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Invasive alien species of terrestrial vegetation of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh.

1. Introduction

Invasion of alien plant species in recent times has been recognized as the second worst threat after habitat destruction [1]. The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) defines "alien invasive species" as an alien species which becomes established in natural or seminatural ecosystems or habitat as agent of change and threatens native biological diversity. Identifying the processes that determine the distribution and diversity of exotic species is a major area of research in ecology because exotics impose significant economic, social, and environmental costs, including human health [2]. Biological invasion may be considered as a form of biological pollution and the significant component of anthropogenic changes leading to extinction of native species. The ecological approach to plant invasion has been mostly based on (a) biological and ecological features promoting the invasion success of particular species [3,4] and (b) the character and invasibility of invaded communities [5]. Recently, both approaches are treated as complementary [6, 7]. The phytogeographical and floristic approaches are important for research on alien plants [8]. A number of workers have studied and provided catalogues of the invasive alien plant species in different parts of the world [9-12]. Establishment of a database of naturalized species is the first step in the development of invasion biology. A naturalized species is an introduced species that can consistently reproduce and sustain population over many generations without direct intervention by humans [13,14]. After successful establishment few naturalized species disperse and produce viable offsprings in areas far from the sites of their introduction. Such naturalized species are then called invasive. It is estimated that as many as 50% of invasive species, in general, can be classified as ecologically harmful [13].

Due to increasing trade and transcontinental transport, the floras of Indian subcontinent have a number of alien species from various parts of the world as evident from the studies made at different parts in India, namely, Upper Gangetic Plain [15, 16], Khandwa Plateau [17], Kodaikanal and Palani Hills [18], Kashmir Himalaya [19,20], Ranchi [21], Gangtok [22], Allahabad [23], Rajasthan [24], South Gujarat [25], and Doon Valley [26]. This paper presents observations on the habit and nativity of invaders of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh and their impact on the diversity of native plants.

2. The Site, Climate, and Vegetation

The study was conducted in the Terai landscape of northeastern Uttar Pradesh. This area is characterized by even topography and fine alluvial deposits from Rapti and Gandak rivers. Mean altitude of the study area is 95 m amsl. The region slopes gently from north-west to south-east direction. Administratively the study area (~10,000 [km.sup.2]; 27[degrees]5' to 27[degrees]40'N latitude and 83[degrees]30' to 84[degrees]E longitude) falls in Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh state. It is bounded by Nepal in the north and Bihar state of India in the east. The landscape comprises a mosaic of human habitations, agricultural fields, grasslands, commercial plantations, and forests. The climate is typically monsoonic with three distinct seasons, namely, summer (March to mid-June), rainy (mid-June to mid-October), and winter (mid-October to February). The total average annual rainfall is about 1814 mm; about 87% of annual rainfall is received during warm rainy season and the rest 13% is distributed in the form of occasional showers from November to May. Relative humidity ranges between 74 and 87%. The mean maximum temperatures during wet summer, winter, and dry summer season are 35.2[degrees], 27[degrees], and 24-39[degrees]C and mean minimum temperatures are 26.2[degrees], 12.1[degrees], and 24.2[degrees]C, respectively (based on climatic data for 2000-2005). The soil of the region is classified as Gangetic alluvium, ranging from clayey to sandy loam in texture with pH ranging from 6.5 to 7.5. In the northern area there are a few elevated mounds, locally called dhus, which range in size from a few hundred meters to 4-5 km and have brown sandy soil.

3. Data Sources and Methods

Over the period between 1960 and 2013, a comprehensive list of invasive alien plant species of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh was made. The truly aquatic plants were avoided but marshy plants were considered as component of terrestrial vegetation. Several extensive reviews on invasive plant species are available [12, 27-33]. The website http://www.isws.in/invasive-plants-of-india.php [34] was also searched for information on the origin and nativity of these invaders. Some information pertaining to the nativity of the species in India has been extracted from 18, 21-24, and 36-40.

Invasive alien species occurring in this region were compiled based on the literature survey, field observation, and discussion with local people. They were divided into three categories: naturalized, interfering, and noxious. Self-replacing plant populations by recruitment through seeds/ramets and capable of independent growth were categorized as naturalized. Alien and native plants which impacted agriculture adversely especially on the disturbed sites were taken as noxious. The adverse impact of noxious species was in the form of competition for space with tillage or forage crops and harbouring of pests or disease vectors, harmful to crops/native species. In addition to efficient vegetative mode of propagation the seeds of these species are mostly wind-distributed and may remain viable for several years. The species which were neither injurious nor noxious but caused profuse interference and hindrance to the growth of crop/native species over a large area by virtue of their vast numbers were taken as interfering.

