Introduction and spread of weed flora in Islamabad Gharb region, and its role in preventing crop production.
Unwanted plants and weeds to be told that, in spite of agricultural crops, or water supplies are. Plants in fallow land, and the land under cultivation, weed Are. Plants seen on farms, orchards, and forests are the main plant competition, and reduce the quantity and quality of growth, and the main vegetable crops and weeds Are. Plant in addition On the farm in aquatic systems, forest, garden plants, roadsides, along the railway, airport, parks, reservoirs and water resources, irrigation canals and other places are also grown. Thus, depending on the status and location of a plant, may be considered weeds. Weeds in the Department of Land and water resources are important factors, but the most important and their influence can be seen in the agricultural sector. West of Islamabad city, with an area of approximately 4,654 square kilometers, and is 1335 meters above sea level, on the basis of Ambrgeh, the climate is cold and dry Plain of Islamabad Gharb, approximately 40 thousand hectares, and its famous mountains Patagh, Navahkooh, Dalahoo, Ghale Gazi and Nesar that, in general, is covered with snow in winter. The city has a semi-arid climate, with warm winters and dry Mediterranean system is affected. Rainfall between 500 and 700 mm, oak, with predominant species of vegetation Qurecus brantii major Ratshkyl the city, among them species of mastic, almonds: Acer cineracens, black cherry and wild hawthorn, there are.
History of Botany in the West, and the Islamabad Gharb:
Including botanical research that has been done in Kermanshah province, the following can be noted: Mustafa blessing and colleagues at the Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources Kermanshah that, in order to collect and identify the flora of this region, a total of 7514 plant specimens, belonging to 91 genera and 388 black and 950 plant species were collected, and the number of species identified, approximately two-thirds of all species collected form [20,9], which of this number, about 140 medicinal species, 80 species, and 47 species of tree and shrub forest. The studies examined under a variety of flora Dalahoo Mountains, which took place in Kermanshah province, a total of 280 species have been noted. Mozaffarian, Masoomi,  in the flora of Iran, Professor (Haovskenekht) -1865 AD 67 German plants, Kurdistan, and the mountains are gathered near the scene , during the Shetravs .
Classification of weeds:
Kermanshah Province, weeds, or families are very diverse and the spacies. Some toxic, some fodder, medicinal and countless many in the area, or a specific range and pesky weeds are known. Weeds on the growth and sustainability of their length, the weeds year, two years, and how old are divided in each of these categories of weeds (annual, biennial and perennial), broadleaf weeds that belong to a dicotyledonous, and spacies corn or millet plants that belong to the monocot plants seen.
Annual weeds, short growth period and are less than a year, this group of weeds, mostly propagated by seed, and plant breeder seed production then disappears. Short life of this group of weeds, fight easy. This type of weeds, because many seeds that produce great and not bad as long as the weather permits, continue to grow. Annual weeds, with two annual spring and autumn are year. Annual weeds spring, the plants, depending on the climate of the region, before the spring or in the spring or early summer, they begin to sprout growth .time their foliage during the spring or early summer is completed, and then sit seed, and after completion of the growth period of winter annual weeds are destroyed .plants the plants, depending on weather conditions in each region, germinate in the fall or winter and early winter or early spring flowers they sit and then go to seed seeds of winter annual weeds, arriving sporadically, and dormant in the soil aestivation.
Weeds two years, with a two-year life cycle, and the seeds are sprouting in the spring or early summer, and the first year with little vegetative growth is. Plants biennial weeds, roots and meat are right, as a member of the reserve Food plays an important role in the growth of these plants play in the following spring, flower stalks are removed from the crown of the plant, plant flowers sits and after the seed, the plant's mother disappears. Two years of fighting weeds, such as combating weeds are annuals, meaning that the growth in the first year of their foliage, with different ways of being.
