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Introductory study of weeds with developing Taif Rosa crops in Al-Hada and Al-Shafa area.

INTRODUCTION

The concept of weed was used in the sense of plant out of place or unwanted or non-useful plant species. by Hussain et al. [1] while describing the weeds of wheat of Hazara district Attock. Some species of weeds may have benefits, but should have a negative effect. One of the most effects they cause further loss of agricultural crops and plant diseases and pests. Making farmers use a lot of styles and methods of weed control and overcome them [2]. Also considered weeds of unwanted plants that can have adverse effects on both the economy and the environment [3, 4]. Weeds are hard to control, because they grow rapidly produce vast numbers of seeds and spread aggressively by vegetative structures and seeds, which enable them to establish a kingdom of their own within a short period of time [5]. And that can agricultural areas invade in natural systems [3]. As they have a wide range of negative environmental effects on crop plants, such as reducing the abundance and diversity, employment, pollination and survival of the species [6]. According to Parker and Fryer [7] estimated that the world was losing annually 11.5% of the total food production due to weeds. Herbs also adversely affect wildlife (vertebrates and invertebrates) [8], and the herbs are important ecosystems on the level of operations such as fire systems [9]. And also of water flows [10], and also can change the properties of the soil [11]. All over the world, and it is considered the most important herbs from around the conservation of biodiversity threats [12, 13]. And that needs to be very broad and specialized resources to manage the weed [14].

What concerns us here those weeds that grow between the main crop plants and adapted environmentally and biologically to grow and reproduce them in field conditions; as these crops are grown to feed humans or animals or the manufacturing industries, is any plant grass if grown in a limited geographical area and planted with a key. Herbs spread from one area to another in several ways, most notably: farm tools and animals, wind, water and natural fertilizers is fermented [3,4].

Some types of seeds weed and know their ability to retain their vitality for many years, especially when they are far away in the depths, when the carbon dioxide concentration is high carbon, prevents germination, remain alive until the heart of the surface layers of the soil. Cause weeds damage dialect field crops in quantity and quality, such damages are either directly, or indirectly, and most important of these damages are: competition field crops for food, water and light, herbs and agricultural plants, soil and reduce the temperature of shading, and do some herbs secrete the same biological effect vehicles harmful agricultural crops and some animals, deterioration of quality standards for agricultural production, turning to herbs habitats suitable for many diseases and insects, which in turn passed on to the main crop [15, 6]. Weeds increase crop service costs during the period of growth and during the harvest process effects, and when the seed purification, the low fertility of agricultural land contaminated by weeds, creating management problems and the exploitation of water in the case of irrigated crops, harming farms and impeding the agricultural operations; Some plants have thorns [16, 17]

Most of flowering and ornamental crops are slow growing and have poor canopy development during the early stages. This habit makes them high susceptible to competition from weeds, which adversely affect yield and quality of these crops. Rose one of the best ornamental flowering plants grown for their flowers in the home garden, sometimes indoors and commercial orchards. The rose plants used for commercial perfumery and cut flower. Some are used as landscape plants in park, for hedging and for other utilitarian purposes such as game cover and slope stabilization. Leaves, flowers and stem of rose plant have medicinal uses. Taif is famous for rose cultivation. In Taif, rose cultivation creates more income than the vegetables or horticultural crops. Taif Rose and Damask Rose are popular varieties in Taif. Ornametal floricultural crops are important among horticultural crops in Saudi Arabia. Most of these crops are slow growing and have poor canopy development during the early stages. This habit makes them susceptible to competition from weeds, which adversely affect yield and quality of these crops. Flower quality is a major aspect of horticultural industry. The negative impact of weeds in term of yield loss and the cost of its control [18]. For the control of the weeds, we have to study phenology, flowering and fruiting periods, general dispersal of the weed and change the crop pattern etc. is of paramount importance. Weed control has been observed as one of the most important practice in crop production because good weed control will ensure maximum yield and high quality of horticultural produce [19].

