Interplay between text and text collection: the case of Augustijnken's Dryvoldicheit.
Introduction: Augustijnken and (intended) Audience
There are seven texts attributed to the fourteenth-century itinerant storyteller Augustijnken. (3) They have in common that they are all in Middle Dutch and relatively short, but otherwise there are considerable differences between them. In this corpus we find, for instance, a song, a riddle, and two predominantly religious texts. The first of the religious texts is a rather elaborate exegesis of the prologue of St. John's Gospel. This text amounts to around a thousand lines and is Augustijnken's longest and most learned text.
The second "Dryvoldicheit" is much shorter: 316 lines in the most extensive version. This text consists of two parts. In the first part, the Creation is explained as coming from a tree, which is rooted in God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Everything comes in sevens: there are seven Sacraments, the tree has seven branches and seven flowers, there are seven days, seven planets, seven liberal arts, and so on. The second part of "Dryvoldicheit" combines two lists of seven: seven religious authorities (from pope and cardinal down to monk) and seven secular authorities (from emperor and king down to squire). The two lists are combined seven times: an emperor and a pope are placed at the same level to enlighten Christianity, as are a king and a cardinal, and so on. Both parts of the text contain different sevens, but whereas the first part of "Dryvoldicheit" focuses on the Creation, the second part is devoted to exegesis of the Bible. (4) Both parts of the text are enriched with Bible quotations from different books of Scripture but especially from Genesis, the Apocalypse, and St. John's Gospel.
Little is known about Augustijnken's intended audience. None of his texts explicitly addresses anyone identifiable. All we know is based on archival records. As the name "Augustijnken" does not occur very often, it is assumed that the Augustijnken referred to in the records is the same person as Augustijnken the author. The oldest records in which this name occurs are from the County of Holland. (5) This "archival" Augustijnken initially provided his (literary?) services at the count's court at The Hague in 1358. Soon thereafter, Augustijnken seems to have moved to a place where he stayed for a longer time: the court of Jan of Blois in Schoonhoven (also in Holland). Having inherited most of his grandfather's possessions, Jan was a nobleman of significant standing and, like many others in this circle, he became involved in the Teutonic Order. The members of this order had a hobby in which he participated: Jan spent his winters traveling to Prussia, where, according to the Teutonic Order, people were waiting to be converted to Christianity, often violently.
The participants in these "Prussian Crusades" or "Preussenreisen" (especially popular in the fourteenth century) not only marched and fought but were entertained as well. (6) In 1362 and 1363, we encounter Augustijnken in Jan's retinue, traveling east. In the records, he is called a storyteller, but they also mention that at some point he was involved in a bar fight and as a result was in need of medical and legal assistance. If we assume that this Augustijnken is indeed our author, we know that his primary audience was among the higher ranks: the circles of nobility around Jan of Blois and perhaps wider, the Teutonic Order. The second part of "Dryvoldicheit," which makes secular and religious authorities equally important in their teaching of Christianity, could therefore have been appreciated by this audience. The problem with this line of reasoning, however, is that it is hypothetical; it starts from various assumptions that are not supported (so far) by any factual evidence. Before turning to the matter of interplay between text and text collection and the interpretation of this interplay, I therefore first discuss the four manuscripts in which "Dryvoldicheit" is preserved.
"Dryvoldicheit": Real Audiences
"Dryvoldicheit" is, with some variance, preserved in four manuscripts: Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale Albert 1er, 15.642-651; Berlin, Staatbibliotheek zu Berlin--Preussischer Kulturbesitz (SPK), ms. germ. fol. 1027; New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, M. 385; and Nijmegen, Gemeentearchief, Archief van de Beide Weeshuizen, 953 (see Tables 1 and 2 for detailed information on these manuscripts; I refer to them by their place of preservation). No audience or user is mentioned in the Brussels and New York manuscripts, but hypotheses for these manuscripts have been derived from other information.