Perennial weeds, the plant is said, they more growth period of two years. Some perennial weeds is. plants unlimited life, like weeds in a year, often propagated by seed, but some of them, by creeping underground stems (rhizomes), on the ground creeping stems (stolons), bulbs and tubers are also reproduced. In some perennial weeds, if nodal contact with the soil, root production, and there is a separate plant. Plants perennial weeds, because of the possibility of foliage, and seeds of many, very aggressive and competitive have visitors. Even if the aerial parts of perennial weeds, destroy underground structures, they are able to create new stem and flowers of the year, survive. In some cases, the plants do not produce seed in the first year, but in later years for life, to sit seed. Perennial plants, based on the simple reproduction of perennial plants, perennial bulbous plants, and perennial plants creeping perennial classified is. plants simple: most plants, reproduce by seed. If the stems or roots of perennial plants, by means of mechanical stops, they reproduce by vegetative organs done. Each piece may be interrupted, then the whole plant roots and become a perennial bulbous is plants the underground plant organs, such as onions, chives and tubers, and seed reproduction creeping perennial is. Plants: the creeping underground plant organs, roots, seeds and reproduce. In some plants may be creeping perennial, shoots (stems) new, creeping underground stems and roots develop. This species is classified as weeds, just based on the duration of the life of one year, two years or a few years, is not always constant and sometimes influenced by different environmental factors change. For example, some plants are annual or biennial weed cold regions can, in some tropical and subtropical, with mild winters, respectively, biennial or perennial plants are becoming. More weeds, perennial weeds groups, fewer of annual weeds, and an even smaller number of weeds in two years.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Because research is generally related to the field and collecting plants, and the information they have, the more things related to it. Engineering research are two categories: (1) field work (field) 2. Laboratory operations, equipment used in the field below: compass, altimeter, magnifying glass, camera, spade, scissors, knife, saw, press, Bags nylon, notepad, pen, paper waste, adhesive tape, paper, waste paper, blotting paper. Laboratory equipment as follows: Loop binocular, label and specifications form the herbarium plant flora of Iran and countries such as Turkey, Iraq, Palestine, Europe and the Atlantic flora books.
Research work on this dissertation was performed in three distinct phases.
Family Taxon Amaranthaceae Amaranthus retroflexus L. Amaryllidacae Lxiolirion Txtaricum Pall (Herb.) Apiaceae Anthriscus syavestris L.Hoffm Apiaceae Bupleurum rotundifolium L. " " Charophyllum macropodum " " Eryngium thyrsoideum Boiss " " Falcaria vulgaris Beranh " " Lagoecia cuminoides L. " " Pimpinella eriocarpa Banks et soland " " Scandix pectin veneris L. " " Turgenia Latifolia (L.)Hoffm " " Arum giganteum A. Ghahreman " " Biarum Cardu chorum (Schott) Engl. Aristolochia ceae Aristolochia Bottae-jaub & spach Boraginaceae Anchusa italic retz " " Anchusa cf. " " Heterocaryum szovitsianum (fisch .etc .A .Mey) A .DC. " " Nonnea Sp. Brassicaceae Alyssum strigosum Banks & soland " " steud Alyssum margin atum ex Bioss Brassicaceae Biscutella didyma L. " " Capsella bursd - pastoris L. Medicus " " Cardaria draba (L.) Desv " " Clypeola jonthlaspi L. " " Descurainia sophia (L.) Berth " " Diplotaxis hara (forssk.) Boiss " " Erysimum L. " " Hirschfeldia incana (L .) Lag " " Neslia apiculata fisch " " Sinapis arvensis L. " " Sisymbrium irio L. " " Sinapis au cheri (Boiss.) Caryophyllaceae