To the best of our knowledge, no research on introductory study of the weeds with developing Taif Rosa crops in Al-Hada and Al-Shafa Area has been carried out. In this study, we investigated the species of common weeds flora grown in developing Taif rosa plants in Al-Hada and Al-Shafa area. The findings of the study will help to identify and control of common weeds of rose plants. The present paper is an attempt to study the weed flora association with developing Taif Rosa plants in two regions of Saudi Arabia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Orchard selection:

Forty four (44) rose farms of Taif rosa plants were selected for the investigation and collection of weeds. All the orchard soils were well drained sandy loams and rich in organic matter with pH value of 6 to 7.5. All orchards get minimum 5 to 6 hours sunlight throughout the growth periods. Temperature was maintained 15[degrees] to 28[degrees]C and proper drainage to drained out the excess water in case water logging conditions. Crop land soils were riched by supplementing with organic matter and all the rose plants in the garden were pruned when necessary.

Specimens Collection:

Specimens at different stages of growth were collected from selected rose garden of many localities in Al-Hada and Al-Shafa area to prepare herbarium specimens and authenticated their correct identity. Samples of these recorded species were collected, cleaned and dried. After that prepared as herbarium specimens for identification of collected weeds. Most of the weeds were collected from farms Rosa sp. crop lands. The magnitude of infestation of crops by weeds was based on visual or arbitrary observations. Species identification was made by following the Mandaville [20] and Al-Yemeny [21]. Common weed flora observed in the study area along with their botanical name and families were recorded.

Data analysis:

Data were transformed to log+1 or log prior to statistical analysis and subjected to one-way ANOVA and their treatment means were tested for significant difference, if any, using t-tests Similar analyses have been used in many previous studies [22, 23 & 24].

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Initial weed vegetation analysis of Taif Rosa plants was determined to know the weed species present, and evaluate their density and dominance pattern in the two experimental areas. Successful weed management strategy depends on the knowledge of weeds in the crop field, and the density of each species present [25] (Krueger et al., 2000). The results show that the roses plantations of crops received more developing weeds, as contained farms rose to more than 5,000 weeds germinated in the study area (44 farms), consisting of 15 families, and 45 species weeds. Where the largest families are: Brassicaceae, then Amaranthaceae and Asteraceae. The value weeds 1253, 1120 and 973 respectively, all these findings were significant different at p< 0.05. (LSD tests). (Table 1 Fig. 1). Our results are supported by the findings of Aldrich [26], who reported that a single predominant weed is rarely found under field conditions, and predominant weeds are usually composed of a few weed species. All the identified weeds of Brassicaceae family are herbaceous, leaves simple, alternate (A) and often lobed, with pinnate venation. Leaf edge often dentate (A) or lobed Inflorescence a raceme, petals 4, not fused, forming, a cross + from above (B), white, yellow, or pink, stamens 6 and fruit a dry capsule with inner wall (silique; C). From the table 1 we can see that 16 species of weeds from Asteraceae are identified and classified. All the weeds of asteraceae family also herbaceous, leaves variable with pinnate venation and Inflorescence a head (capitulum, A) with many flowers with involucral bracts surrounding it (B Flowers small, either tubular (C), or tongue-shaped (ligulate). Sepals absent, Petals fused, usually with 5 samll lobes, anthers fused into a ring arround style, ovary inferior. Fruit dry nut (achene) often with hairs on top (pappus) with inner wall. It has been reported that an understanding of the weed community along with dominance patterns is necessary for effective weed management.

Four weed species of amaranthaceae family were identified from Taif rasa crop lands. The species in this family are mostly annual or perennial herbs, although a few species are shrub. The flowers of most species in the Amaranthaceae are bisexual (or monoecious), meaning they have both male and female reproductive organs. In all species, the flowers are small and have radial symmetry. The flowers of most species arise in a dense inflorescence, or flower cluster, with each flower of the inflorescence subtended by one or more small red bracts (modified leaves). The small red bracts remain present as the flower matures into a fruit. The flowers of most species produce nectar and are insect-pollinated. Amaranthus hybridus L. (Amaranthaceae) commonly known as 'Cheera' in Malayalam, is an erect branched annual herb distributed throughout tropical and temperate regions of India as a common weed in the agricultural fields and wastelands [27].. A decoction of the entire amaranthus plant is used to control dysentery and inflammation but the weed in agricultural field reduces the crop yield very significantly.