The Brussels manuscript was probably made in an urban setting; both the material features and at least one of the ten texts points in that direction. (7) The manuscript contains the only complete Middle Dutch verse translation of Honorius of Autun's Elucidarium. (8) The second text is a mirror of sins that has a clear emphasis on the pitfalls of living in a city. (9) The eight texts (including "Dryvoldicheit") following these two all explain or elaborate on issues raised in the first two texts. They often do so by applying relatively simple, mnemonic, and explanatory imagery. These features make the manuscript fit for educational purposes for an urban audience.
The New York manuscript containing "Dryvoldicheit" is devoted to the Speculum humanae salvationis; Augustijnkens text served as a filler on the last folio, 51v. (10) These texts both explain theological matters in a rather accessible way. The combination of these texts led Geert Warnar to connect this manuscript to the Teutonic Order: the Speculum was a popular text in this order, and both Augustijnkens choice of topic and course of life, as mentioned above, point in that direction. (11) As most of the members of this order were noblemen, a noble ownership of this manuscript seems plausible. However, Bernadette Kramer's recent study of the Speculum makes clear that not all the members of the order were indeed noblemen; Hinrich Westhof, owner of a vernacular Speculum manuscript, was a merchant who became a member of the order but does not seem to have had any rank in the nobility. (12) Thus, although they do not contain any concrete marks of ownership, the Brussels and New York manuscripts containing "Dryvoldicheit" can tell us something about Augustijnkens reception. In one case, the text was received by a probably urban audience; in the other case, a noble audience seems plausible but not certain.
Whereas the Brussels and New York manuscripts do not feature any explicit owner or audience marks, the other two manuscripts do: the Berlin and Nijmegen manuscripts contain colophons with explicit dating and localization. (13) The Berlin manuscript was made by two scribes who finished their work in 1436 and 1437. The manuscript was made for or in the Nazareth Convent in Geldern, in the eastern part of the Low Countries (east of Arnhem). The Nijmegen manuscript is slightly younger: it was made in 1445. Like the Berlin manuscript, the Nijmegen manuscript was initially used and probably made in a convent in the eastern part of the Netherlands, probably in Nijmegen (south of Arnhem) in the convent of Hessenberg or Bethlehem. Similarly, each of these manuscripts was made by two (different) scribes. As both manuscripts contain the same texts in nearly the same order and with only minor textual variation, and given the geographical proximity of the convents, it is very likely that Nijmegen is a copy of Berlin.
The preservation of Augustijnkens "Dryvoldicheit" illustrates the general statement made in the introduction of this article: the intended audience of a text does not "predict" or necessarily match the audience of the manuscripts containing it. Whereas a noble audience for Augustijnkens text seems plausible at the time it was written, we can be sure that at least the Brussels, Berlin, and Nijmegen manuscripts do not contain any indication that they were made for that social class. The presence of a known audience for two of these manuscripts makes them attractive for further analysis of another variable mentioned in my introduction: how are new interpretations of a text created by its inclusion in a text collection?
"Dryvoldicheit": Text, Collection, and Interpretation
The Berlin and Nijmegen manuscripts both contain Augustijnken's "Dryvoldicheit" and share the same collection of texts. One item is present in the Berlin manuscript but omitted in the Nijmegen manuscript: on folios 169r to 171v of Berlin, we encounter a contemporary table of contents. This table of contents was probably very useful for the medieval user, as it lists all the preceding texts in the manuscript with the folio number where the text begins. (19) At the same time, the contents gives the modern researcher a tool to dissect the text collection, as it gives insight into the principles of organization, creating a hierarchy of three levels of inclusion. The highest level is indicated by a rubricated title that stands out because there is some blank space before and/or after it and because the title is written on two or more lines. The second level is indicated by (generally) shorter rubricated titles that do not stand out from the third level apart from their coloring. At the third level, one encounters short titles written in black ink.
