturalized (Geis) Spring 36 Cleome burmanni West Africa Naturalized 37 Cleome gynandra L. Tropical America Naturalized 38 Cleome rutidosperma Tropical America Naturalized DC. 39 Cleome viscosa L. Tropical America Naturalized 40 Clerodendrum Africa Interfering splendens G. Don 41 Convolvulus arvensis Europe Naturalized L. 42 Corchorus aestuans Tropical America Naturalized L. 43 Corchorus Tropical America Naturalized fascicularis Lam. 44 Corchorus olitorius Tropical Africa Naturalized L. 45 Coronopus didymus Tropical America Interfering (L.) Smith 46 Crotalaria Tropical America Interfering mucronata.Ait 47 Croton bonplandianum Temperate South Naturalized Boil. America 48 Cryptostegia Madagascar Interfering grandiflora R. Br. 49 Cuscuta reflexa Mediterranean Interfering Roxb. 50 Cynodon dactylon Africa Naturalized (Linn.) Pers 51 Cyperus difformis L. Tropical America Naturalized 52 Cyperus Africa Interfering flabelliformis Rottb. 53 Cyperus iria L. Tropical America Naturalized 54 Cyperus cyperoides Tropical America Naturalized L. 55 Datura innoxia Mill. Tropical America Noxious 56 Datura metel L. Tropical America Interfering 57 Datura stramonium L. Tropical America Noxious 58 Digera muricata (L.) South-West Asia Interfering Mart 59 Duranta repens Linn. America Naturalized 60 Echinochloa colonum Tropical South Naturalized (L.) Link America 61 Echinochloa crus- Tropical South Noxious galli (L.) Beauv. America 62 Echinops echinatus Afghanistan Naturalized Roxb. 63 Eclipta prostrata Tropical America Naturalized (L.) Mart. 64 Emilia sonchifolia Tropical America Naturalized (L.) DC. 65 Erigeron bonariensis South America Interfering L. 66 Eupatorium Mexico Noxious adenophorum Sprengel 67 Eupatorium odoratum Tropical America Interfering L. 68 Euphorbia chamaesyce West Africa & Naturalized L. Mauritius 69 Euphorbia hirta L Tropical America Naturalized 70 Euphorbia Tropical America Naturalized heterophylla L. 71 Evolvulus Tropical America Naturalized nummularius (L.) L. 72 Flaveria trinervia Tropical Cent. Naturalized (Spreng.) C. Mohar America 73 Galinsoga parviflora Tropical America Naturalized Cav. 74 Glossocardia West Indies Naturalized bosvallia (L. f.) DC. 75 Gnaphalium Tropical America Interfering polycaulon Pers. 76 Gomphrena Tropical America Naturalized celosioides Mart. 77 Gomphrena globosa America Naturalized Linn. 78 Grangea Tropical South Naturalized maderaspatana (L.) America Poir. 79 Hyptis suaveolens Tropical America Interfering (L.) Poit 80 Imperata cylindrica Tropical America Naturalized (L.) Raensch. 81 Indigofera Tropical America Naturalized glandulosa Roxb. Ex Willd 82 Indigofera hirsuta Tropical Africa Naturalized Hook. 83 Indigofera linearis Tropical Africa Naturalized Ali 84 Indigofera linifolia Tropical South Naturalized (L. f.) Retz. America 85 Ipomoea eriocarpa R. Tropical Africa Interfering Br. 86 Ipomoea fistulosa Tropical America Interfering Mart DC. 87 Ipomoea muricata L. Tropical America Naturalized 88 Ipomoea nil (L.) North America Naturalized Roth. 89 Ipomoea obscura (L.) Tropical Africa Interfering Ker. Gawl. 90 Ipomoea pes- Tropical East Interfering tigridis L. Africa 91 Ipomoea purpurea America Interfering (Linn.) Roth 92 Ipomoea quamoclit L. Tropical America Interfering 93 Jatropha curcas Tropical America Naturalized 94 Jatropha Brazil Naturalized gossypifolia L. 95 Lagascea mollis Cav Tropical Cent. Noxious America 96 Lantana camara L. Tropical America Noxious 97 Leonotis nepetifolia Tropical Africa Interfering (L.) R. Br. 98 Leucaena Tropical America Noxious leucocephala (Lam.) de. Wit 99 Lippia alba Trop. America & Interfering West Indies 100 Ludwigia