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This volume, the eleventh in a series of ten books on the biosphere, represents a much-needed addition to our initial plan. As preparations for the publication of this series progressed, it became clear that a single terminological index for all the volumes was necessary. And in light of the different perceptions of the biosphere at different times in history, a global reflection was also needed to help explain why human beings relate to nature in the way they do. This unplanned eleventh volume thus took form as both a history of ideas about the biosphere and as a complete terminological index of the entire work.

The first part of this volume is a historical voyage through the schools of thought that have shaped the concept of the biosphere as an environment propitious for life, one that life itself has contributed to forming. It is also an exploration of the ethics of the relations of humans with this environment, not so much because we have to justify ourselves to anyone in particular (though some of the ideas analyzed here do contain the idea of responsibility) but because the dysfunctions that we introduce may have negative repercussions on the conditions of life for our species or on the scales of values we have created for ourselves. The first part of the book is thus a history of ideas, but it is accompanied by an incursion into the field of ethics.

In this journey through time, three successive intellectual attitudes are discussed in relation to the concept of the biosphere. The first locates human beings as observers at the center of nature: such was the viewpoint held by the scholars in ancient Greece, by great thinkers during the Christian movement in medieval times, and by the first humanists in the Renaissance. The second attitude places human beings outside nature, possessing the ability to dominate nature and put it at the service of humanity. This is the attitude of "modernity" in the West, still found among the most conservative of thinkers. The third attitude is the recognition that our species and all our artifacts belong to nature, of which humans are the conscious component and thus ethically responsible for the consequences of their acts. It is the basis of emergent thought since romanticism, and adopts the form of environmentalism (rather than ecologism) and sustainability, a concept that most of the authors and collaborators identify with, especially those assuming major responsibility. Thus, the first part of this volume not only takes us on a voyage through the history of ideas but also contains some highly controversial opinions that reflect the position of the authors of these introductory lines.

This volume was originally planned by Jacques Grinevald, professor at the Institut Universitaire d'Etudes du Developpement at the University of Geneva. He was the prime mover behind this text, though an unfortunate visual affliction has prevented him from the joint drafting that had been planned. Grinevald is an epistemologist and a historian of science, a great specialist in the work of Russian geochemist Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (1863-1945) on the formation and repercussions of the concept of the biosphere and the complex interrelationships between ecological theory, thermodynamics, and economic theory. Grinevald collaborated enthusiastically in the preparation of the draft outline and in identifying suitable authors to cite. Although he could not write the text himself, he proposed that it be written by Pascal Acot of the Institut d'Histoire et Philosophie des Sciences (Paris), the author of several works on the history of ecology. Acot agreed immediately and contributed the historical chapters of that part of this volume. The chapters containing opinions are the responsibility of those in charge of the series, as spokespersons for the Advisory Editorial Council, and of Gonzalo Halffter, who acts as the spokesman for the Editorial Council. We would like to express our gratitude to all of them.

The aforementioned question of citing classical authors deserves more extensive commentary. We have sought to reflect the ideas that have been most decisively significant over the course of the historic adventure of understanding the biosphere. Thus, we have prepared a selection of 46 important views, accom-panied by a brief introduction to the author who conceived of or developed each idea. The views chosen areselective but seek to go beyond the narrow limits of specialized subjects. We believe that in the gradual formation of the idea of the biosphere and the relationship of humans to the biosphere, thinkers from many different fields have intervened, from philosophers to naturalists, from critics to literati. This anthology includes quotes from the Bible, texts by Darwin, references to anarchists, and tales from Cervantes, for example, all taken from a period spanning more than 2,000 years.

We have not been able to avoid a certain Western bias in this historical journey. We have made an effort to represent Asian, African, and pre-Columbian American thought but failed to balance the text in this sense. (This is because of our limitations rather than any culturally centered arrogance or old-fashioned attitudes.) Still, the reader will find more non-Western references than in most books of this type (of which there are not very many), but fewer than we would have liked. We open up a path that other scholars may feel tempted to follow.