Presented on the first level (Level 1 in Table 3)are the longest texts in the text collection, the "Zielen Troist" and "Ander Sielen Troist" ("Consolation of the Soul" and "Second Consolation of the Soul"; henceforward, "Zielentroost" and "Andere Zielentroost"). (20) The text collection opens with the "Zielentroost." The author positions his text in opposition to secular texts about, for example, Perceval, Tristan, Arthur, Alexander, and Apollonius, because "men en vint dar nicht der sele trost" ("one will not find consolation of the soul in there"). (21) Instead, other stories should be read and heard, especially those found in the Scriptures. The most profitable ones are collected in this work, according to the narrator. What follows is a framing story in prose that gathers 239 exempla. These exempla are structured according to the Ten Commandments: ten times a child asks his father to teach him a Commandment. The father does so by citing the Commandment in Latin, translating it into the vernacular, and explaining it by several exempla, the number of which varies from one Commandment to another (see Table 3). This structure is visible in the table of contents, because the Commandments are presented at the second level (rubricated titles) and the titles of the exempla at the third (black titles).
In the table of contents, the Commandments are presented at level 2 as well as another text: "Spigel der Mynschen" ("A Mirror of All Man"). This is the title not only of this text but also of a cluster of nine consecutive texts (I aim to visualize this aspect in Table 3 by giving this title both in the "level 2" and "level 3" columns). (22) Some of these texts also circulated separately, not in single-text manuscripts but as individual texts rather than as sections of a larger text (albeit often incorporated in text collections). The sixth text of this cluster, for example, entitled "Dit Sijn Teyken des Aenstaenden Dodes" ("These Are the Signs of Impending Death"), can be found in a medical manuscript. (23) The compiler of the Berlin manuscript thus creates a cluster of otherwise independent or individual texts, presenting them as if they belonged together and as if they had a fixed relation to the long text they accompany, the "Zielentroost." The nine short texts are embedded in three layers of inclusion parallel to the three levels of hierarchy in the table of contents: 1) they are part of a newly formed cluster, 2) which forms a dyad with the "Zielentroost," (24) 3) which is part of a text collection.
The same process of inclusion occurs in the second half of the text collection. Here the anchor text is the "Andere Zielentroost." This text, too, collects many example stories (92 exempla), but this time the structuring element is not the Ten Commandments but the Seven Sacraments. However, this structuring element is not visible in the table of contents. In addition to the exempla, this text also contains extensive instruction for confession (added to the fourth sacrament) and a "Monastery Mirror" (added to the sixth sacrament).
After this anchor text follows "Hier na Volgen Voel Leren der Heilger Meisteren Bescreven" ("After This Follow Many Lessons from the Holy Masters, Written Down"). (25) Just as in the first part of the manuscript and as can be derived from the table of contents, this is the title both of a text and of the text cluster attached to the "Andere Zielentroost." The text itself collects dicta of several classic and religious authorities, such as Augustine, Seneca, and Gregory. The collective title covers five texts. As before, at least some of these texts also have an independent existence elsewhere. That is shown, for example, by the third text, "Van Drie Doden Konyngen" ("About Three Dead Kings"), which has a widespread tradition. (26) Another of these similarly independently preserved texts is the one central to this contribution, Augustijnken's "Dryvoldicheit." Thus the reader of Berlin encounters this text embedded in three layers of inclusion: part of a cluster entitled Lessons, which forms a dyad with the second Consolation, which is part of a text collection including both Consolations and the attached clusters. In this final part of my contribution, I discuss the consequences of this embedding.
At the first level of inclusion, Augustijnken's text is presented as part of a larger unity entitled "Hier na Volgen Voel Leren der Heilger Meisteren Bescreven," in the text itself abbreviated to "Dit Sijn Hedge Leren" ("These Are the Holy Lessons," fol. 148v). As a result of the positioning of "Dryvoldicheit" in a cluster with this title, the text gains authority, as the reader finds Augustijnken's text not as a separate item but under the same heading and thus part of (or at least closely related to) various dicta from authorities. Likewise, the author (who refers to himself in the text: "Now I, Augustijnken, wish to expound this matter," 11. 107-108) becomes as authoritative as the other masters quoted in the "Dit Sijn Hedge Leren."