adscendens Tropical America Naturalized (L.) Hara 101 Ludwigia octovalvis Tropical America Naturalized (Jacq.) Raven 102 Ludwigia parviflora Tropical Africa Naturalized Roxb. 103 Malvastrum Tropical America Naturalized coromandelianum (L.) Gar. 104 Martynia annua L. Tropical America Interfering 105 Mecardonia Tropical North Naturalized procumbens (Mill.) America Small 106 Melilotus alba Desv. Europe Naturalized 107 Melochia Tropical America Naturalized corchorifolia L. 108 Merremia dissecta Tropical America Naturalized (Jacq.) Hallier f. 109 Mikania micrantha Tropical America Noxious Kunth. 110 Mimosa pudica L. Brazil Naturalized 111 Nicotiana Tropical America Naturalized plumbaginifolia Viv. 112 Ocimum americanum L. Tropical America Naturalized 113 Opuntia elatior Tropical America Noxious Mill. 114 Oxalis corniculata Europe Naturalized L. 115 Oxalis corymbosa DC. South America Naturalized 116 Parthenium Tropical North Noxious hysterophorus L America 117 Passiflora foetida Tropical South Interfering L. America 118 Pedalium murex L. Tropical America Naturalized 119 Peperomia pellucida Tropical South Naturalized (L.) Kunth. America 120 Peristrophe Tropical America Interfering paniculata (Forsk.) Brummitt 121 Physalis minima L. Tropical America Naturalized 122 Physalis peruviana L Tropical America Interfering 123 Pilea microphylla Tropical South Naturalized America 124 Portulaca oleracea Tropical S. Naturalized L. America 125 Portulaca quadrifida Tropical America Naturalized L. 126 Rauvolfia West Indies Naturalized tetraphylla 127 Ricinus communis Africa Interfering Linn. 128 Rubus ellipticus Tropical America Naturalized Smith 129 Ruellia tuberosa L. Tropical America Naturalized 130 Saccharum spontaneum Tropical West Interfering L. Asia 131 Scoparia dulcis L. Tropical America Naturalized 132 Sesbania bispinosa Tropical America Naturalized (Jacq.) W. F. Wight 133 Sida acuta Burm f. Tropical America Naturalized 134 Solanum khasianum Tropical America Interfering 135 Solanum nigrum L. Tropical America Naturalized 136 Solanum torvum Sw. West Indies Interfering 137 Solvia anthemifolia America Interfering (Juss) R. 138 Sonchus asper Hill. Mediterranean Interfering 139 Sonchus oleraceus L. Mediterranean Interfering 140 Synedrella nodiflora West Indies Naturalized (L.) Gaertn. 141 Tithonia Mexico Naturalized diversifolia (Hense) A. Gray 142 Trema orientalis L. Africa Naturalized 143 Tribulus terrestris Tropical America Naturalized L. 144 Tridax procumbens L. Tropical Cent. Naturalized America 145 Triumfetta Tropical America Naturalized rhomboidea Jacq. 146 Urena lobata L. Tropical Africa Interfering 147 Xanthium strumarium Tropical America Noxious L. 148 Youngia japonica Tropical South Naturalized (L.) DC. America 149 Zephyranthes candida America Naturalized Lindl. FIGURE 1: Families accounting for >5 species invasive in the terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh. Asteraceae 19.5 Convolvulaceae 7.4 Amaranthaceae 6 Solanaceae 6 Euphorbiaceae 5.4 Caesalpiniaceae 4.7 Papilionaceae 4.7 Poaceae 4 Note: Table made from bar graph. FIGURE 2: Number (%) of plant invasive species under different habit categories within terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh. Herbs 80% Climbers 6% Shrubs 12% Trees 2% Note: Table made from pie chart.
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|Title Annotation:||Research Article|
|Author:||Srivastava, Sumit; Dvivedi, Ashish; Shukla, Ravindra Prasad|
|Publication:||International Journal of Forestry Research|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2014|
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