The second part of this volume is a very complete terminological index containing more than 50,000 entries, compiled scrupulously and with excellent criteria by Montserrat Comelles, who was in charge of drafting the text during the first years of the project. In the introduction to this text she explains the criteria she used when compiling the Catalan index and makes some observations on how to best use it. This index is an excellent tool for effective consultation and reference and a convincing proof of the scope of the work's content. Subentries and references show the huge range of organisms and phenomena mentioned in the different parts of the work.

The main text in this volume is much shorter than in the other volumes, and only a small number of authors participated, but its preparation was no less painstaking than the other ten volumes in the series. In fact, Volume 11 required an additional effort for the entire editorial team; it has been necessary to ask for help from many people to locate illustrations, confirm biographical data, and contrast original texts and translations in the anthology. This has not been an easy task, as the documents in question are often very old, the illustrations highly specific, and the authors' works very difficult to locate.

We would thus like to start the long list of thanks with all those individuals and institutions who have helped us in preparing this volume. For bibliographic research and illustrations we would like to thank the bibliography unit and the graphic unit of the Biblioteca de Catalunya, the Library of the Museu de Zoologia of Barcelona, and the Library of the Jardi Botanic de Barcelona. We would also like to thank the Hispanic Library of the Instituto de Cooperacion Iberoamericano in Madrid, the Library Network of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), especially the Archive of the Real Jardin Botanico in Madrid. We have received a great deal of help locating photographs, especially from GEA Consultors, the Museu de la Ciencia, from Indigo (Barcelona), as well as from several individuals and institutions, especially Professor Alexei M. Ghilarov of Moscow; Dennis L. Meadows of the Institute for Policy and Social Science Research, Durham (NH); the George Perkins Marsh Institute at Clark University, Worcester (MA); the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation of the Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh (PA); the Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign (IL); the General Secretariat of the Club of Rome, Paris; and the University of Massachusetts Reference Library, Amherst (MA). Finally, we would like to thank the journal Nature, edited by Macmillan Magazines Ltd., for permission to reproduce the maps relating the biodiversity of lichen species to mortality from lung cancer in the Veneto region of Italy; these maps originally appeared in an article by Pier Luigi Nimis (Biology Department, Universita degli Studi di Trieste) and Cesare Cislaghi (Istituto de Statistica Medica, Milan) in May 1997.

We would also like to thank all the authors and collaborators for participating in this collective writing venture. More than 200 authors have contributed to writing Encyclopedia of the Biosphere. The work of more than 1,500 different photographers, artists, and cartographers from all over the world is present in this series. A group of approximately 30 people has carried out editorial tasks, not including those involved in the printing process. We would like to thank all those who have written a greater or lesser part of the work.

Boris D. Abaturov, Rossijskaja Akademija Nauk (Russia)

Pascal Acot, Institut d'Histoire et Philosophie des Sciences, CNRS (France)

Jonathan Adams, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

Josep Antoni Alcover, Institut d'Estudis Avancats de les Illes Balears, CSIC (Palma de Majorca, Spain)

Cristian R. Altaba, Institut d'Estudis Avancats de les Illes Balears, CSIC (Palma de Majorca, Spain)

Margarita Arianotsou, Athinisin Ethnikon Kai Kapodistriakon Panepistimion (Greece)

Roser Armengol, graduate in Biology (Barcelona, Spain)

Pier G. d'Ayala, INSULA, UNESCO (France)

Sergej Balandin, Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Universitet imeni M.V. Lomonosova (Russia)

Enric Ballesteros, Centre d'Estudis Avancats, CSIC (Blanes, Spain)

Robert Banks, Gunnedah Research Centre (Australia)

Narciso Barrera-Bassols, Instituto de Ecologia (Mexico)

Vladimir N. Basilov, Rossijskaja Akademija Nauk (Russia)

John S. Beard, University of Western Australia (Australia)

Marion Beck, University of Regina (Canada)

Javier Beltran, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, IUCN (United Kingdom)

Griselda Benitez, Instituto de Ecologia (Mexico)

Jaume Bertranpetit, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Wauter Blokhuis, Landbouwuniversiteit (Low Countries)

Marti Boada, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

Vladimir N. Bolshakov, Institut Ekologii Rastenij i 6Zivotnykh (Russia)

Rick H. Borroughs, University of Rhode Island (USA)

