Interrelations of gender schemas in children and adolescents: attitudes, preferences, and self-perceptions.
Support for these propositions is strongest in two areas. First, several studies in which multiple components of gender schemas were assessed show at least two factors, or a pattern of interrelations suggesting the presence of more than one distinct aspect of gender schemas (e.g., Biernat, 1991a, b; Katz & Boswell, 1986; Katz & Ksansnak, 1994; Katz & Walsh, 1991; Liben & Bigler, 2002; Signorella, 1999; Spence & Hall, 1996). Second, many aspects of gender schemas show a developmental pattern from early to late childhood of increasing flexibility, especially in the areas of attitudes for both boys and girls and activity preferences for girls (Ruble, Martin, & Berenbaum, 2006).
The existence and nature of developmental trends in gender schemas in adolescence is much less clear than in childhood. Various models make contradictory predictions on developmental trends in adolescence, most notably with gender intensification predicting increasing stereotyping and traditional responses, cognitive level approaches predicting decreasing stereotyping, and context approaches emphasizing variability due to environmental factors (for summaries, see Alfieri, Ruble, & Higgins, 1996; Bartini, 2006). Data on adolescent developmental patterns are not consistent, especially in the area of activity preferences (Ruble et al., 2006). The lack of consistency in adolescents is difficult to interpret, however, because there are relatively few studies with adolescents and even fewer that employ multiple measures of gender schemas.
Addressing the questions of developmental patterns in these age groups has both theoretical implications for gender schema theories, as well as practical implications, such as for planning interventions to change gender schemas (e.g., Liben & Bigler, 2002). Gender schemas' effects include attention toward, memories for, and interpretation of gender-related information (Martin et al., 2002). Such schemas also may regulate behavior by providing the child with ideas about appropriate behavior for each gender. Specific outcomes could include the adoption of traditional or sexist attitudes toward gender roles, describing oneself using personality traits traditionally associated with one's own gender (most commonly, expressive traits for females and instrumental traits for males), expressing preferences for activities traditionally associated with one's gender, and aspiring to traditional occupations or family roles (e.g., Bigler, 1997).
Therefore, in the present research, the developmental trends and interrelations of multiple aspects of gender schemas were compared in children (second to fifth graders) and adolescents (sixth to twelfth graders). Specific measures chosen were drawn from the typology of gender constructs and content in Ruble et al. (2006, Table 14.1, p. 859). Three of the four constructs (beliefs, self-perceptions, and preferences) were used. Only behavioral enactments were not assessed, because of practical limitations with this sample. Four of the six content areas (activities and interests, personal-social attributes, gender-typed social relationships, and gender-related values) were used. Biological/categorical sex was not used because the extant measures focus on infants and preschoolers, and styles and symbols were not used because of few available comparisons in other research. In summary, the constructs and content areas were chosen to provide a reasonable range of both, to allow comparisons to previous research, and because of appropriateness to the ages tested.
Developmental trends and the interrelations of the measures in the two age groups were compared to see if there were differences in the patterns obtained. The predictions derived from Spence's (e.g., 1993) theory and from Martin et al.'s (2002) and Ruble et al.'s (2006) reviews are that the children will show more consistent developmental trends, and less diversification in the components of gender schemas than will the adolescents. Within the adolescent group, in addition to the above hypothesis that adolescents will show less consistency in developmental changes and in the interrelations of the measures, we additionally predicted that if any patterns emerged, they would most likely be in the form of "gender intensification," specifically, decreases in flexibility or increases in traditional responses (Ruble et al., 2006).
The participants were 85 elementary school girls from second (n = 31), third (n = 21), fourth (n = 17), and fifth (n = 16) grades, and 142 adolescent girls from sixth (n = 18), seventh (n = 24), eighth (n = 19), ninth (n = 26), tenth (n = 19), eleventh (n = 20), and twelfth (n = 16) grades.