Cerastium dichotomum L. " " Dianthus persicus Hausskn. Mitt. Caryophyllaceae Gypsophilasp " " Silene conoidea L. " " Silenecommeli nifolia Boss. " " Silene dichotoma Ehrh. Beitr. Naturk. " " Silene morganae freyn Bull " " Vaccaria Liniflora (Boiss & Hausskn) Compositae Achillea willhelmsii C. koch " " Anthemis altissima L. " " Carduus arabicus Jacq. Ex Murray " " pcentaurea depressa M.B " " Centaurea koeieand Bornm " " Centeaurea solstitialis L. " " Centaurea virgata Lam. " " Cichorium intybus L. " " Cousinia Mobayenii Ghahreman & Attar iran Compositae Crepis SP. " " Picnomon acarna (L.) Cass " " Lactuca Sp " " Seneciovernalis waldst & kit " " Senecio vulgaris L. " " Xantium spinosum L. " " Xantium Strumarium L. Convolvulaceae Convolvulus arvensis L. " " Convolvulus stachydiflius choisy Cyperaceae Cyperus cf Longus L. " " Carex steno phyla " " Scirpus lancustris L. Dipsacaceae Pterocephalus canus coulterex Dc Euphorbiaceae Chorzophora obliqua (vah L.) JUSS " " Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) JUSS. " " Euphorbia cheiradenia Boiss.et Hohen " " Euphorbia cond ylocrpa M. B " " Euphorbia sp. " " Euphorbia sp. " " Euphorbia falcate L. Euphorbiaceae Euphorbia heteradenia jau b & Spach. " " EuphorbiaSeguierian Necke r subsp. niciciana (Brorb) " " Euphorbia Splendida Mobayen Geraniaceae Erodium cicutarum (L.) L Her " " Erodium gruinum " " Geranium tuberosum L. " " Geranium SP. Gramineae Aegilops Crassa Boiss " " Aegilops cylin drica Host " " Arundo donax L. " " Audvena cf wiestii ste " " Avena fatua L. " " Boissiera squarrosa Hochst. Gramineae Promus danth oniae Trin " " Promus sericeus drobov " " Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. " " Echinoch loacrus galli (L.) " " Glycyrrhiza glabra L. " " Heteranthelium pillfrum (Banks et soland .) Gramineae . Hordeum glaacum steud. " " . Hordeum marinum Hudson. " " Hordeum spontan eum C. Kock " " Lolium pernne L. " " Phragmites australis (car.) ex stud. " " Phleum iranica um Brorn. " " Poa bulbosa L. Gramineae Saccharum ravennae (L.) murray " " Sorghum halo pensis (L.) Pers Haloragaceae Myriophllum verticillatum L. Juncaceae Juncus articulates L. " " Juncusbufonius L. " " Juncus inflexus L. Labiatae Marrubium sp. " " Mentha sp. " " Salvia sp. " " Salvia multicaulis vahl. Linaceae Linum strictum L. Loraceaanthe Loranthus europaeus Jacq Enum stirp " " Loranthus grewinkii Boisset Buhse Myriophyllaceae Myriophyllum fabmersum L. Orobanchaceae Orobanche alba steph " " Orobanche Sp. papaveraceae Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss .& Huetin Boiss " " Hypecoum pendulum L. " " Papaver rhoeas L. papilionaceae Alhagi Camelorum fisch " " Medicago sativa L. Onobrychis sp. papilionaceae " " Sophoroidesra alopecu Podophyllaceae Trigonella mona Tha C.A. Mey Polygonaceae Bongardia chrysogonum (L.) Boiss. " " Polygonum alpestre C.A Mey " " Polygonum SP. " " Polygonum Lusuloides Jaub.& spach " " Rumex cyprium Murb. Lunds univ Polygonaceae Rumex acetosla L " " Adonis aestivalis L. " " Ceratocephalus falcate (L.) Rosaceae Sanguisorba minor scop Solanaceae Datura stramonium L. " " Hyoscyamus SP. " " Physalis divaricata D. Don " " Solanum nigrum L. Valerianaceae Valerianella dufresnia Bungeet Boiss " " Vallerianella vesicaria (L.) moench Meth Urticaceae Urticadioica L. Var. dioica
Laboratory Operations early: at this stage to see pictures, maps, topographical 1/50000, and the collection and study of literature, and reports in the library, offices, natural resources, watersheds, clothes, agriculture, meteorology Islamabad Gharb, the area general and basic information was obtained. The study area on the photo and map, events such as natural or synthetic index valleys, high peaks, springs were observed and recorded. Most field operations in the months of April, May, June, July, respectively.