4. Results

A total of 149 species of invasive aliens of the terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh have been documented. These 149 alien species belonged to 100 genera under 41 families. The alien species amounted to 13.1% of 1135 wild terrestrial plant species of the region. The habit, nativity, and the impact of invasive species on forest, grassland, and agricultural communities were noticed to prepare a catalogue of invasive alien/exotic plant species (Table 1). 100 aliens have their origin in Tropical America compared to 21 species in African continent. About 28 species of alien plants reached the study area from such far off places as Afghanistan, Australia, Brazil, East Indies, Europe, Madagascar, Mascarene Islands, Mediterranean, Mexico, Peru, Temperate South America, Tropical West Asia, West Indies, and Western Europe.

The herbaceous elements predominated the regional alien flora. The number of dicot alien species was 136, under 93 genera and 32 families. On the other hand, there were only 13 species of monocot aliens distributed among 9 genera under 5 families (Amaryllidaceae, Arecaceae, Cyperaceae, Liliaceae, and Poaceae). Of 41 families having alien species, Asteraceae was the most dominant (29 species) followed by Convolvulaceae (11), Amaranthaceae and Solanaceae (9 species each), Euphorbiaceae (8), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (7 each), Poaceae (6), Capparidaceae, Cyperaceae, Tiliaceae, and Verbenaceae (4 each), Asclepiadaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Mimosaceae, and Onagraceae (3 each), Acanthaceae, Oxalidaceae, Papaveraceae, Pedaliaceae, Portulacaceae, and Scrophulariaceae (2 each), and Amaryllidaceae, Apocynaceae, Arecaceae, Brassicaceae, Cannabaceae, Cuscutaceae, Cactaceae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Primulaceae, Passifloraceae, Piperaceae, Rosaceae, Sterculiaceae, Ulmaceae, Urticaceae, and Zygophyllaceae (1 species each). Of these aliens, 15 species were judged as noxious, 43 species as interfering, and 91 as naturalized species (Figure 1). Habit wise analysis shows that 80% of species are herbs, 12% are shrubs, 6% are herbaceous climbers, and 2% are trees (Figure 2). The eight dominant families contributed 47% of the invasive alien flora of wild terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh (Figure 3).

5. Discussion

Alien species are nonnative or exotic organisms that occur outside their natural adapted ranges and dispersal potential [35]. These invasive species are widely distributed in all kinds of ecosystems throughout the world and include all categories of living organisms. Nevertheless, plants, mammals, and insects comprise the most common types of invasive alien species in terrestrial environments [36]. Many alien plant species support our farming and forestry systems in a big way. However, some of these aliens become invasive when they are introduced deliberately or unintentionally outside their natural habitats into new areas where they express the capability to establish, invade, and outcompete native species [37]. An important requirement for successful colonization of invaders is open habitat with reduced competition. Generally, the microsites created by grazing may be occupied by invader species [38-40]. The invaders usually dominate the highly disturbed and man-made landscapes. So far, no ready hand catalogue of invasive species is available for this region. The present catalogue of invasive exotic species is likely to serve as basic information for future research towards conservation of native plant species of the region.

As evident from the data, the vegetation of northeastern Uttar Pradesh shows greater incidence of invaders as compared to the whole of Uttar Pradesh [41] and India [42]. Reddy documented all invasive plant species irrespective of their habitat and use. In the present case, however, only the wild invasive plant species of terrestrial vegetation were considered and truly aquatic and ornamental invasive species were excluded. Many species, recorded as invader of northeastern Uttar Pradesh, are common to Indian Himalayan region and the whole of Uttar Pradesh. For example, 103 invaders are common to the whole of the state of Uttar Pradesh [41] and 95 species to the whole of India [42]. Among the invasive species of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh, 70.5% are native to American continent. Other such studies vary slightly in percent share of tropical American nativity. While Singh et al. [41] reported 73% of invasive plant species of Uttar Pradesh, for Indian Himalayan region, however, Sekar [43] also noticed 73% invaders of American nativity. Reddy [42] noticed 58% of the invasive flora of India to be natives of American continent.