Rolando Horst Braun Wilke, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas, CONICET (Argentina)

Luis Bulla, Universidad Central de Venezuela (Venezuela)

Julian Caldecott, consultant on conservation and biodiversity (United Kingdom)

Jaume Calvet, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Ian Campbell, Monash University (Australia)

Xavier Campillo, graduate in Geography (Barcelona, Spain)

Josep Canadell, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

Armand Caraben, graduate in Law (Switzerland)

Carles Carboneras, graduate in Law (Barcelona, Spain)

Christine Carey, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, IUCN (United Kingdom)

Rosa Carvajal, graduate in Geography and Library Science and Documentation (Barcelona, Spain)

Marcos del Castillo, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Francesco di Castri, Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionelle et Evolutive, CNRS (France)

Jordi Catala, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Jorge Cepeda, Universidad de La Serena (Chile)

John Cloudsley-Thomson, University of London (United Kingdom)

Mark Collins, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, IUCN (United Kingdom)

Montserrat Comelles, graduate in Biology (Barcelona, Spain)

Robert T. Coupland, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)

James Culverwell, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, IUCN (United Kingdom)

Johanna Darlington, University Museum of Zoology (United Kingdom)

Luis Claudio da Silva, Museu das Missoes (Brazil)

Steve Davis, Royal Botanic Gardens (United Kingdom)

Harold E. Dregne, Texas Tech University (USA)

Graham Drucker, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, IUCN (United Kingdom)

Zyv Dubinsky, Bar-Ilan University (Israel)

Nigel Dudley, bachelor of Science (United Kingdom)

Pere Duran Farell, founder member of the Club of Rome, Spanish Chapter of the Club of Rome (Barcelona, Spain)

Miguel Equihua, Instituto de Ecologia (Mexico)

Marta Estrada, Institut de Ciencies del Mar, CSIC (Barcelona, Spain)

Emilio Fernandez-Galiano, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

Xavier Ferrer, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Lluis Ferres, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Jordi Flos, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Jean Claude Follin, Centre de Cooperation International en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement (France)

Trevor Foskett, graduate in Biology (United Kingdom)

Susan Frade, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, IUCN (United Kingdom)

Carlos Fragoso, Instituto de Ecologia (Mexico)

Teresa Franquesa, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Katherine Fuller, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, IUCN (United Kingdom)

Jose M. Gandullo, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

Marc Antoni Garcia, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (Barcelona)

Domingo Garcia-Espinoza, La Amistad Conservation Area (Costa Rica)

Jose Maria Garcia-Ruiz, Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologia, CSIC (Jaca, Spain)

Leopoldo Garcia Sancho, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

Albert Garriga, graduate in Biology (Barcelona, Spain)

Marcelo Gavino, civil and hydraulic engineer (Argentina)

Alexei M. Ghilarov, Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Universitet imeni M.V. Lomonosova (Russia)

Josep M. Gili, Institut de Ciencies del Mar, CSIC (Barcelona, Spain)

Don Gilmour, IUCN's Forest Conservation Programme, The World Conservation Union (Switzerland)

Angel Gines, Museu Balear de Ciencies Naturals (Soller, Spain)

Francesc Giro, Generalitat de Catalunya (Barcelona, Spain)

Montserrat Gispert, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

David Given, Lincoln University (New Zealand)

Robert Godshalk, University of Florida (USA)

Frank B. Golley, University of Georgia (USA)

Valois Gonzalez, Universidad Central de Venezuela (Venezuela)

David W. Goodall, Environmental Sciences Department (Low Countries)

Brij Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru University School (India)

Donald Gordon, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, IUCN (United Kingdom)

Andrew Greller, Queens College (USA)

Patrick Grillas, Station Biologique de La Tour du Valat (France)

Jacques Grinevald, Institut Universitaire d'Etudes du Developpement (Switzerland)

Ricard Guerrero, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Sergio Guevara, Instituto de Ecologia (Mexico)

Emilia Gutierrez, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Ivan A. Guvanov, Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Universitet imeni M.V. Lomonosova (Russia)

Gonzalo Halffter, Instituto de Ecologia (Mexico)