All participants were recruited from the two campuses of an independent school in the United States, and were part of a larger study on the school's transition from all-female to mixed-sex classes (see Signorella, Frieze, & Hershey, 1996). All participants were volunteers who had first received parental permission to be in the study. The school reported that overall 19% were students of color, but did not permit us to collect such information from the participants. Due to small numbers, boys' data will not be reported.
The measures given to children and adolescents were similar but not identical, in that the younger participants received simplified or shortened versions of the measures given to the adolescents. Most of the measures were taken from the short forms of the Children's Occupations, Activities, and Traits Measure (COAT; Liben & Bigler, 2002) or the Occupations, Activities, and Traits Measure (OAT; Liben & Bigler, 2002). Means, standard deviations, and possible ranges for all measures are shown in Table 1.
Trait self-perceptions To assess Ruble et al.'s (2006) gender typing category of self-perceptions of personal-social attributes, self-descriptions on traits stereotyped as masculine (M) or feminine (F) were assessed with a subset of the Trait Personal Measure from either the COAT or the OAT (Liben & Bigler, 2002). Only those F items that were expressive traits or M items that were instrumental traits were used to better correspond to previous gender schema research (e.g., Spence & Hall, 1996).
For both age groups, scores were averaged, with higher scores indicating greater endorsement of the traits. Among children, internal consistency reliabilities (coefficient a) for the instrumental and expressive trait scales were .53 and .72, respectively. Although these alphas are low, they are similar to those in other studies with children (Spence & Hall, 1996). Among adolescents, internal consistency reliabilities (coefficient a) for the instrumental and expressive trait scales were .65 and .69, respectively.
Activity participation To tap Ruble et al.'s (2006) category of preferences for activities and interests, self-reports of participation in activities stereotyped as M or F were assessed with the Activity Personal Measure (short form) from either the COAT-PM or the OAT-PM (Liben & Bigler, 2002). The children's measure consisted of 10 M, 10 F, and 5 neutral (N) items. Scores were averaged separately for the M and F items, with higher scores indicating greater reports of participation. We obtained internal consistency reliabilities (coefficient a) of .76 and .85 for the M and F scales, respectively.
The adolescents' measure consisted of 13 M, 12 F, and 10 N items. Scores were averaged separately for the M and F items, with higher scores indicating greater reports of participation. We obtained internal consistency reliabilities (coefficient a) for the M and F scales of .79 and .69, respectively.
Adult occupational and family roles. To assess Ruble et al.'s (2006) category of preferences for gender-related social relations and role models, both children and adolescents were asked a series of questions about what they planned to do in their lives as adults. For occupational roles, they were first asked, "When you are an adult, would you like to have a paid job?" In both age groups, 95% answered "yes," and thus this question was not analyzed further. The next question asked what job they would like to have if they had a paid job. Two undergraduate students (interrater kappa = .87, p < .001) coded the specific job according to whether it had been judged traditionally masculine (2), neutral (1), or feminine (0) in prior research (e.g., Liben & Bigler, 2002).
For family roles, both age groups were asked if they thought they would get married and if they thought they would have children. Possible answers were yes (coded 0), maybe (coded 0.5), or no (coded 1). The two measures were averaged, with scores that range from 0 (yes to both questions) to 1 (no to both questions). Thus, higher scores indicate no answers to marriage and family.
Activity and gender-role attitudes To assess Ruble et al.'s (2006) category of beliefs about gender related values, two different types of measures were used. First, willingness to associate stereotyped activities with both sexes was assessed by the Activity Attitudes Measure from either the COAT-AM or the OAT-AM (Liben & Bigler, 2002). The children's measure consisted of 10 M, 10 F, and 5 N activities for which respondents were asked to indicate who should do each of the activities (boys, girls, or both boys and girls). We obtained internal consistency reliabilities (Kuder-Richardson 20) of .88 and .85, for the M and F scales, respectively. N items were not used. Because of the high correlation between M and F items in the present study, also obtained by Liben and Bigler (2002), the two scales were combined. The score was expressed as the percentage of times the "both boys and girls" response was given to the stereotyped (M or F) items, and thus higher scores indicate less stereotyped responses (i.e., a greater willingness to see stereotyped activities as appropriate for both sexes).