Alien species have been classified into naturalized and noxious species by various workers [13, 44, 45]. Our field observation and discussion with local people indicate that there are 15 most noxious invasive plant species in this region, namely, Ageratum conyzoides, Antigonon leptopus, Argemone mexicana, Cassia tora, Datura stramonium, Datura innoxia, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eupatorium adenophorum, Lantana camara, Lagascea mollis, Leucaena leucocephala, Mikania micrantha, Parthenium hysterophorus, Opuntia elatior, and Xanthium strumarium. Some species such as Ageratum conyzoides, Eupatorium adenophorum, Lantana camara, and Parthenium hysterophorus are harmful to native species [41, 46,47]. Further, some of these species are known to be highly allergic, causing diseases in human beings [48,49]. Since they are rarely palatable, their dominance drastically reduces the number of grazers by way of reducing the carrying capacity of the pasture and wasteland [40]. Datura innoxia and Datura stramonium are serious threat to the native species of the region and are known to cause delay in seedling growth of neighbouring plants [50]. Leucaena leucocephala alters the natural growth of native plants because not only it obstructs plenty of sunlight to reach surface layer but also its allelopathic exudates cause retardation in seedling growth of neighbouring plants [51]. Mikania micrantha could climb trees and cover the whole habitats through fast vegetative propagation and could also suppress the growth of crops and natural vegetation through competition and allelopathic effects [45]. These species occur as invasive species under shifting agriculture in north-eastern Uttar Pradesh and combine an effective seed based reproduction with clonal propagation [52]. Many invasive species such as species of Eupatorium tend to respond to temporarily nutrient-enriched soil substrata and grow and quickly cover the gaps in disturbed forests. They can destroy arable soil, negatively affect the growth of orchard, and could also supplant grasses in pasture, excreting a toxic volatile that prevents grazing [48].

The herbaceous invasive plant species were recorded as the dominant invasive flora (80%) of north-east Uttar Pradesh, in the form of 119 invasive species. The greater viability and tolerance to harsh conditions could result in the preponderance of herbs across the region. Invasive species of Asteraceae exhibited a much higher reproductive capacity than those of other families. This high reproductive potential is achieved by partitioning of reproductive capital into a large number of propagules that are minute, light, and wind dispersed [53]. Various other workers have also reported the dominance of Asteraceae among invasive alien species in Uttar Pradesh [41] and in Indian Himalayan region [43].

The invasive species cause loss of biodiversity through species extinction and their impact on ecosystem function. Differences between native and invasive plant species in their resource acquisition and consumption may cause a change in soil structure, decomposition, and nutrient content of the soil. Thus, invasive species are a serious hindrance to conservation with significant undesirable impacts on the goods and services provided by ecosystems. Biological invasions now operate on a global scale and are likely to undergo rapid increase in this century due to interaction with other changes such as increasing travel and tourism. A quick monitoring of invasion can, therefore, be done through qualitative approach like species inventory method.

6. Conclusion

Plant invasions in the new areas alter indigenous community composition, deplete species diversity, affect ecosystem process, and thus cause huge economic and ecological imbalance. A quick inventory and plant identification network are, therefore, needed for early detection and reporting of noxious and naturalized weeds in order to control the spread of invasive plant species.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/959875

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to the Head Department of Botany, D.D.U., Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, for providing access to departmental herbarium and other required facilities. They also feel grateful to the anonymous reviewer for his critical comments and suggestions to improve the quality and clarity of the content and to Dr. Robin Reich for very quick response.

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Sumit Srivastava, Ashish Dvivedi, and Ravindra Prasad Shukla

Plant Ecology Laboratory, Department of Botany, DDU, Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, India

Correspondence should be addressed to Sumit Srivastava; srivastava980@gmail.com

Received 19 January 2014; Accepted 21 April 2014; Published 12 May 2014

Academic Editor: Robin Reich

TABLE 1: Wild invasive plant species in terrestrial vegetation of
north-eastern Uttar Pradesh.