Caroline Harcourt, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, IUCN (United Kingdom)

Mundayatan Haridasan, Universidade de Brasilia (Brazil)

Jeremy Harrison, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, IUCN (United Kingdom)

Richard H. Hart, West World Enterprises (USA)

Lucina Hernandez, Instituto de Ecologia (Mexico)

Erich Hoyt, scientific writer and marine ecologist (United Kingdom)

Carlos Ibero, World Wide Foundation for Nature (Madrid, Spain)

Toshio Iwakuna, National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan)

Damia Jaume, Institut d'Estudis Avancats de les Illes Balears, CSIC (Palma de Majorca, Spain)

Martin Jenkins, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, IUCN (United Kingdom)

Carlos Alfredo Joly, Universidade de Campinas (Brazil)

Jose A. Juanes, Universidad de Cantabria (Spain)

Cristina Junyent, doctor of Biology (Barcelona, Spain)

Rudolf Kamelin, Rossijskaja Akademija Nauk (Russia)

Alpha Oumar Konare, former President of the Interna-tional Council of Museums, President of the Republic of Mali (Mali)

Maxime Lamotte, Universite de Paris VI (Pierre et Marie Curie; France)

Teodoro Lasanta, Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologia (Zaragoza, Spain)

Santiago Lavin, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

Jean-Paul Legros, Institute de la Recherche Agronomique (France)

Henry Noel Le Houerou, Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionelle et Evolutive, CNRS (France)

Daniel Lluch Belda, Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas de Baja California Sur (Mexico)

Ariel E. Lugo, Institute of Tropical Forestry of Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

Joaquim Maluquer, Institucio Catalana d'Historia Natural (Barcelona, Spain)

Arnald Marcer, Centre de Recerca Ecologica i Aplicacions Forestals, CREAF (Barcelona, Spain)

Ramon Margalef, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Lynn Margulis, University of Massachusetts-Amherst (USA)

Juan Pablo Martinez-Rica, Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologia (Jaca, Spain)

Esteve Masague, Associacio d'Apicultors de Barcelona (Spain)

Miquel Masgrau, graduate in Medicine (Barcelona, Spain)

Albert Maso, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Francois Mesleard, Station Biologique de La Tour du Valat (France)

Alesandro Minelli, Universita degli Studi di Padova (Italy)

Marcelo Molinillo, Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologia (Jaca, Spain)

Maximina Monasterio, Centro de Investigaciones Ecolo-gicas de los Andes Tropicales (Venezuela)

Ruben Antonio Montes, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela)

Angeles Morales, Instituto de Ecologia (Mexico)

Vjacheslav G. Mordkovitch, Siberian Division of the Rossijskaja Akademija Nauk (Russia)

Patricia Moreno, Instituto de Ecologia (Mexico)

Hiroshi Moriyama, National Institute of Agro-Environ-mental Sciences (Japan)

Masami Nakanishi, Kyoto University (Japan)

F. Xavier Niell, Universidad de Malaga (Spain)

Toru Nishimura, Keio University (Japan)

Masahiko Ohsawa, Chiba University (Japan)

Sara Oldfield, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, IUCN (United Kingdom)

Santiago R. Olivier, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (Argentina)

Tim J. Peck, European Forest Institute (Switzerland)

Richard S. Peigler, Denver Museum of Natural History (USA)

Ruben Pesci, Foro Latinoamericano de Ciencias Ambien-tales (Argentina)

Dimitrij A. Petelin, Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univer-sitet imeni M.V. Lomonosova (Russia)

George F. Peterken, Forestry Commission (United Kingdom)

Francis Petter, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (France)

Peter B. Phillipson, Rhodes University (South Africa)

Teresa Pla, plastic artist (Barcelona, Spain)

Dolors Planas, Universite de Quebec (Canada)

Rosa M. Poch, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (Lleida, Spain)

Jaume Porta, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (Lleida, Spain)

Martin M. Price, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

Angels Puig, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Silvia E. Purata, Instituto de Ecologia (Mexico)

Ash Kumar Rai, Fisheries Research Division (Nepal)

Alfons A. Ramos, Institut d'Ecologia Litoral (Alacant, Spain)