The adolescents' measure consisted of 10 M, 10 F, and 5 N activities for which respondents were asked to indicate who should do each of the activities (only men; mostly men, a few women; both men and women; mostly women, some men; only women). We obtained internal consistency reliabilities (Kuder-Richardson 20) of .88 and .85 for the M and F scales, respectively. N items were not used. As with the children, the high correlation between the M and F scales led to combining the two. The score was expressed as the percentage of times the "both boys and girls" response was given to the stereotyped (M or F) items and thus, higher scores indicate less stereotyping.
The second measure was a traditional measure of attitudes towards gender roles (Galambos, Petersen, Richards, & Gitelson, 1985). The AWSA has 12 items. Respondents were asked if they strongly agreed, agreed, disagreed, or strongly disagreed with each item. Scores were the average rating across items, with higher scores indicating more liberal attitudes toward gender roles. We obtained an internal consistency reliability (coefficient a) of .71, consistent with previous research.
For the children, the AWSA had to be adapted, with some of the items altered or eliminated. Specifically, items 1, 5, 8, 10, and 12 from the original scale were kept and two new items added ("It would be a good idea to have a woman as President of the United States" [Villemez & Touhey, 1977] and "People should treat boys and girls equally"). We will refer to the adapted scale as the Attitudes Toward Women Scale for Children (AWSC). Respondents were asked to agree or disagree with each item. Scores were averaged across items, with higher scores indicating more liberal attitudes toward gender roles. Internal consistency reliability (Kuder Richardson 20) in the present sample was .78.
Girls in mixed-sex classes had lower AWSC scores than did girls in single-sex classes. Because classroom type did not affect or interact with any other measure (see also Signorella et al., 1996), it appears that this difference is due to factors other than classroom sex composition.
University Review Board approval was obtained, and then, as noted earlier, parental permission was obtained prior to requesting student volunteers. Questionnaires were administered in school by the teachers at the beginning of the school year. Teachers debriefed students at the end of the study.
Table 1 displays the means and standard deviations by grade for all measures, grouped by age group (children, adolescents). To test for age changes, a MANOVA was done for each age group with grade as the independent variable and the eight measures as the dependent variables. Only those children (n = 70) and adolescents (n = 115) with complete data on all measures were included in these analyses. Using the Wilks criteria, the multivariate effect for grade was significant for both children, F(24, 172) = 2.49, p < .001, and adolescents, F(48, 501) = 1.85, p = .001.
For children, univariate F tests showed significant grade effects among children on instrumental traits (F(3,66) = 6.0, p = .001), AWSC (F(3,66) = 5.2, p = .003), percentage of activities assigned to both sexes (F(3,66) = 3.9, p = .013), and ideal job choice (F(3,66) = 3.7, p = .015). Three of the four significant effects in children (AWSC, "both" responses, and ideal job) revealed similar patterns, in that older children had less stereotyped scores than did younger children. Specifically, fourth and fifth graders had significantly higher AWSC scores than did second and third graders; fifth graders had a significantly higher percentage of "both" responses than did second, third, and fourth graders; and fifth graders had significantly more masculine ideal job choices than did second graders. The instrumental trait effect, by contrast, occurred not because of a consistent change across grades but because second and fourth graders had significantly lower scores than did third or fifth graders.
For adolescents, there were significant univariate grade effects on two measures, expressive traits (F(6, 108) = 3.7, p = .002) and ideal job (F(6, 108) = 2.2, p = .049). Younger adolescents had less traditional self-descriptions than did most of the older adolescents on the expressive trait measure. Specifically, eighth, ninth, tenth, and twelfth graders had significantly higher expressive trait scores than did seventh graders. On the ideal job choice, sixth graders had significantly less traditional (more F) scores than did eleventh graders.
The next analyses explored the interrelations of the variables and possible age differences in those interrelations. Table 2 presents the intercorrelations of the measures for each age group, and Table 3 summarizes the results of the principal components analyses.