S. No.   Name of the Species         Family         Habit

1         Acacia farnesiana        Mimosaceae       Tree
              (L.) Willd

2           Acanthospermum         Asteraceae       Herb
             hispidum DC.

3          Aerva tomentosa       Amaranthaceae      Herb

4        Ageratum conyzoides       Asteraceae       Herb
                  L.

5              Ageratum            Asteraceae       Herb
          houstonianum Mill.

6           Alternanthera        Amaranthaceae      Herb
          paronychioides A.
               St. Hill

7           Alternanthera        Amaranthaceae      Herb
            pungens Kunth

8           Alternanthera        Amaranthaceae      Herb
         sessilis (L.) R. Br.
                ex DC.

9        Amaranthus spinosus     Amaranthaceae      Herb
                  L.

10        Anagallis arvensis      Primulaceae       Herb
                  L.

11        Antigonon leptopus      Polygonaceae     climber
            Hook and Arn.

12       Argemone mexicana L.     Papaveraceae      Herb

13       Argemone ochroleuca      Papaveraceae      Herb
                Sweet.

14            Asphodelus           Liliaceae        Herb
           tenuifolius Cav.

15       Blainvillea acmella       Asteraceae       Herb
            (L.) Philipson

16       Blumea eriantha DC.       Asteraceae       Herb

17       Blumea lacera (Burm       Asteraceae       Herb
               f.) DC.

18       Blumea obliqua (L.)       Asteraceae       Herb
                Druce

19       Borassus flabellifer      Arecaceae        Tree
                  L.

20       Calotropis gigantea     Asclepiadaceae     Shrub
             (L.) R. Br.

21        Calotropis procera     Asclepiadaceae     Shrub
             (Ait) R. Br.

22        Cannabis sativa L.      Cannabaceae       Herb

23         Cassia absus L.      Caesalpiniaceae     Herb

24         Cassia alata L.      Caesalpiniaceae     Shrub

25        Cassia hirsute L.     Caesalpiniaceae     Herb

26              Cassia          Caesalpiniaceae     Herb
            obtusifolia L.

27              Cassia          Caesalpiniaceae     Herb
           occidentalis L.

28        Cassia pumila Lam.    Caesalpiniaceae     Herb

29          Cassia tora L.      Caesalpiniaceae     Herb

30       Celosia argentea L.     Amaranthaceae      Herb

31       Chenopodium album L.    Chenopodiaceae     Herb

32           Chenopodium         Chenopodiaceae     Herb
           ambrosioides L.

33        Chenopodium murale     Chenopodiaceae     Herb
                  L.

34       Chloris barbata Sw.        Poaceae         Herb

35       Chrozophora rottleri    Euphorbiaceae      Herb
            (Geis) Spring

36         Cleome burmanni       Capparidaceae      Herb

37        Cleome gynandra L.     Capparidaceae      Herb

38       Cleome rutidosperma     Capparidaceae      Herb
                 DC.

39        Cleome viscosa L.      Capparidaceae      Herb

40           Clerodendrum         Verbenaceae      Climber
           splendens G. Don

41       Convolvulus arvensis    Convolvulaceae     Herb
                  L.

42        Corchorus aestuans       Tiliaceae        Herb
                  L.

43            Corchorus            Tiliaceae        Herb
          fascicularis Lam.

44       Corchorus olitorius       Tiliaceae        Herb
                  L.

45        Coronopus didymus       Brassicaceae      Herb
              (L.) Smith

46            Crotalaria         Papilionaceae      Herb
            mucronata.Ait

47       Croton bonplandianum    Euphorbiaceae      Herb
                Boil.

48           Cryptostegia        Asclepiadaceae     Herb
          grandiflora R. Br.

49         Cuscuta reflexa        Cuscutaceae       Herb
                Roxb.

50         Cynodon dactylon         Poaceae         Herb
             (Linn.) Pers

51       Cyperus difformis L.      Cyperaceae       Herb

52             Cyperus             Cyperaceae       Herb
            flabelliformis
                Rottb.

53         Cyperus iria L.         Cyperaceae       Herb

54        Cyperus cyperoides       Cyperaceae       Herb
                  L.

55       Datura innoxia Mill.      Solanaceae       Shrub

56         Datura metel L.         Solanaceae       Shrub

57       Datura stramonium L.      Solanaceae       Shrub

58       Digera muricata (L.)    Amaranthaceae      Herb
                 Mart

59       Duranta repens Linn.     Verbenaceae       Shrub

60       Echinochloa colonum        Poaceae         Herb
              (L.) Link

61        Echinochloa crus-         Poaceae         Herb
          galli (L.) Beauv.

62        Echinops echinatus       Asteraceae       Herb
                Roxb.

63        Eclipta prostrata        Asteraceae       Herb
              (L.) Mart.

64        Emilia sonchifolia       Asteraceae       Herb
               (L.) DC.

65       Erigeron bonariensis      Asteraceae       Herb
                  L.

66            Eupatorium           Asteraceae       Shrub
         adenophorum Sprengel

67       Eupatorium odoratum       Asteraceae       Shrub
                  L.