At the second level, the text is part of a cluster attached to the "Andere Zielentroost." This dyad foregrounds for example the importance of confession. This effect is achieved by combining the inserted confession instruction in the first text of the dyad, the "Andere Zielentroost," and the six confession poems at the very end of the dyad. The confession poems are six short texts, three of which are to be read before and three after one goes for confession. A second focus in the whole dyad is the importance of sevens. As noted above, the "Andere Zielentroost" is structured by the Seven Sacraments, and comparable with that, the passion treatise "Van der Passien Ons Heren Jhesus Christus" ("About the Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ") is structured around the seven canonical hours. This importance of sevens is also found in "Dryvoldicheit," which, as discussed above, is almost completely organized by lists of seven.
At the third level, "Dryvoldicheit" is part of the text collection as a whole. Surveying that text collection, some general tendencies can be distinguished. First, the text collection has a marked preoccupation with (the proximity of) death. This theme is foregrounded in the first cluster by, for example, the inclusion of the aforementioned "Dit Sijn Teyken des Aenstaenden Dodes," but also by the incipit of "Spigel der Mynschen": "I advise you to turn to [the right thing], and that you learn howto die, because God did not tell us how long we would live." (27) The second cluster achieves the same effect by including the short verse narrative in which three living kings are reminded by three dead kings of how little importance they should attach to material, earthly possessions, as upon death, which is always closer than one assumes, everyone is judged on their spiritual credentials.
A second theme across texts from various parts of the manuscript is giving practical tools for a life in a Christian world; throughout the manuscript, lists of important things are given and often repeated. A reader of this manuscript, for example, will never forget what the Ten Commandments are, as they structure the "First Consolation" and are again the main topic in the short verse narrative in the first cluster entitled "Van der X Gebaden Gaets te Ryme" ("About the Ten Commandments in Rhyme"). Likewise, the twelve degrees of humility from the Rule of Benedict are introduced ("Twellef Sijn Graden der Oitmodicheit"), the six prayers around confession ("Hoe Sich Eyn Bereiden Sal te Ontfangen dat Hedge Sacrament Ende dan van Gude Gebede 1st") and the Sacraments. In that context of practical Christian guidance through the presentation of lists, it is exactly that aspect of Augustijnken's "Dryvoldicheit" that stands out: by addressing the matter of the Trinity, listing secular and religious authorities, and ordering Creation in clear lists of seven, the text correlates constantly with the mnemonic form of much that can be found in the Berlin (and Nijmegen) text collection. (28)
Medieval texts are dynamic, and aspects such as their form, audience, and interpretation vary when a text "travels" from one manuscript to another. An example of that is Augustijnken's "Dryvoldicheit." This Middle Dutch short narrative is preserved in four manuscripts, and whereas it is plausible to assume a noble intended audience for the text, at least 75 percent of the surviving text carriers cannot be connected to that audience. Instead, we encounter "Dryvoldicheit" in manuscripts made for urban (Brussels) and conventual (Berlin, Nijmegen) audiences. In the last part of this essay, I focus on one particular case, namely the preservation of "Dryvoldicheit" in three levels of inclusion in the Berlin text collection: l) the text is included in an authoritative dicta collection as part of a cluster of short texts, 2) which was added to the exempla frame of the "Andere Zielentroost," 3) which was in turn part of a text collection that contains both Zielentroost texts and two clusters of shorter texts. Each of these levels influences the way Augustijnken's text can be read: the text becomes authorial by its placement under the "Dit Sijn Heilge Leren"; by being part of a dyad with the "Andere Zielentroost," the sevens in "Dryvoldicheit" are foregrounded; and within the text collection as a whole, all the mnemonic and instructive lists in the "Dryvoldicheit" come to our attention.