Cristina Ramos, Universidad Experimental Ezequiel Zamora (Venezuela)

Victor Ramos G., agronomist (Bolivia)

Kent Redford, The Nature Conservancy (USA)

H. Antonia Ribera, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Anthony Rogers, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, IUCN (United Kingdom)

Konstantin A. Rogovin, Rossijskaja Akademija Nauk (Russia)

Mario Rojas, La Amistad Conservation Area (Costa Rica)

Javier Romero, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Joandomenec Ros, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Rodolfo Rotondaro, CONICET-Laguna de Pozuelos Bio-sphere Reserve (Argentina)

Jordi Ruiz, General Director of the Natural Environment of the Generalitat de Catalunya (Barcelona, Spain)

Jerzy Rzedowski, Instituto de Ecologia (Mexico)

Henk L. F. Saeijs, Rijkswaterstaat, Directorate Zeeland (Low Countries)

Dorion Sagan, Sciencewriters (USA)

Jose San Jose, Centro Internacional de Ecologia Tropical de la UNESCO (Venezuela)

Arnoldo Santos, Jardin Botanico (Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain)

Guillermo Sarmiento, Centro de Investigaciones Ecologi-cas de los Andes Tropicales de la UNESCO (Venezuela)

Robert J. Scholes, Forest Science and Technology, CSIRO (South Africa)

Geoffrey A. J. Scott, University of Winnipeg (Canada)

Christopher Sharpe, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, IUCN (United Kingdom)

Boris I. Sheftel, Rossijskaja Akademija Nauk (Russia)

Whendee L. Silver, Institute of Tropical Forestry of Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)

Jurij B. Simchenko, Rossijskaja Akademija Nauk (Russia)

Arni Snaebjornsson, Bunadarfelag Islands (Iceland)

Zoja P. Sokolova, Rossijskaja Akademija Nauk (Russia)

Otto T. Solbrig, Harvard University (USA)

Adolf de Sostoa, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Raymond Louis Specht, University of Queensland (Australia)

Berendina Spiers, Landbouwuniversiteit (Low Countries)

Sue Stolton, bachelor of Arts (United Kingdom)

Philip Antony Stott, University of London (United Kingdom)

Carolus Sys, Universiteit Gent (Belgium)

Hydeo Tagawa, Kagoshima University (Japan)

Arkady A. Tishkov, Rossijskaja Akademija Nauk (Russia)

Victor Manuel Toledo, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

Albert Torres, Asociacion Espanola de Estudios Japoneses (Barcelona, Spain)

Louis Trabaud, Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionelle et Evolutive, CNRS (France)

Maria Jesus Uriz, Centre d'Estudis Avancats, CSIC (Blanes, Spain)

Ramon Vallejo, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Jean-Claude Vedy, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)

Josep Vigo, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)

Marta Vigo, graduate in Biology (Barcelona, Spain)

Brigitte van Vliet-Lanoe, Universite de Rennes (France)

Gerald Ernest Wickens, Royal Botanic Gardens (United Kingdom)

Dick Williams, Tropical Ecosystems Research Centre, CSIRO (Australia)

William D. Williams, University of Adelaide (Australia)

D. Winterboun, Monash University (Australia)

Kyoji Yoda, Shiga University (Japan)

Tsuyosi Yoneda, Osaka Kyoiku University (Japan)

B. Zhimbiev, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, IUCN (United Kingdom)

The illustrations are one of the most important elements of the final layout of the Encyclopedia of the Biosphere, so we would like to give our thanks to all the artists, cartographers, and photographers who contributed to the project. They are listed in full at the end of each volume, but we would like to give special thanks here to:

Jonathan Adams, ecologist, botanic cartography

Miquel Alonso, graduate in Biology and scientific illustrator

Jordi Ballonga, illustrator

Marisa Bendala, graduate in Biology and scientific illustrator


Aina Bonner, scientific illustrator

Lluisa Carabassa, illustration archive of Enciclopedia Catalana

Jordi Corbera, scientific illustrator

Anna M. Ferrer, graduate in Biology and scientific illustrator

Idem, Infografia Digital Edicion Multimedia, S.A.