68       Euphorbia chamaesyce    Euphorbiaceae      Herb
                  L.

69        Euphorbia hirta L      Euphorbiaceae      Herb

70            Euphorbia          Euphorbiaceae      Herb
           heterophylla L.

71            Evolvulus          Convolvulaceae     Herb
         nummularius (L.) L.

72        Flaveria trinervia       Asteraceae       Herb
          (Spreng.) C. Mohar

73       Galinsoga parviflora      Asteraceae       Herb
                 Cav.

74           Glossocardia          Asteraceae       Herb
          bosvallia (L. f.)
                 DC.

75            Gnaphalium           Asteraceae       Herb
           polycaulon Pers.

76            Gomphrena          Amaranthaceae      Herb
          celosioides Mart.

77        Gomphrena globosa      Amaranthaceae      Herb
                Linn.

78             Grangea             Asteraceae       Herb
          maderaspatana (L.)
                Poir.

79        Hyptis suaveolens        Lamiaceae        Herb
              (L.) Poit

80       Imperata cylindrica        Poaceae         Herb
            (L.) Raensch.

81            Indigofera         Papilionaceae      Herb
         glandulosa Roxb. Ex
                Willd

82        Indigofera hirsuta     Papilionaceae      Herb
                Hook.

83       Indigofera linearis     Papilionaceae      Herb
                 Ali

84       Indigofera linifolia    Papilionaceae      Herb
            (L. f.) Retz.

85       Ipomoea eriocarpa R.    Convolvulaceae    Climber
                 Br.

86        Ipomoea fistulosa      Convolvulaceae     Shrub
               Mart DC.

87       Ipomoea muricata L.     Convolvulaceae    Climber

88         Ipomoea nil (L.)      Convolvulaceae    Climber
                Roth.

89       Ipomoea obscura (L.)    Convolvulaceae    Climber
              Ker. Gawl.

90           Ipomoea pes-        Convolvulaceae    Climber
             tigridis L.

91         Ipomoea purpurea      Convolvulaceae     Herb
             (Linn.) Roth

92       Ipomoea quamoclit L.    Convolvulaceae    Climber

93         Jatropha curcas       Euphorbiaceae      Herb

94             Jatropha          Euphorbiaceae      Shrub
           gossypifolia L.

95       Lagascea mollis Cav       Asteraceae       Herb

96        Lantana camara L.       Verbenaceae       Shrub

97       Leonotis nepetifolia      Lamiaceae        Herb
             (L.) R. Br.

98             Leucaena            Mimosaceae       Herb
         leucocephala (Lam.)
               de. Wit

99           Lippia alba          Verbenaceae       Herb

100      Ludwigia adscendens       Onagraceae       Herb
              (L.) Hara

101      Ludwigia octovalvis       Onagraceae       Herb
            (Jacq.) Raven

102      Ludwigia parviflora       Onagraceae       Herb
                Roxb.

103           Malvastrum           Malvaceae        Herb
         coromandelianum (L.)
                 Gar.

104       Martynia annua L.       Pedaliaceae       Herb

105           Mecardonia        Scrophulariaceae    Herb
          procumbens (Mill.)
                Small

106      Melilotus alba Desv.    Papilionaceae      Herb

107            Melochia          Sterculiaceae      Herb
           corchorifolia L.

108       Merremia dissecta      Convolvulaceae     Herb
          (Jacq.) Hallier f.

109       Mikania micrantha        Asteraceae      Climber
                Kunth.

110        Mimosa pudica L.        Mimosaceae       Herb

111           Nicotiana            Solanaceae       Herb
         plumbaginifolia Viv.

112      Ocimum americanum L.      Lamiaceae        Herb

113        Opuntia elatior         Cactaceae        Herb
                Mill.

114       Oxalis corniculata      Oxalidaceae       Herb
                  L.

115      Oxalis corymbosa DC.     Oxalidaceae       Herb

116           Parthenium           Asteraceae       Herb
           hysterophorus L

117       Passiflora foetida     Passifloraceae     Herb
                  L.

118       Pedalium murex L.       Pedaliaceae       Herb

119      Peperomia pellucida       Piperaceae       Herb
             (L.) Kunth.

120          Peristrophe          Acanthaceae       Herb
         paniculata (Forsk.)
               Brummitt

121       Physalis minima L.       Solanaceae       Herb

122      Physalis peruviana L      Solanaceae       Herb

123       Pilea microphylla        Urticaceae       Herb

124       Portulaca oleracea     Portulacaceae      Herb
                  L.

125      Portulaca quadrifida    Portulacaceae      Herb
                  L.

126           Rauvolfia           Apocynaceae       Herb
             tetraphylla

127        Ricinus communis      Euphorbiaceae      Shrub
                Linn.

128        Rubus ellipticus         Rosaceae        Shrub
                Smith

129      Ruellia tuberosa L.      Acanthaceae       Herb

130      Saccharum spontaneum       Poaceae         Herb
                  L.

131       Scoparia dulcis L.    Scrophulariaceae    Herb

132       Sesbania bispinosa     Papilionaceae      Shrub
         (Jacq.) W. F. Wight

133       Sida acuta Burm f.       Malvaceae        Herb