As shown in Table 2, the highest correlations were between the AWSA or AWSC and the percentage of "both" responses to the question of which sex should perform an activity. Also substantial, but in children only, were the associations between higher grade and less stereotyped responses to the AWSC, whether both sexes should perform an activity, and ideal job. In both age groups, those high in instrumental traits also rated themselves high in M activity participation. Instrumental trait scores were associated with more masculine job choices in children but not adolescents. Expressive trait scores were significantly associated with F activity participation in both age groups and with more traditional family role preferences in adolescents.
Separate analyses were then done for both age groups using principal components with varimax rotation (see Table 3). The children's results showed three factors accounting for 57% of the variance, compared to four factors accounting for 63% of the variance in adolescents. There are both similarities and differences in the obtained patterns. The similarities are, first, that both age groups have a factor with positive loadings for expressive traits and F activities and negative loadings for family roles, indicating an association among higher self reports of expressive traits, higher reported participation in F activities, and anticipation of marriage and children. Second, both age groups have a factor with positive loadings on instrumental traits and M activities, indicating an association of higher self reports of instrumental traits with higher reported participation in M activities.
The differences occur on the attitude and occupation measures. For children, the first factor included positive loadings for AWSC, percentage of "both" responses, ideal job, and grade, and a negative loading for F activities, indicating an association of less stereotyped or traditional responses with increasing grade level. Note further that this factor includes both measures of attitudes towards others ("both" responses, AWSC) and self related measures (ideal job, F activities). For adolescents, by contrast, the first factor included only AWSA and "both" responses, indicating an association only between liberal scores on the AWSA and a higher percentage of activities assigned to both sexes. The adolescents also had a factor that included a positive loading on grade and a negative loading on ideal job, indicating fewer masculine job choices with increasing grade level.
The interrelations of girls' gender related attitudes, self-perceptions, activity participation, and projected adult occupational and family roles were examined within and between two age levels. The purpose was to test several developmental aspects of gender schema theories. The present data are consistent with Spence's (e.g., 1993) gender identity theory, support the consolidation phase hypothesized by Martin et al. (2002), and provide some limited support for gender intensification hypotheses.
First, the obtained factor structure is consistent with Spence's theory. Although Spence (e.g., 1993) in her multifactorial approach did not specify the numbers of factors, but rather emphasized that there was not one overarching gender schema, other theory (e.g., Martin & Halverson, 1981) and research (e.g., Katz & Walsh, 1991; Liben & Bigler, 2002) suggest three factors as the most likely minimum structure. In the present results, children's responses formed three factors and adolescents' four.
Second, the patterns of intercorrelations and the obtained factors showed that children had factors in which more diverse measures loaded together. Specifically, the first factor for the children included both self schemas (F activities and ideal job) and gender role attitudes (AWSC and "both" responses). By contrast, the adolescents had factors in which there were typically only two topically similar measures with high loadings (e.g., the first factor with AWSA and "both" responses, the two measures of gender role attitudes). These patterns support Spence and Hall's (1996) suggestion that children's tendencies toward greater rigidity in gender stereotyping might result in greater coherence among gender schemas of varying types than would be found in adolescents or adults. Similarly, Martin et al. (2002) hypothesized a consolidation phase in early childhood in which more stereotyped and rigid gender schemas would dominate, followed by increasing flexibility through childhood. Not only do the children's factors show a stereotypical theme across diverse measures, but on those measures with significant age differences, younger girls gave more stereotyped responses than did older girls on three out of four measures.
Third, the results from adolescents could be viewed as providing some support for gender intensification hypotheses (e.g., see Ruble et al., 2006). Although only two measures showed significant age trends among adolescents, both were in the direction of more stereotypic responses with age. Some of the older adolescents had higher expressive trait scores and more traditional job choices than did some of the younger adolescents. Ruble et al. (2006) concluded that girls may be less likely than boys to show the gender intensification pattern and thus the all-female nature of the present sample may be one reason why only two measures showed increased traditionality with age.