This case of Augustijnken's "Dryvoldicheit" thus illustrates what has been put in a general sense before: what is important about a text--how it is read and interpreted--is not prescribed or determined by how it was once intended by the author but first and foremost by the manuscript context in which a text is copied. In the eloquent words of Stephen G. Nichols: "The bookish text casts itself adrift from a particular historical moment to make its way among other texts, from other periods, to which it contributes new meanings and from whose association it derives new senses." (31)
This article arises from the project "The Dynamics of the Medieval Manuscript: Text Collections from a European Perspective" (available at http:// www.dynamicsofthemedievalmanuscript.eu), which is financially supported by the HERA Joint Research Programme (http://www.heranet.info) and the European Community FP7 (2007-2013). I would like to thank Daniel Ermens, Paul Wackers, Bart Besamusca, and the editors of the Journal of the Early Book Society for their comments on earlier drafts of this piece. Before publication, this paper was read at the Early Book Society conference in St. Andrew s; I thank the participants in that session for their questions and comments.
(1.) The number of studies that could be mentioned here is long, but see, e.g., several essays in the programmatic Stephen G. Nichols and Siegfried Wenzel, eds., The Whole Book. Cultural Perspectives on the Medieval Miscellany (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996).
(2.) This text is often referred to as "De Schepping" ("The Creation"), but "Dryvoldicheit" makes more sense; the author refers to his text with these words, and two of the four manuscripts preserving the text use this title. "De Schepping" as a title probably finds its origins in the fact that the editio princeps refers to the text with these words (which in turn is probably caused by the fact that the title is missing in the manuscript used by the editor, while a modern hand wrote "Schepping van de mens" ("Creation of men") in the blank space. This might be motivated by a quick reading of the opening part of "Dryvoldicheit," which summarizes the Creation.
(3.) Brief information on Augustijnken in English is in Frits Pieter van Oostrom, Court and Culture: Dutch Literature 1350-1450, trans. Arnold J. Pomerans, foreword by James H. Marrow (Berkeley: University of California Press. 1992), 12, 83, 85, 109-110, 278, 310, and 341; and Gerard Bouwmeester, "Connecting the Dots: Thoughts on MS Brussels, Royal Library, 15.642-51 " (provisional title), in A. A. M. Besamusca, A. D. Putter, et al., eds., Dynamics of the Medieval Manuscript (Gottingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, forthcoming 2014).
(4.) The Bible exegesis consists of an interpretation of the candleholders and seals from the Apocalypse (Rev. 1:13-15,5:1-8:5).
(5.) Many relevant parts of the records are in W. J. A. Jonckbloet, Geschiedenis der Middelnederlandsche Dichtkunst, 3 vols. (Amsterdam: Kampen, 1854), 3:595-652.
(6.) The Prussian Crusades are extensively discussed in Werner Paravicini, Die Preussenreisen des europaischen Adel, Beihefte der Francia 17 (Sigmaringen, Germany: Thorbecke, 1989).
(7.) See Bouwmeester, "Connecting the Dots."
(8.) The Middle Dutch Lucidarius tradition (including international relations) is studied in Nolanda Klunder, Lucidarius: De Middelnederlandse Lucidarius teksten en Hun Relatie tot de Europese Traditie (Amsterdam: Prometheus, 2005).
(9.) Herman Brinkman, "De Stedelijke Context van het Werk van Jan de Weert," in Herman Pleij, et al., Op Belofte van Profijt, vol. 4 ofNederlandse Literatuur en Cultuur in de Middeleeuwen, ed. F. P. van Oostrom and W. van Anrooij (Amsterdam: Prometheus, 1991), 101-120.
(10.) Bert Cardon, Manuscripts of the Speculum Humanae Salvationis in the Southern Netherlands (c. 1410-C.1470): A Contribution to the Study of the ISth Century Book Illumination and of the Function and Meaning of Historical Symbolism (Leuven, Belgium: Peeters, 1996), 131,408-409.