134       Solanum khasianum        Solanaceae       Herb

135       Solanum nigrum L.        Solanaceae       Herb

136       Solanum torvum Sw.       Solanaceae       Shrub

137      Solvia anthemifolia       Asteraceae       Herb
              (Juss) R.

138      Sonchus asper Hill.       Asteraceae       Herb

139      Sonchus oleraceus L.      Asteraceae       Herb

140      Synedrella nodiflora      Asteraceae       Herb
             (L.) Gaertn.

141            Tithonia            Asteraceae       Shrub
         diversifolia (Hense)
               A. Gray

142      Trema orientalis L.        Ulmaceae        Tree

143      Tribulus terrestris     Zygophyllaceae     Herb
                  L.

144      Tridax procumbens L.      Asteraceae       Herb

145           Triumfetta           Tiliaceae        Herb
           rhomboidea Jacq.

146        Urena lobata L.         Malvaceae        Shrub

147      Xanthium strumarium       Asteraceae       Herb
                  L.

148        Youngia japonica        Asteraceae       Herb
               (L.) DC.

149      Zephyranthes candida    Amaryllidaceae     Herb
                Lindl.

S. No.   Name of the Species        Nativity       Categories

1         Acacia farnesiana      Tropical South    Naturalized
              (L.) Willd            America

2           Acanthospermum           Brazil        Naturalized
             hispidum DC.

3          Aerva tomentosa      Tropical America   Naturalized

4        Ageratum conyzoides    Tropical America     Noxious
                  L.

5              Ageratum         Tropical America   Interfering
          houstonianum Mill.

6           Alternanthera       Tropical America   Naturalized
          paronychioides A.
               St. Hill

7           Alternanthera       Tropical America   Naturalized
            pungens Kunth

8           Alternanthera       Tropical America   Naturalized
         sessilis (L.) R. Br.
                ex DC.

9        Amaranthus spinosus    Tropical America   Naturalized
                  L.

10        Anagallis arvensis         Europe        Naturalized
                  L.

11        Antigonon leptopus    Tropical America     Noxious
            Hook and Arn.

12       Argemone mexicana L.    Tropical South      Noxious
                                    America

13       Argemone ochroleuca         Mexico        Interfering
                Sweet.

14            Asphodelus        Tropical America   Naturalized
           tenuifolius Cav.

15       Blainvillea acmella    Tropical America   Interfering
            (L.) Philipson

16       Blumea eriantha DC.    Tropical America   Interfering

17       Blumea lacera (Burm    Tropical America   Interfering
               f.) DC.

18       Blumea obliqua (L.)    Tropical America   Interfering
                Druce

19       Borassus flabellifer   Tropical Africa    Naturalized
                  L.

20       Calotropis gigantea    Tropical Africa    Interfering
             (L.) R. Br.

21        Calotropis procera    Tropical Africa    Interfering
             (Ait) R. Br.

22        Cannabis sativa L.      Central Asia     Interfering

23         Cassia absus L.      Tropical America   Naturalized

24         Cassia alata L.        West Indies      Naturalized

25        Cassia hirsute L.     Tropical America   Naturalized

26              Cassia          Tropical America   Naturalized
            obtusifolia L.

27              Cassia           Tropical South    Naturalized
           occidentalis L.          America

28        Cassia pumila Lam.    Tropical America   Naturalized

29          Cassia tora L.       Tropical South      Noxious
                                    America

30       Celosia argentea L.    Tropical Africa    Naturalized

31       Chenopodium album L.        Europe        Interfering

32           Chenopodium        Tropical America   Interfering
           ambrosioides L.

33        Chenopodium murale    Tropical America   Naturalized
                  L.

34       Chloris barbata Sw.    Tropical America   Naturalized

35       Chrozophora rottleri   Tropical Africa    Naturalized
            (Geis) Spring

36         Cleome burmanni        West Africa      Naturalized

37        Cleome gynandra L.    Tropical America   Naturalized

38       Cleome rutidosperma    Tropical America   Naturalized
                 DC.

39        Cleome viscosa L.     Tropical America   Naturalized

40           Clerodendrum            Africa        Interfering
           splendens G. Don

41       Convolvulus arvensis        Europe        Naturalized
                  L.

42        Corchorus aestuans    Tropical America   Naturalized
                  L.

43            Corchorus         Tropical America   Naturalized
          fascicularis Lam.

44       Corchorus olitorius    Tropical Africa    Naturalized
                  L.

45        Coronopus didymus     Tropical America   Interfering
              (L.) Smith

46            Crotalaria        Tropical America   Interfering
            mucronata.Ait

47       Croton bonplandianum   Temperate South    Naturalized
                Boil.               America