The patterns in children and adolescents, however, suggest that there may be a different basis for nontraditional responses in the two age groups. The tendency for children to give less stereotyped responses with age is consistent with research demonstrating underlying cognitive factors that facilitate the development of flexible gender schemas in children (Bigler & Liben, 1992). The adolescents, on the other hand, had few significant age trends in response to the measures. Although older adolescent girls were less interested in traditionally masculine jobs than were younger adolescent girls, these job choices were largely independent of the other gender schema measures. The increases in traditional job choices observed among adolescents in the present data may reflect such factors as girls' increasing awareness as they near high school graduation of the strong segregation of jobs by gender in our society (e.g., Frieze & Olson, 1994) and possible conflicts between work and family roles (e.g., Eccles, 1994).
The lack of consistent developmental patterns in adolescence may, therefore, provide some support for the social environmental or contextual models (Alfieri et al., 1996; Crouter, Whiteman, McHale, & Osgood, 2007) of gender development. Crouter et al. (2007) reported longitudinal data on gender role attitudes showing that overall there were changes from ages 7-19 suggesting gender intensification in adolescence. Specifically, there was a decline in traditional responses through early adolescence, stability in midadolescence, then an increase in traditional responses in later adolescence. When the patterns were examined as a function of gender and family context variables, differences emerged. Most relevant to the present study was the comparison of boys' and girls' patterns as a function of the traditionality of their parents. The independent school our participants attended espoused nontraditional values and thus the parents may have shared those values. Crouter et al. (2007) found that the pattern for girls with nontraditional parents did not show high levels of gender intensification in adolescence, but rather was similar to what we observed overall in our data, with decreasing traditionality from childhood to early adolescence, then very little change through adolescence.
Two limitations of the present research are noted. First, as there were insufficient numbers of boys in the sample to analyze, it remains for future researchers to determine if the same age patterns exist in boys. Previous research in which similar or the same measures were used, however, has not shown gender differences in the patterns of interrelations (e.g., Liben & Bigler, 2002; Spence & Hall, 1996), but has shown that boys tend to have more traditional responses than girls overall and may be more likely to exhibit gender intensification in adolescence than are girls (e.g., Galambos, Almeida, & Petersen, 1990).
Second, these data are subject to the limitations of any cross-sectional research. The available longitudinal data show the same age-related changes in boys and girls from childhood through early adolescence as do the present cross-sectional data; namely, increasing stereotype flexibility with age during childhood (Bartini, 2006; Liben & Bigler, 2002; Signorella et al., 1993; Signorella et al., 1996). Adolescent longitudinal comparisons are less informative, as there are less consistent patterns, but there is some tendency for girls and younger adolescents to be more likely to show longitudinal increases in nontraditional responses than are boys and older adolescents (e.g., Crouter et al., 2007; Galambos et al., 1990). Finally, historical data (e.g., Twenge, 1997) show more liberal attitudes towards gender roles over time, which further suggests that neither the children's consistent nor the adolescents' inconsistent patterns are attributable to historical changes.
The popular culture continues to embrace the image of children as either typical or not typical of their gender. Yet even with elementary school aged children, and more markedly in adolescence, the evidence is accumulating that being gender typical or atypical in one area is not highly predictive of behavior in another. Bigler (1999) argued for the application of the multifactorial approach to gender schemas to the design of intervention programs, and the same case should be made in the area of child rearing. Further, as Alfieri et al. (1996) proposed, the potentially greater impact of the social context during adolescence than childhood provides different opportunities for intervention in this age group. These types of questions point to potential practical applications of the cognitive-based gender schema approaches.
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MARGARET L. SIGNORELLA
Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA
IRENE HANSON FRIEZE
University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Margaret L. Signorella, Greater Allegheny Campus, Pennsylvania State University, PA, USA; Irene Hanson Frieze, Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Portions of this research were presented at the meetings of the Society for Research in Child Development, Washington DC, April 1997, and of the Society for Research in Adolescence, Chicago, March 2000.
The authors thank the principal, teachers (especially Susanne W. Hershey), and students at Winchester Thurston School for their cooperation, and Brian J. Belkowski, Christine Speer Clickner, Michelle Knight, and Jenifer Pribanic for their assistance with this research.