(11.) Geert Warnar, "Augustijnken in Pruisen: Over de Drijfveren van Een Middelnederlandse Dichter en Literatuur binnen de Duitse Orde," Jaarboek voorMiddeleeuwse Geschiedenis 8 (2005): 101-139.
(12.) Bernadette Kramer, Een Lekenboek in Woord en Beeld: De Spegel der Minschliken Zalicheid (Hilversum, Netherlands: Verloren, 2014), 84-85.
(13.) This was first noted by Jan Deschamps, who for a very long time was the only scholar who paid attention to these manuscripts; see Jan Deschamps, "De Middelnederlandse Handschriften van de Grote en de Kleine 'Der Sielen Troest,'" Handelingen der Koninklijke Zuidnederlandse Maatschappij voor Taalen Letterkunde en Geschiedenis 17 (1963): 111-167. More recently, a description of the Berlin manuscript was part of an attachment in Monika Costard, Spatmittelalterliche Frauenfrommigkeit am Niederrhein: Geschichte, Spiritualitat und Handschriften der Schwesternhauser in Geldern und Sonsbeck (Tubingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2011), 346-353.
(14.) Dini Hogenelst, Sproken en Sprekers: Inleiding op en Repertorium van de Middelnederlandse Sproke, XVI of Nederlandse Literatuur en Cultuur in de Middeleeuwen, ed. F. P. van Oostrom and W. van Anrooij, 2 vols (Amsterdam: Prometheus, 1997). Information on this text comes from 2:22-23 (R11).
(15.) In Ph. Blommaert, Oudvlaemsche Gedichten der XIIe, XIIIe en XIVe Eeuwen: Derde Deel (Ghent, Belgium: L. Hebbelynck, 1851), 120-123.
(16.) This text has not been published.
(17.) This text has not been published.
(18.) This text has not been published.
(19.) "Preceding texts" is used deliberately, because there are three texts in the folia following the table of contents. These texts are not discussed in this article but will be part of the analysis in my forthcoming dissertation.
(20.) The texts are commonly referred to as the "Big Consolation of the Soul" and the "Small Consolation of the Soul" ("Grote Zielentroost" and "Kleine Zielentroost"), but these titles 1) are not used in these manuscripts (see Table 3); and 2) are incorrect and deceiving, as the so-called "Small Consolation" is actually more extensive than the "Big Consolation," as is shown below.
(21.) Margarete Schmitt, Dergrosse Seelentrost: Ein niederdeutsches Erbauungs buck der vierzehnten Jahrhunderts, Niederdeutsche Studien 5 (Cologne, Germany: Bohlau, 1959), 1.
(22.) Costard, Spatmittelalterliche Frauenfrommigkeit, 347-353, gives an extensive overview of the contents, including all the titles, incipits, and excipits of the "subtexts."
(23.) MS Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale Albert 1er, 15.624-41, fol. 8v.
(24.) I use "dyad" in the way Sarah Westphal applies it: "Dyads seem to be the textual equivalent of the couplet rhyme; as words are bound by related sounds, so poems are bound by related themes or meanings." Sarah Westphal, Textual Poetics of German Manuscripts 1300-1500 (Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1993), 12.
(25.) In the text collection, this title is abbreviated to "Dit Sijn Hedge Leren" ("These Are Holy Lessons").
(26.) An excellent introduction to this tradition is Helmut Tervooren and Johannes Spicker, eds., Die Begegnung der drei Lebenden und drei Totem Eine Edition nach der maaslandischen und ripuarischen Textuberlieferung, Texte des spaten Mittelalters und der fruhen Neuzeit 47 (Berlin: E. Schmidt. 2011).
(27.) Costard, Spatmittelalterliche Frauenfrommigkeit, 350: "Ick rade v alien dat ghi dair toe keert, ende ghi alle daghe steruen leert, want got en heft ons nyet te weten gegeuen woe lange wu sullen leuen."