Three weeds from the poaceae and two weeds from malvaceae family were identified during the observations. Poaceae weeds are annual some time perennial. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. is a perennial grass belonging to family Poaceae. The leaf blades are a grey-green color and are short, usually 2-15 cm (0.79-5.91 in) long with rough edge. The stems are slightly flattened, often tinged purple in colour. The flowers typically have 3 (rarely 2 or 6) stamens. The ovary consists of 3 united carpels (syncarpous/tricarpellate), forming a single chamber. It matures as a single seed called a caryopsis (grain) or rarely an achene (a dry seed) or a berry. The flower is contained by modified leaves called bracts. The weed has negative effect on many crop yields and is also toxic to animals. It is found to be potentially toxic to sheep, cattle, horses and pigs. Setaria viridis is a summer annual that branches at the base to form a small tuft of leafy culms. In open areas, the slender culms are erect, ascending, or widely spreading; they are 1 1/2' long, terete, light green, and hairless.

Eleusine indica is a small annual grass distributed throughout the warmer areas of the world to about 50 degrees latitude. It is an invasive species in some areas. It is an important weed of cultivated crops, flowering plants lawns, and golf courses. It thrives in disturbed areas with compacted soils in full sun. Both tillage and herbicides are used in its control. This low-growing grass is capable of setting seed even when closely mown. Some populations have evolved resistance to certain herbicides, including glyphosate. In this study, we also identify 16 species of weed from 12 family. All of the weeds significantly reduced the growth of rose thus produced the poor quality flower and fragments.

Figure 2 prescribed the densities of weed in Taif rosa crop. From our observations, it can be reported that the highest densities of weed (1253) found in Brassicaceae family, followed by amaranthaceae, asteraceae and poaceae family with a weed number of 1120, 973 and 568 respectively. Medium densities of weed (more than 100) were found from Fabaceae, Malvaceae & papaveraceae family. Whereas less number of weed 17, 27 and 43 were found from lamiacease, resedaceae and asphodelaceae family. Variations of weed density may be due to genetic variability and ability to adaptation in various climatic conditions. Our findings are supported by the results of Girish et al [28], who reported that weed species and their intensities varies with different crop species, time and ago ecological systems. It has been also reported that plant densities depends on soil fertility and other properties of soil [29].

In (Table 2) describes the results and the spread of some developing weeds in just Al-Hada area, and some developing weeds existed only in the Al-Shafa area, as some other diffuse found widely in both regions. All the six (Sonchus asper, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus viridis, Cyperus rotundus, Malva parviflora, Tribulus parvispinus) species of were diffuse in both areas. Among these species of weeds Cyperus rotundus densities was the highest (518) followed by Amaranthus hybridus and Amaranthus viridis with a value of 189 and 367. To get maximum returns from inputs applied to these horticultural crops, there is a great need of proper weed control measures in these crops. Most of these weeds are not host specific because they infest both ornamental and flowers.

Al-Shafa area contains more variety of weeds with 33 developing type weed, while Al-Hada area contains 16 developing weeds type, as spreads six types of weeds growing in both regions. All of these findings are significant different at p< 0.05. (LSD tests). Table 2). At Al-Shafa area the density of Brassica tournefortii species was the highest (564), while, the lowest weed density (6) recorded in case of Calendula tripterocarpa species.

Weed density and distribution in Al-Hada area was less than the Al-Shafa. May be this regulated by soil and environmental conditions. In Al-Hada area , the highest density of weed recorded in species Cyperus rotundus (518) and the density was the weed density (17) recorded in case of Solanum incanium species.

The results show significant differences about herbs intensity depending on the species. Where it was most prevalent of Brassica tournefortii, Digitaria sanguinalis, Cyperus rotundus, Heliotropium currsivicum, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus viridis and Chenopodium murale. The value weeds 564, 529, 518, 441, 389, 367 and 325 respectively (Table 2). And the less prevalent of Calendula tripterocarpa, Setaria viridis, Eleusine indica, Nepeta cabiata, Physalis somnifera, Solanum nigrum,and Cynodon dactylon and the value weeds were 6, 7, 8, 17, 18, and 19 respectively (Table 2).

Weed flora and its composition in a crop is influenced by the type of cultivation, time or season of cultivation, soil type, soil PH, climatic conditions, cultivation practices like irrigation, tillage systems, application of fertilizer and weed management. Even though Majrashi et al [30] reported that flower of weed species differ with types of soil and others climacteric conditions. In another study, Majrashi et al [31] reported that the clonal growth patterns, mortality number, plant height and flower number of Scirpus grossus varied with different soils. Zedam et al. [32] reported that the diversity and the plant distribution influenced by topographical factors that showed a floristic richness more pronounced in the plain land and decreases with altitude and slope.

