Invasive Exotic Pest Plants in Tennessee.
REVIEW COMMITTEE: BRIAN BOWEN, KRIS JOHNSON, SCOTT FRANKLIN, GEOFF CALL, AND MICHELE WEBBER
ABSTRACT--The Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council has produced this list of invasive exotic plants to serve as a guide for land managers in making responsible decisions about plant use and management decisions. The purposes of this list are to: 1) identify introduced plant species that are invasive or may become invasive and cause damage to native plant communities in Tennessee; 2) rank exotic plants based on their invasive characteristics; 3) foster early detection of these plants; and 4) educate the general public and resource managers in an effort to eliminate the use of invasive exotics in landscaping, restoration, and enhancement projects.
The Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council (TN-TPPC) first published the Invasive Exotic Pest Plants in Tennessee list in February 1995. That list was initiated from the "introduced taxa" portion of the Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Tennessee (Wofford and Kral, 1993). Sufficient new information has been collected to warrant this first revision.
Introduced plant species are those not native to a region. They are referred to as exotics. Most introduced species are harmless. However, many species do naturalize and have the potential to spread and negatively impact plant communities. Invasive exotic plants usually exhibit some of the following characteristics: produce many small seeds and begin reproducing within their first few years; can reproduce both by seed and vegetative growth; have no special seed germination requirements; and have long flowering and fruiting periods (Randall and Marinelli, 1996). The ecological impacts of invasive exotics may include: reduction of biodiversity; loss of endangered species and their habitats; loss of habitat and food sources for wildlife; and disruption of native plant-animal associations (Westbrooks, 1998).
The list was prepared to provide useful information to help guide agencies and private landowners in making responsible decisions about plant use and management decisions. It is meant for use as a management tool; it has no regulatory authority. The plants are ranked in order of threat to natural communities. It is recommended that Rank 1 and Rank 2 category species be controlled and managed in the early stages of detection when possible. The "Lesser Threat" and "Watch List" category species may become problems in the future and should be monitored. Some species on the "Watch List" are severe threats elsewhere, but have not yet been reported in Tennessee (Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council; Virginia Native Plant Society).
The development of the original list in 1995 included reviews by individuals who are familiar with the flora of their region, including professional and amateur botanists, ecologists, and resource managers. All comments were considered, and a consensus approach was accepted.
This revision followed a similar review process; however, a second step was initiated to review the plant list on a regional scale. First, the list was sent to professional and amateur botanists, ecologists, and resource managers for review and recommendations, including additions, deletions, or changes to current species ranking. Working subcommittees representing the three historical Grand Divisions of Tennessee were established: West (Mississippi River Valley and the Coastal Plain), Middle (Highland Rim and Central Basin), and East (Cumberland Plateau, Valley and Ridge, and the Appalachian Mountains) (Chester and Ellis, 1989). The subcommittees reviewed the 1995 list, considered all reviewers' comments, consulted the Atlas of Tennessee Vascular Plants (Chester et al., 1993, 1997), and made their recommendations to the TN-EPPC Review Committee.
The Review Committee, which also was representative of the Grand Divisions, made final additions, deletions, and changes in the species ranking based on consensus. Additions to the list include species discovered in Tennessee since 1995 that have been reported to cause ecological damage (Chester et al., 1997), species known to cause ecological damage elsewhere and are considered to be potential threats (Schwartz, 1999), and species that may have been overlooked during development of the 1995 list.
Some plants are more invasive in one part of the state than in others, so the rankings are based on overall invasiveness across the state. This revision of the Invasive Exotic Pest Plants in Tennesee list meets the goal of providing useful information to help guide agencies and private landowners in making responsible decisions about plant use and management decisions. The list has no regulatory authority.
Kartesz (1999) is the authority for nomenclature and authorship. Common names include those given by Kartesz.