(28.) An issue that is not discussed here but will be a part of my forthcoming doctoral dissertation is how the contents of the exempla in the "Zielentroost" texts illustrate these general trends.
(29.) In the table of contents, the titles of the exempla are given, e.g., first exemplum of First Commandment: "Doe Adam ende Eua" When Adam and Eve"); for convenience in Table 3,1 do not include all those titles here, but only the number of exempla. Note the significant differences in the numbers of exempla between the different Commandments.
(30.) In the table of contents, the exempla are not divided into seven.
(31.) S. Nichols, "Why Material Philology? Some Thoughts," in Philologie als Textwissenschaft: Alte und neue Horizonte, ed. Helmut Tervooren and Horst Wenzel, Zeitschrift fur deutsche Philologie 116 (Berlin: Erich Schmidt, 1997), 10-30, 23.
Table 1. General Information on Manuscripts Preserving "Dryvoldicheit" Manuscript Date Locale Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale 1400-1450 Brabant Albert ler, 15.642-651 Berlin, SPK, ms. 1436-1437 Geldern germ. fol. 1027 New York, Pierpont Morgan ca. 1440 Bruges Library, M. 385 Nijmegen, GA, Archiefvan 1445 Nijmegen de Beide Weeshuizen, 953 Table 2. Length of "Van der Heiliger Dryvoldicheit Vader Soen Hedge Geest Eyn Schoen Gedichte" (14) Length Manuscript (lines) Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale 316 Albert ler, 15.642-651, fols. 99r-102r (15) Berlin, SPK, ms. germ. fol. 262 1027, fols. 153a-154vb (16) New York, Pierpont Morgan 152 Library, M. 385, fols. 51v (17) Nijmegen, GA, Archief van de 259 beide Weeshuizen, 953, fols. 275rb-279vb (18) Table 3. Contents of Berlin According to Table of Contents Level 1: Large Level 2: Small Level 3: Black Ink Initial Initial In Deser Tafelen "Dat Ierste Gebot 26 exempla Salmen te vynden Gades" Mennich Mirakel dat Voir Bescreuen Steet "Dat Ander Gebot 34 exempla yn Desen Boeke dat Onses Heren" Men Heit der Zielen Troist Ende Is al "Dat Derde Gebot" 52 exempla Seer Nut Gelesen Allen Mynschen die Gerne Toe Gade Weren "Dat Vierde Gebot 40 exempla Gades" "Dat Vijfte Gebot" 27 exempla "Dat Seste Gebot" 18 exempla "Dat Sevende Gebot 4 exempla Gades" "Dat Achte Gebot 10 exempla Gades" "Dat Negende Gebot 23 exempla Gades" "Dat Tiende Gebot 5 exempla Gades" "Hier Is Uyt der Sielen Troest" "Spigel der "Spigel der Mynschen" Mynschen" "Twelf Graden der Oit- modicheit" "Ordel dat die Scepen Wysen" "Van Boesheit der Woek- eners" "Van Teyken des Dodes" Van der X Gebaden Gaets te Ryme" "Van Geistliker Mynnen" "Woe Lude Sanckdie Lerer Up" "Nu Sterck Ons Got yn Onser Noit" 92 exempla "Eyn Ander Sielen "Hier na Volgen Voel "Hier na Volgen Voei Troist van den Seuen Leren der Heilger Leren der Heilger Sacramenten" Meisteren Bescreven" Meis- teren Bescreven" "Van der Heilger Drievol- dicheit" "Van Drie Doden Konyngen" "Van der Passien Ons Heren Jhesus Christus" "Hoe Sich Eyn Bereiden Sal te Ontfangen dat Heilge Sacrament Ende dan van Gude Gebede 1st"
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|Title Annotation:||Nota Bene: Brief Notes on Manuscripts and Early Printed Books: Highlighting Little-known or Recently Uncovered Items or Related Issues|
|Publication:||The Journal of the Early Book Society for the Study of Manuscripts and Printing History|
|Article Type:||Critical essay|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2014|
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