Field Operations: The main work in the field, collecting plant and floristic and physiognomic characteristics of them, Collection was designed so that, in each operation, various topographical areas like deserts, mountains, valleys, Mirage, rivers, fields, gardens and parks was done. Be careful in collecting plants, plant thoroughly as possible, and with different parts (stems, leaves, basal and legs, flowers and fruit) are collected, they are also underground plant organs, it is important to identify, taken in took. With the author's scientific name of the plant, collect, collection date, altitude habitat, life form, the local name of the plant (if possible), use the information economy, with plants growing in registration forms, notes the .
Laboratory Operations Secondary plant specimens, after preparing the herbarium specimens, the herbarium PNU Islamabad Gharb were transferred to, and after fixing them on the herbarium sheets, and numbered and identified, using different sources were used. Habitat information such as height, collect, collect, geographical distribution in the world, and plant life forms are also classified according Rankiah 1 was determined.
Species and weed species known by region
Plant species area, according to Table 1 31 Species of weeds, in the region Several plant family, which has a wide distribution in the region include:
Family, millet, Gramineae with 21 species
Family, wallflower, Brassicaceae with 18 species
Family, Asteraceae, Composite with 16 species
Family, Apiaceae, Apiaceae with 10 species
Family, Euphorbia, Euphorbiaceae with 10 species
The results show that, Poaceae greatest variation among the weeds, and the rest of the family, after millet greater diversity in the region accounted for.
Plant species in the region: the case study area, which is a 136 weed species, the number of 21 species belonging to the Poaceae. In Table 1, the number of spacies, and the number of species per genus noted. Full of spacies, spacies millet species, the largest number of species, it is allocated.
Growing regions (cerotype): 51 0/0 percent of the known species in the area West of Islamabad, the area belongs to Iran - Turanian. (Following table shows the study area is part of the Iran and Turan. Table 3-1 and Figure 3-1, the number and amount of vegetative waste area, (IT -Iran - Turanian, Es Europe - Siberia, Ss Shara Sendi)
IT - ES - SS IT - SS IT- ES IT Vegetative area 3 10 46 69 Count 2 7 33 51 Percent
Spacies ecological features of the region: the spacies variety, in the form Therophytes detected, with 61 ./. Plants constitute the dominant life form. Then the Hemicryptophytes, helophytes, geophytes Phanerophytes Chamephytes, hydrophyte life forms constitute the next. (Table 3-2)
Plant life forms, one of the most important structural features of plant Formation is that the aid can be much difference in growth Floristic diversity by grouping them in terms of distinct groups reduced. The most comprehensive classification system of botany, by Raunkiaer was performed. In the context of the permanent location of the system under different climatic conditions, plants were classified as major criteria. Hemicryptophytes life form, of temperate regions, Therophytes index arid areas and mountainous areas is Chamaephytes index.
Received 25 September 2014
Received in revised form 26 October 2014
Accepted 25 November 2014
Available online 31 December 2014
This article is part of project grant title: (Introduction and spread of weed flora in Islamabad Gharb region, and its role in preventing crop production) the cost is paid by payame noor university Islamic republic or Iran.
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Farahnaz Nooraei and Masoomeh Rostami
Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, IRAN
Corresponding Author: Farahnaz Nooraei, Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Iran, Tehran, Iran. E-mail: FarahnazNoraii@yahoo.com
Table 3: Number and percentage -2 weed biotypes Islamabad Gharb. Percent of area Number of area Life form 61 82 Therophytes 22 31 Hemicryptophytes 6 8 Helophytes 4 5 Geophytes 2 3 Phanerophytes 1.5 2 Chamaephytes 0.5 1 Hydrophyte
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|Author:||Nooraei, Farahnaz; Rostami, Masoomeh|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Dec 15, 2014|
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