RANK 1 Severe Threat. Exotic plant species that possess characteristics of invasive species and spread easily into native plant communities and displace native vegetation. Includes species that are or could become widespread in Tennessee. Scientific Name Common Name Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Tree-of-heaven Swingle Albizia julibrissin Durazz. Mimosa, silktree Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara Garlic-mustard and Grande Celastrus orbiculata Thunb. Asian bittersweet Dioscorea oppositifolia L. Air-potato, Chinese yam Elaeagnus pungens Thunb. Thorny-olive Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.- Winter-creeper Maz. Hedera helix L. English-ivy Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Chinese bush-clover Don Ligustrum sinense Lour. Chinese privet Ligustrum vulgare L. European privet Lonicera fragrantissima Lindl. and Sweet-breath-of-spring Paxton Lonicera japonica Thunb. Japanese honeysuckle Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder Amur honeysuckle Lonicera morrowii Gray Morrow's honeysuckle Lonicera tatarica L. Tartarian honeysuckle, twin- sisters Lonicera x bella Zabel Bush honeysuckle Lythrum salicaria L. [all varieties Purple loosestrife and cultivars] Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Nepalese browntop Camus Myriophyllum spicatum L. Eurasian water-milfoil Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. Princesstree and Zucc. ex Steud. Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. Cammon reed ex Steud. Polygonum cuspidatum Seib. and Japanese knotweed, Japanese bamboo Zucc. Pueraria montana var. lobata Kudzu (Willd.) Malsen and S. Al- media Rosa multiflora Thunb. ex Murr Multiflora rose, rambler rose Solanum viarum Dunal Tropical soda-apple Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Johnson grass Spiraea japonica L.f. Japanese meadowsweet RANK 2 Significant Threat. Exotic plant species that possess characteristics of invasive species but are not presently considered to spreas as easily into native plant communities as those species listed as Rank 1. Scientific Name Common Name Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Alligator-weed Griseb. Artemisia vulgaris L. Mugwort, common worm-wood Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Small carp grass, hairy joint- Makino grass Berberis thunbergii DC. Japanese barberry Bromus commutatus Schrad. Meadow brome Bromus japonicus Thunb. ex Murr. Japanese brome Bromus secalinus L. Rye brome Bromus tectorum L. Thatch bromegrass, cheat grass Carduus nutans L. Nodding plumeless-thistle Centaurea biebersteinii DC. Spotted knapweed Cirsium arvense L. (Scop.) Canadian thistle Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Bull thistle Clematis terniflora DC. Sweet antumn virin's-bower, leatherleaf clematis Conium maculatum L. Poison hemlock Coronilla varia L. Purple crown-vetch Daucus carota L. Wild carrot, Queen Anne's-lace Dipsacus fullonum L. Fuller's teasel Euonymus alata (Thunb.) Sieb. Burning bush, winged spindletree Hesperis matronalis L. Dame's rocket, mother-of-the- evening Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle Hydrilla, water-thyme Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. Bicolor lespedeza, two-color bush-clover Ligustrum japonicum Thunb. Japanese privet Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S. J. Tall rye grass Darbyshire Lolium pratense (Huds.) S. J. Meadow rye grass Darbyshire Lysimachia nummularia L. Moneywort, creeping-Jenny Mahonia bealei (Fortune) carriere Beale's Oregon-grape Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. Yellow [and white] sweet clover[s] Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. Zebra grass, Chinese silver grass Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Maz Wart-removing-herb Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Parrot's-feather, water milfoil Verdc. Nandina domestica Thunb. Nandina, sacred-bamboo Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Watercress Hayek Polygonum caespitosum Blume Bunchy knotweed, oriental lady's- thumn Populus alba L. White poplar Potamogeton crispus L. Curly pondweed Setaria faberi R.A.W. Herrm. Nodding foxtail-grass, Japanese bristle grass Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. Millet, Italian bristle grass Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. Yellow bristle grass and Schult. Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv. Green bristle grass Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link Spreading hedge-parsley Tussilago farfara L. Colt's-foot Verbascum thapsus L. Common mullein Vicia sativa L. Garden vetch Vinca minor L. Lesser periwinkle Wisteria floribunda (Willd.) Japanese wisteria DC. Wisteria sinensis (Sims) DC. Chinese wisteria Xanthium strumarium L. Common cockleburr, rough cockleburr RANK 3 Leser Threat. Exotic plant species that spred in or near disturbed areas, and are not presently considered a threat to native plant communities. Scientific name Common Name Allium vineale L Field garlic, crow garlic Arundo donax L. Giant-reed, elephant grass Bromus catharticus Vahl Bromegrass, rescue grass Bromus inermis Leyss. Smooth brome Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Paper-mulberry L'Her. ex Vent. Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I. Corn-gromwell M. Johnston Cardiospermum halicacabum Balloonvine, love-in-a-puff L. Centaurea cyanus L. Bachelor's button, garden cornflower Cichorium intybus L. Chicory Egeria densa Planch. Brazilian elodea, Brazilian-waterweed Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Russian-olive Eschscholzia californica California-poppy Cham. Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai Hairy crabweed Glechoma hederacea L. Gill-over-the-ground, ground-ivy Iris pseudacorus L. Pale-yellow iris Kummerowia stipulacea Korean-clover (Maxim.) Makino Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Japanese-clover Schindl. Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. Ox-eye daisy Melia azedarach L. China-berry Ornithogalum umbellatum L. Star of Bethlehem, sleepy-dick Pastinaca sativa L. Wild parsnip Polygonum persicaria L. Lady's-thumb Rubus phoenicolasius Maxim. Wine raspberry, wineberry Senna obtusifolia (L.) H. S. Coffeeweed, sicklepod senna Irwin and Barneby Tragopogon dubius Scop. Meadow goat's-beard Tribulus terrestris L. Puncturevine Urtica dioica L. Stinging nettle Xanthium spinosum L. Spiny cockleburr WATCH LIST A Exotic plant species that are severe problems in surrounding states but have not been reported in Tennessee Ampelopsis brevipedunculata Amur peppervine (Maxim.) Trautv. Imperata cylindrica (L.) Cogon grass Beauv. Polygonum perfoliatum L. Mile-a-minute, Asiatic tear-thumb Rhamnus cathartica L. European buckthorn Rottboellia cochinchinensis Itch grass (Lour.) W. D. Clayton Salvinia molesta Mitchell Aquarium water-moss, kariba-weed Setaria pumila ssp. pallidifusca Cattail grass (Schumacher) B. K. Simon Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. Sticky nightshade Triadica sebifera (L.) Small Chinese tallowtree WATCH LIST B Exotic plants that naturalize and may become a problem in the future. At this time more information is needed, and there is no consensus about their status. Scientific Name Common Name Agrostis stolonifera L. Weeping love grass, spread- ing bent Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. Sticky alder, European alder Bromnus hordeaceus L. Soft brome Bromus sterilis L. Poverty brome Buddleja davidii Franch. Orange-eye butterfly-bush Bupleurum rotundifolium L. Hound's-ear, hare's-ear Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Garden cosmos Cosmos sulphureus C Cav. Sulphur cosmos Dipsacus lacintatus L. Cutleaf teasel Echium vulgare L. Common viper's-bugloss Frangula alnus P. Mill. Glossy false buckthorn Hibiscus syriacus L. Rose-of-Sharon Hyperiewn perforatum L. Goatweed, common St. John's-wort Mentha spicata L. Spearmint Mentha x piperita (pro sp.) Peppermint L. Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. Common grape-hyacinth Muscari neglectum Guss. ex Starch grape-hyacinth Ten. Najas minor All. Brittle waternymph Phalaris canariensis L. Common canary grass Pyrus calleryana Dene. Bradford pear Rhodotypos scandens (Thunb.) Makino Jetbead Senecio vulgaris L. Ragwort, old-man-in-the-spring Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv. Bur-foxtail, rough bristle grass Solanum dulcamara L. Bittersweet, climbing night-shade Stachys floridana Shuttlew. Florida hedge-nettle ex Benth.
Reviewers included: C. Bryson, US Dept. Agriculture, Southern Weed Sci. Research Unit, Stoneville, MS; C. Bullington, Director Conservation Planning, Tennessee Chapter of The Nature Conservancy; E. Clebsch, Univ. Tennessee Botany Dept; R. Clements, Dept. Biology and Environmental Science, Chattanooga State Technical Comm. College; J. L. Collins, Botanist, TVA Regional Natural Heritage Project; H. DeSelm Univ. Tennessee Botany Dept; Jamey Donaldson, Adjunct Herbarium Curator, East Tennessee State Univ.; S. Major, Natural Heritage Program Coordinator, Tennessee Dept. Environment and Conservation Division of Natural Heritage; T. Martin, Director, Shelby Farms, Memphis; L. Patrick, Invasive Plant Control; L. Pounds, Consulting Botanist; N. Fraley, TVA Natural Areas Coordinator; P. Parr, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Area Manager; M. Priestley, Sewanee Herbarium curator; A. Shea, Rare Plant Protection Specialist, Tennessee Dept. Environment and Conservation Division of Natural Heritage; J. Shimp, Illinois State Bi ologist; A. Wyss, Hatchie River Project Director, Tennessee Chapter of The Nature Conservancy.
CHESTER, E. W., AND W. H. ELLIS. 1989. Plant communities of northwestern Middle Tennessee. J. Tenn. Acad. Sci., 64(3): 75-78.
CHESTER, E. W., B. E. WOFFORD, AND R. KRAL. 1993. Atlas of Tennessee vascular plants, vol. 1. pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms: monocots. The Center for Field Biology, Austin Peay State Univ., Clarksville, Tennessee.
-----. 1997. Atlas of Tennessee vascular plants, vol. 2. angiosperms: dicots. The Center for Field Biology, Austin Peay State Univ., Clarksville, Tennessee.
KARTESZ, J. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (computer file). North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill. North Carolina.
KENTUCKY EXOTIC PEST PLANT COUNCIL. Invasive exotic plant list. http://www.exoticpestplantcouncil.org/ky/list.htm
RANDALL, J., AND I. MARINELLI. 1996. Invasive plants: weeds of the global garden. Handbook No. 149. Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York.
SCHWARTZ, A. 1999. Plants to avoid. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
VIRGINIA NATIVE PLANT SOCIETY AND VIRGINIA DEPT. OF CONSERVATION AND RECREATION. Invasive alien plant species of Virginia. http://www.dcr.state.va.us/dnh/invproj.htm
WESTBROOKS, R. 1998. Invasive plants, changing the landscape of America: Fact book. Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW), Washington, DC.
WOFFORD, B. E., AND R. KRAL. 1993. Checklist of the vascular plants of Tennessee. Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Fort Worth, Texas.
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|Publication:||Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2002|
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