In a crops area, weed populations are never constant. They are in a dynamic state of flux due to changes in climate and environmental conditions, cropping systems, growing season, cultural practices, weed seed bank composition and periodicity of germination patterns of different weed species [33]. It was also reported that the weed floristic composition of a particular site may change over time, as weed communities are a complex ecological entity [34]. Pujadas and Hernandex [35] reported that a very diverse flora that varied considerably depending on the level of various agricultural inputs. For instance, in non-irrigated low input fields of annual crops they recorded 334 species, but found only 79 species in irrigated high input in southern Spain. An understanding of the weed community along with dominance patterns is necessary for effective weed management.

Conclusion:

From this study, it can be concluded that weed species of Brassicaceae and Amaranthaceae family are more intensified in Rosa crop plantation in Al-Hada or Al-Shafa region of Saudi Arabia. It also provides information about weeds flora of Taif Rosa plantation and 5000 species of weeds that belong to the 15 families were identified from two districts in Saudi Arabia. The findings of this study will be useful in suggesting suitable weed control recommendation in Rosa plantation as well as other ornamental plants.

Received 12 August 2016; Accepted 17 December 2016; Available online 22 December 2016

Future works:

The findings of this study will help to identify the weed species in Rosa plants of other tropical and subtropical area. The control of weed in developing Taif Rosa plants is merit to further study.

Contribution of the Study:

There is a great scope to increase the Rose industry in Saudi Arabia and other tropical and subtropical countries. This study will bring great benefits to local rose farmers who are interested to invest in agriculture business. So, it directly contributes to country's economy.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This research was supported by a grant from Chair of Research and Developmenttal Studies for Taif's Rosa, Taif University, Saudi Arabia.

REFERENCES

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[32] Majrashi, A., M.M. Khandaker, B.B. Bakar and A.N. Boyce, 2015. Quantitative Growth Patterns of Scirpus grossus under Fertilized and Unfertilized Peat Soils. Australian Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 8(17): 328-335.

[33] Zedam, A., F. Mimeche, M. Benkherif, D. Sarri and M. Fenni, 2016. Diversity and plant distribution according to the topographical factors Dijebel Messaad forest (M'sila Algeria). Advances in Environmental Biology, 10(6): 27-38.

[34] Juraimi, A.S., M. Begum, M.N.M Yusuf and A. Man, 2010. Efficacy of herbicides on the control weeds and productivity of direct seeded rice under minimal water conditions. Plant Protection Quarterly, 25: 19-25.

[35] Mortimer, M., 2000. Understanding variation in weed species response to management in wet seeded rice. In: Irrigated Rice Ecosystem: Improving Pest Management. Anonymous (ed.). International Rice Research Institute program report for 2000, Malaysia

[36] Pujadas, S.A. and B.J. Hernandez, 1988. Floristic composition and agricultural importance of weeds in southern Spain. Weed Research, 28: 175-180.

Caption: Fig. 1: Experimental design and quadrats arrangement of weeds in Taif Rosa crops at Al-Hada and Al-Shafa Area.

Caption: Fig. 3: Some images for weeds in Taif Rosa crops at Al-Hada or Al-Shafa Area.

(1) Majrshi A. A and (2) Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker

(1) Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia

(2) School of Agriculture Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, University of Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200 Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia.

Address For Correspondence:

Dr. Ali Abdullah Majrashi, Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

E-mail: majrashiaah@gmail.com
Table 1: List of weeds in Taif Rosa crops at
Al-Hada and Al-Shafa Area.