48           Cryptostegia          Madagascar      Interfering
          grandiflora R. Br.

49         Cuscuta reflexa       Mediterranean     Interfering
                Roxb.

50         Cynodon dactylon          Africa        Naturalized
             (Linn.) Pers

51       Cyperus difformis L.   Tropical America   Naturalized

52             Cyperus               Africa        Interfering
            flabelliformis
                Rottb.

53         Cyperus iria L.      Tropical America   Naturalized

54        Cyperus cyperoides    Tropical America   Naturalized
                  L.

55       Datura innoxia Mill.   Tropical America     Noxious

56         Datura metel L.      Tropical America   Interfering

57       Datura stramonium L.   Tropical America     Noxious

58       Digera muricata (L.)   South-West Asia    Interfering
                 Mart

59       Duranta repens Linn.       America        Naturalized

60       Echinochloa colonum     Tropical South    Naturalized
              (L.) Link             America

61        Echinochloa crus-      Tropical South      Noxious
          galli (L.) Beauv.         America

62        Echinops echinatus      Afghanistan      Naturalized
                Roxb.

63        Eclipta prostrata     Tropical America   Naturalized
              (L.) Mart.

64        Emilia sonchifolia    Tropical America   Naturalized
               (L.) DC.

65       Erigeron bonariensis    South America     Interfering
                  L.

66            Eupatorium             Mexico          Noxious
         adenophorum Sprengel

67       Eupatorium odoratum    Tropical America   Interfering
                  L.

68       Euphorbia chamaesyce    West Africa &     Naturalized
                  L.               Mauritius

69        Euphorbia hirta L     Tropical America   Naturalized

70            Euphorbia         Tropical America   Naturalized
           heterophylla L.

71            Evolvulus         Tropical America   Naturalized
         nummularius (L.) L.

72        Flaveria trinervia     Tropical Cent.    Naturalized
          (Spreng.) C. Mohar        America

73       Galinsoga parviflora   Tropical America   Naturalized
                 Cav.

74           Glossocardia         West Indies      Naturalized
          bosvallia (L. f.)
                 DC.

75            Gnaphalium        Tropical America   Interfering
           polycaulon Pers.

76            Gomphrena         Tropical America   Naturalized
          celosioides Mart.

77        Gomphrena globosa         America        Naturalized
                Linn.

78             Grangea           Tropical South    Naturalized
          maderaspatana (L.)        America
                Poir.

79        Hyptis suaveolens     Tropical America   Interfering
              (L.) Poit

80       Imperata cylindrica    Tropical America   Naturalized
            (L.) Raensch.

81            Indigofera        Tropical America   Naturalized
         glandulosa Roxb. Ex
                Willd

82        Indigofera hirsuta    Tropical Africa    Naturalized
                Hook.

83       Indigofera linearis    Tropical Africa    Naturalized
                 Ali

84       Indigofera linifolia    Tropical South    Naturalized
            (L. f.) Retz.           America

85       Ipomoea eriocarpa R.   Tropical Africa    Interfering
                 Br.

86        Ipomoea fistulosa     Tropical America   Interfering
               Mart DC.

87       Ipomoea muricata L.    Tropical America   Naturalized

88         Ipomoea nil (L.)      North America     Naturalized
                Roth.

89       Ipomoea obscura (L.)   Tropical Africa    Interfering
              Ker. Gawl.

90           Ipomoea pes-        Tropical East     Interfering
             tigridis L.             Africa

91         Ipomoea purpurea         America        Interfering
             (Linn.) Roth

92       Ipomoea quamoclit L.   Tropical America   Interfering

93         Jatropha curcas      Tropical America   Naturalized

94             Jatropha              Brazil        Naturalized
           gossypifolia L.

95       Lagascea mollis Cav     Tropical Cent.      Noxious
                                    America

96        Lantana camara L.     Tropical America     Noxious

97       Leonotis nepetifolia   Tropical Africa    Interfering
             (L.) R. Br.

98             Leucaena         Tropical America     Noxious
         leucocephala (Lam.)
               de. Wit

99           Lippia alba        Trop. America &    Interfering
                                  West Indies

100      Ludwigia adscendens    Tropical America   Naturalized
              (L.) Hara

101      Ludwigia octovalvis    Tropical America   Naturalized
            (Jacq.) Raven

102      Ludwigia parviflora    Tropical Africa    Naturalized
                Roxb.

103           Malvastrum        Tropical America   Naturalized
         coromandelianum (L.)
                 Gar.

104       Martynia annua L.     Tropical America   Interfering

105           Mecardonia         Tropical North    Naturalized
          procumbens (Mill.)        America
                Small