Albert Martinez, graduate in Geology

Roman Montull, graduate in Biology and scientific illustrator

Carles Puche, scientific illustrator

Josep Oriol Sabater, scientific illustrator

Jordi Sabater Pi, ethologist and scientific illustrator

Lluis Sanz, graduate in Biology and scientific illustrator

Eugeni Sierra, botanic illustrator

Gloria Trias, illustration archive of Enciclopedia Catalana

Jordi Vidal, photographer

Our editorial team colleagues have withstood the more than six-year-long production process for this series. Together, we have managed to transform original texts that arrived in about ten languages and piles of illustrations from all over the world into the final encyclopedic texts. Our immeasurable gratitude is extended to:

Roser Armengol, graduate in Biology, chief editor (1996-1998)

Cristina Beltran, administrative secretary (1996-1998)

Jordi Bruguera, doctor of Philology, linguistic adviser

Rosa Carvajal, graduate in Geography and Library Science and Documentation, art direction

Montserrat Claraso, graduate in Philology, proofreader

Margarida Comelles, general index

Montserrat Comelles, graduate in Biology, chief editor (1991-1995), and general indexer

Monica Diaz, administrative secretary (1991-1995)

Marta Escriba, graduate in Biology, editor, and translator (1995-1998)

Angels Ferrand, graduate in Philology, proofreader

Josep M. Ferrer, publication manager for major projects

Anna Figueras, graduate in Philology, proofreader

Mikael Frolund, photographic documentation and linguistic assessment

Albert Garriga, graduate in Biology and Catalan Philology, editor (1991-1993)

Jesus Giralt, editorial director

Violant Juan, graduate in Physics, proofreader

Cristina Junyent, doctor of Biology, editor (1992-1995)

Arnald Marcer, graduate in Biology, editor (1991-1993)

Maria Miro, head of administrative secretariat

Toni Miserachs, graphic designer, design and page-making

Marina Molins, administrative secretary (1995-1996)

Miquel Monge, graduate in Geography, illustration (1992-1993)

Joan Oliva, graduate in Pedagogy, chief editor (1995-1996)

Monica Rocamora, administrative secretary (1996-1997)

David Sanchez, graduate in Philology, copy editor

Pilar Serra, head of proofreading of Enciclopedia Catalana

Marta Sole, graduate in Biology, editor, and translator (1996-1998)

Xavier Solsona, graduate in History of Art, proofreader

Josep Torras, doctor of Philosophy and Theology, linguistic adviser

Marta Vigo, graduate in Biology, editor, and translator (1993-1998)

Francesc Villaubi, head of production

Our appreciation is also extended to the translators who have translated into Catalan the many hundreds of pages of texts originally prepared in other languages, namely English, French, Castillian, Russian, Japanese, Portuguese, Italian, German, and Dutch:

Assumpta Anglada, graduate in English Philology, translator

Mireia Artis, graduate in Biology, translator

Mariana Bono, graduate in Biology, translator

Elisabet Carreras, graduate in Biology, translator

Manuel Cervera, graduate in Biology, translator

Anna Espunya, graduate in English Philology, translator

Emilia Fontana, graduate in Biology, translator

Anna Jove, graduate in History of Art, translator

Susanna Junyent, translator

Katia Mones, translator

Xavier Pamies, graduate in Biology, translator

Raquel Ribo, graduate in Philology, translator

Mireia Rodriguez, graduate in Biology, translator

Anna M. Rosalen, translator

Gemma Sanz, graduate in Psychology, translator

Maria del Mar Sivill, graduate in Biology, translator

Montserrat Solanas, translator

Albert Torres, translator

Sandra Ellen Young Chaffe, translator

Encyclopedia of the Biosphere is the fruit of the labors of all these people. It was a privilege to lead a team like this and to oversee a work like this; we are very grateful to Enciclopedia Catalana for having the confidence in us to do it. And we would like to express our deepest thanks to you, the reader.

Ramon Folch

Josep M. Camarasa

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Author:Folch, Ramon; Camarasa, Josep M.
Publication:Encyclopedia of the Biosphere
Article Type:Work overview
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Nov 1, 2000
Previous Article:Appendices.

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