Appreciation is due to anonymous reviewers.
Please address correspondence and reprint requests to: Margaret L. Signorella, Penn State Greater Allegheny, 4000 University Drive, McKeesport, PA 15132-7698, USA. Phone: +1412 6759451; Fax: +1412 6759166; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
TABLE 1 Means and Standard Deviations on all Measures by Grade for Children and Adolescents Children's Measures Grade TRAIT I TRAIT E ACT M ACT F Possible 1-3 1-3 1-3 1-3 Range 2nd 2.1 2.4 1.6 1.8 n = 25 (0.3) (0.4) (0.3) (0.5) 3rd 2.4 2.5 1.6 2.0 n = 18 (0.4) (0.3) (0.4) (0.4) 4th 2.0 2.4 1.5 1.8 n = 14 (0.3) (0.4) (0.4) (0.3) 5th 2.4 2.6 1.7 1.7 n = 13 (0.2) (0.3) (0.4) (0.3) Adolescents' Measures Grade TRAIT I TRAIT E ACT M ACT F Possible 1-4 1-4 1-5 1-5 Range 6th 2.7 2.7 2.1 2.7 n = 11 (0.7) (0.4) (0.6) (0.6) 7th 2.9 2.7 2.1 2.7 n = 19 (0.5) (0.5) (0.5) (0.6) 8th 2.7 3.2 2.0 2.6 n = 17 (0.6) (0.4) (0.7) (0.5) 9th 3.0 3.1 1.9 2.9 n = 23 (0.5) (0.4) (0.5) (0.5) 10th 3.0 3.2 1.8 2.9 n = 15 (0.5) (0.5) (0.3) (0.5) 11th 3.0 2.8 1.8 2.6 n = 17 (0.4) (0.8) (0.5) (0.5) 12th 3.3 3.1 1.9 2.9 n = 13 (0.5) (0.5) (0.4) (0.5) Children's Measures IDEAL Grade AWSC BOTH JOB FAMILY Possible 0-1 0-100 0-2 0-1 Range 2nd 0.75 51.3 0.9 0.13 n = 25 (0.2) (23.9) (0.9) (0.29) 3rd 0.86 53.0 1.1 0.17 n = 18 (0.2) (26.3) (1.0) (0.33) 4th 0.94 62.8 1.4 0.09 n = 14 (0.1) (32.9) (0.8) (0.20) 5th 0.98 80.9 1.7 0.03 n = 13 (0.1) (22.2) (0.6) (0.13) Adolescents' Measures IDEAL Grade AWSA BOTH JOB FAMILY Possible 1-4 0-100 0-2 0-1 Range 6th 3.5 73.3 1.9 0.11 n = 11 (0.4) (28.7) (0.3) (0.21) 7th 3.5 63.7 1.4 0.06 n = 19 (0.2) (24.6) (0.8) (0.22) 8th 3.5 65.7 1.8 0.08 n = 17 (0.3) (23.1) (0.4) (0.17) 9th 3.5 77.0 1.5 0.13 n = 23 (0.4) (26.5) (0.7) (0.30) 10th 3.6 72.5 1.8 0.16 n = 15 (0.2) (24.5) (0.6) (0.34) 11th 3.5 79.7 1.2 0.2 n = 17 (0.3) (22.3) (0.9) (0.34) 12th 3.7 81.2 1.4 0.06 n = 13 (0.2) (19.9) (0.9) (0.17) Note. Standard deviations are in parentheses. The following abbreviations were used: I = instrumental, E = expressive, M = masculine, F = feminine, ACT = activity. Higher scores on the AWSC/AWSA and BOTH measures indicate less stereotyped responding. Higher scores on the family roles measure indicate "no" answers to the questions about marriage and children; lower scores indicate "yes" answers. Higher scores on the ideal job measure indicate the choice of stereotypically masculine occupations; lower scores indicate the choice of stereotypically feminine occupations. TABLE 2 Intercorrelations Among all Measures by Age Group (Children, Adolescents) Measure 1 2 3 1. TRAIT I -- .15 .24 ** 2. TRAIT E .07 -- -.12 3. ACT M .27 * -.14 -- 4. ACT F .00 .29 ** .13 5. AWSC/A .00 -.15 .07 6. BOTH .08 -.07 .21 7. IDEAL JOB .24 * -.10 .18 8. FAMILY .00 -.19 -.07 9. GRADE .13 .13 .06 Measure 4 5 6 1. TRAIT I .15 .22 ** .16 2. TRAIT E .27 ** .02 .05 3. ACT M .09 .12 .12 