106      Melilotus alba Desv.        Europe        Naturalized

107            Melochia         Tropical America   Naturalized
           corchorifolia L.

108       Merremia dissecta     Tropical America   Naturalized
          (Jacq.) Hallier f.

109       Mikania micrantha     Tropical America     Noxious
                Kunth.

110        Mimosa pudica L.          Brazil        Naturalized

111           Nicotiana         Tropical America   Naturalized
         plumbaginifolia Viv.

112      Ocimum americanum L.   Tropical America   Naturalized

113        Opuntia elatior      Tropical America     Noxious
                Mill.

114       Oxalis corniculata         Europe        Naturalized
                  L.

115      Oxalis corymbosa DC.    South America     Naturalized

116           Parthenium         Tropical North      Noxious
           hysterophorus L          America

117       Passiflora foetida     Tropical South    Interfering
                  L.                America

118       Pedalium murex L.     Tropical America   Naturalized

119      Peperomia pellucida     Tropical South    Naturalized
             (L.) Kunth.            America

120          Peristrophe        Tropical America   Interfering
         paniculata (Forsk.)
               Brummitt

121       Physalis minima L.    Tropical America   Naturalized

122      Physalis peruviana L   Tropical America   Interfering

123       Pilea microphylla      Tropical South    Naturalized
                                    America

124       Portulaca oleracea      Tropical S.      Naturalized
                  L.                America

125      Portulaca quadrifida   Tropical America   Naturalized
                  L.

126           Rauvolfia           West Indies      Naturalized
             tetraphylla

127        Ricinus communis          Africa        Interfering
                Linn.

128        Rubus ellipticus     Tropical America   Naturalized
                Smith

129      Ruellia tuberosa L.    Tropical America   Naturalized

130      Saccharum spontaneum    Tropical West     Interfering
                  L.                  Asia

131       Scoparia dulcis L.    Tropical America   Naturalized

132       Sesbania bispinosa    Tropical America   Naturalized
         (Jacq.) W. F. Wight

133       Sida acuta Burm f.    Tropical America   Naturalized

134       Solanum khasianum     Tropical America   Interfering

135       Solanum nigrum L.     Tropical America   Naturalized

136       Solanum torvum Sw.      West Indies      Interfering

137      Solvia anthemifolia        America        Interfering
              (Juss) R.

138      Sonchus asper Hill.     Mediterranean     Interfering

139      Sonchus oleraceus L.    Mediterranean     Interfering

140      Synedrella nodiflora     West Indies      Naturalized
             (L.) Gaertn.

141            Tithonia              Mexico        Naturalized
         diversifolia (Hense)
               A. Gray

142      Trema orientalis L.         Africa        Naturalized

143      Tribulus terrestris    Tropical America   Naturalized
                  L.

144      Tridax procumbens L.    Tropical Cent.    Naturalized
                                    America

145           Triumfetta        Tropical America   Naturalized
           rhomboidea Jacq.

146        Urena lobata L.      Tropical Africa    Interfering

147      Xanthium strumarium    Tropical America     Noxious
                  L.

148        Youngia japonica      Tropical South    Naturalized
               (L.) DC.             America

149      Zephyranthes candida       America        Naturalized
                Lindl.

FIGURE 1: Families accounting for >5 species invasive in the
terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh.

Asteraceae        19.5
Convolvulaceae    7.4
Amaranthaceae     6
Solanaceae        6
Euphorbiaceae     5.4
Caesalpiniaceae   4.7
Papilionaceae     4.7
Poaceae           4

Note: Table made from bar graph.

FIGURE 2: Number (%) of plant invasive species under different
habit categories within terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar
Pradesh.

Herbs      80%
Climbers   6%
Shrubs     12%
Trees      2%

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Srivastava, Sumit; Dvivedi, Ashish; Shukla, Ravindra Prasad
Publication:International Journal of Forestry Research
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2014
Words:5865
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