Asteraceae         Agratum conyzoides
                   Aizoon canarenso
                   Amaranthus graecizans
                   Amaranthus hybridus
                   Amaranthus viridis
                   Calendula tripterocarpa
                   Centure sp.
                   Chenopodium opulifolium
                   Conyza dioscoridis
                   Echinops spinosissimus
                   Eclipta prostrate
                   pulicaria crispa
                   Sonchus asper
                   sonchus oleraceoa
                   Sonchus oleraceus
Amaranthaceae      Amaranthus hybridus
                   Amaranthus viridis
                   Chenopodium murale
                   Chenopodium sp
Asphodelaceae      Asphodelus aestivus
Brassicaceae       Heliotropium currsivicum
                   Brassica tournefortii
                   Coronopus squamatus
                   Sisyimbrim altissimum
                   Sisyimbrim irio
                   Sisymbrium orientale
Caryophylloideae   Silene Arabica
Chenopodiaceae     Chenopodium murale
Convolvulaceae     Convolvulus arvensis
Cyperaceae         Cyperus rotundus
Fabaceae           Medicago monspliaca
                   Lupinus Lepidus
Lamiaceae          Nepeta cabiata
Malvaceae          Malva parviflora
                   Malva parviflora
Papaveraceae       Argemana Mexicana
Poaceae            Cynodon dactylon
                   Setaria viridis
                   Eleusine indica
Poaceae            Digitaria sanguinalis
Resedaceae         Reseda alba
Solanaceae         Withania somnifera
                   Solanum nigrum
                   Physalis somnifera
Zygophyllaceae     Tribulus parvispinus

Table 2: Developing weeds d- Hada and Al-Shafa Area.

Speices Name               Al-Hada   Al-Shafa   Density *

Asteraceae

Echinops spinosissimus               ++         186 *
Aizoon canarenso                     ++         18 *
Aizoon canariense                    ++         58 *
Amaranthus graecizans      ++                   12 *
Chenopodium opulifolium    ++                   15 *
Sonchus asper              ++        ++         73 *
Agratum conyzoides         ++                   17 *
Calendula tripterocarpa    ++                   6 *
Sonchus oleraceus          ++                   33 *
Eclipta prostrate                    ++         44 *
Centure sp.                          ++         187 *
Sonchus olraceus                     ++         42 *
pulicaria crispa                     ++         158 *
Conyza dioscoridis                   ++         38 *
sonchus oleraceoa                    ++         86 *

Amaranthaceae

Amaranthus hybridus        ++        ++         389 *
Amaranthus viridis         ++        ++         367 *
Chenopodium murale                   ++         325 *
Chenopodium sp                       ++         39 *

Asphodelaceae
Asphodelus aestivus                  ++         43 *

Boraginaceae

Heliotropium currsivicum             ++         441 *
Sisymbrium orientale                 ++         37 *
Brassica tournefortii                ++         564 *
Sisyimbrim altissimum                ++         90 *
Coronopus squamatus                  ++         84 *
Sisyimbrim irio                      ++         37 *

Caryophylloideae

Silene Arabica                       ++         95 *
Convolvulus arvensis                 ++         90 *

Cyperaceae

Cyperus rotundus           ++        ++         518 *

Fabaceae

Medicago monspliaca                  ++         37 *
Lupinus Lepidus                      ++         82 *

Lamiaceae
Nepeta cabiata                       ++         17 *

Malvaceae

Malva parviflora           ++        ++         152 *

Papaveraceae

Argemana Mexicana                    ++         156 *

Poaceae

Cynodon dactylon           ++                   24 *
Setaria viridis            ++                   7 *
Eleusine indica            ++                   8 *
Digitaria sanguinalis                ++         529 *

Resedaceae

Reseda alba                          ++         27 *

Solanaceae

Withania somnifera         ++                   32 *
Solanum nigrum             ++                   19 *
Solanum incanium                     ++         17 *
Physalis somnifera                   ++         18 *

Zygophyllaceae
Tribulus parvispinus       ++        ++         58 *

(*) All values in density column are significantly
different at p < 0.05.

(++) The weed species presented in Al-Hada or Al-Shafa Area.

() The weed species not found in Al-Hada or Al-Shafa Area.

Fig. 2: Developing weeds density in Taif
Rosa crops at Al-Hada or Al-Shafa Area.

                   Density

Asteraceae         973
Amaranthaceae      1120
Asphodelaceae      43
Brassicaceae       1253
Caryophylloideae   95
Convolvulaceae     90
Cyperaceae         518
Fabaceae           119
Lamiaceae          17
Malvaceae          152
Papaveraceae       156
Poaceae            568
Resedaceae         27
Solanaceae         86
Zyhophyllaceae     58

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Author:Majrshi, Abdullah A.; Khandaker, Mohammad Moneruzzaman
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:Dec 1, 2016
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