4. ACT F -- .09 .03 5. AWSC/A -.26 * -- .48 ** 6. BOTH -.26 * .48 ** -- 7. IDEAL JOB -.20 .37 ** .26 * 8. FAMILY -.21 .03 -.05 9. GRADE -.17 .46 ** .37 ** Measure 7 8 9 1. TRAIT I .08 .01 .27 ** 2. TRAIT E .06 -.17 * .21 * 3. ACT M .13 .01 -.19 * 4. ACT F .14 -.17 * .10 5. AWSC/A .08 .07 .15 6. BOTH .12 .05 .17 * 7. IDEAL JOB -- -.05 -.19 * 8. FAMILY -.03 -- .07 9. GRADE .33 ** -.15 -- Note. Correlations, means, and standard deviations for adolescents are above the diagonal; children are below the diagonal. The following abbreviations were used: I = instrumental, E = expressive, M = masculine, F = feminine, ACT = activity. Children were given the AWSC, adolescents the AWSA. Higher scores on the AWSC/AWSA and BOTH measures indicate less stereotyped responding. Higher scores on the family roles measure indicate "no" answers to the questions about future marriage and children; lower scores indicate "yes" answers. Higher scores on the ideal job measure indicate the choice of stereotypically masculine occupations; lower scores indicate the choice of stereotypically feminine occupations. The modal ns for each age level (with ranges in parentheses) were as follows: children = 84 (71-85); adolescents = 136 (120-140). Significance levels are two tailed. * p < .05; ** p < .01 TABLE 3 Principal Components Analyses of all Measures and Grade by Age Group Factors Children Measure 1 2 3 TRAIT I .09 .07 .72 TRAIT E -.04 .77 -.14 ACT M .06 -.04 .82 ACT F -.45 .58 .21 AWSC/A .79 -.13 -.03 BOTH .71 -.06 .14 IDEAL JOB .58 -.08 .36 FAMILY -.11 -.66 -.07 GRADE .76 .29 .01 Eigenvalue 2.4 1.5 1.2 Variance 26.7 16.7 13.9 Factors Adolescents Measure 1 2 3 4 TRAIT I .18 .18 .33 .73 TRAIT E .06 .72 .26 -.06 ACT M .04 -.12 -.35 .79 ACT F .03 .67 -.02 .27 AWSC/A .82 -.02 .05 .13 BOTH .86 -.01 .00 .03 IDEAL JOB .27 .28 -.61 .10 FAMILY .12 -.60 .24 .14 GRADE .23 .17 .80 .04 Eigenvalue 1.9 1.4 1.4 1.0 Variance 21.1 16.1 15.2 11.1 Note. Tabled values for measures are factor loadings. The following abbreviations were used: I = instrumental, E = expressive, M = masculine, F = feminine, ACT = activity. Children were given the AWSC, adolescents the AWSA. Higher scores on the AWSC/AWSA and BOTH measures indicate less stereotyped responding. Higher scores on the family roles measure indicate "no" answers to the questions about future marriage and children; lower scores indicate "yes" answers. Higher scores on the ideal job measure indicate the choice of stereotypically masculine occupations; lower scores indicate the choice of stereotypically feminine occupations. Variance indicates the percent accounted for by the factor.
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|Author:||Signorella, Margaret L.; Frieze, Irene Hanson|
|Publication:||Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal|
|Date:||Aug 1, 2008|
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