Interior trim simplified.
Installing trim is one of the most rewarding home improvement projects you can do. No matter what style you choose, you'll take pride in the finished product ... as long as you get all those joints tight.
Fortunately, installing trim isn't all that difficult. With a few basic carpentry tools and a little bit of patience, you can complete a room in less than a weekend.
In this story, we'll show you the basic steps for installing a wide trim around a door and window, complete with mitered corners. We'll also show you how to put in a built-up baseboard made from a combination of three types of moldings. The key to a good job is two joint techniques: mitering and coping. We'll help you master these techniques for tight and professional-looking joints.
PRO TIPS FOR:
* trimming a door
* casing a window
* installing a three-piece baseboard
TRIM SIMPLIFIED: 1 trim a door
* Use a POWER MITER SAW for clean angle cuts
A power miter saw (Photo 2) vastly simplifies the job because it allows you to make incredibly accurate cuts in a matter of seconds. Even professionals admit they couldn't do the same quality of work without one. If you don't have a power miter saw, you can rent one at most rental stores for about $50 a day.
TIP: If you're renting a miter saw, cut several scrap pieces to get the feel of the tool before cutting your trim.
CAUTION: This saw is powerful and loud. Be sure to keep your hands well away from the blade and wear hearing protection and safety glasses when using it.
* Buy a GOOD-QUALITY BLADE for your miter saw
The more teeth a blade has, the crisper the cut. Choose a blade with a minimum of 40 teeth (about $30). I prefer a blade with 80 teeth (about $70). It leaves a cut that's as smooth as glass, making it well worth the investment.
* You'll also need a COPING SAW
This saw (Photo 18) has a narrow blade and tiny teeth that allow you to cut tight curves; it costs less than $10 and is available at any hardware store.
TIP: Avoid that annoying trip to the hardware store in the middle of your project--pick up a couple of spare blades in case you break one.
The only other tools you'll need are basic carpentry tools: a sharp pencil, a tape measure and a combination square. A wood file also is a must for fine-tuning joints (Photo 20). Use a round file, called a rattail file, for fitting tight curved profiles, and a combination flat/half round for all other trim (Photo 19).
In this project, we predrilled our nail holes. If you have more than one room to trim, consider using an air-powered finish nailer to speed up the process. It rents for about $75 a day. (For details, see "For More Information," p. 91.)
CAUTION:Air nailers are dangerous if used improperly. If you rent one, follow all safety precautions.
Reduce legwork: Set up your saw in the room you're trimming
If sawdust isn't a problem, cut your trim in the room where you plan to install it (Photo 13). Set up the miter saw in the middle of the floor with plenty of room on either side. Cover the floor with a tarp to prevent scuff marks and scratches. Use blocks the same height as the miter saw table to support long lengths of trim.
Start with the casing around the doors and windows. The first few times you install casing, we suggest drawing light lines (called "reveal lines") 3/16 in. from the edge of the jamb to align the casing to the door jamb and windows (Photo 1). With experience, you'll skip this step and simply "eyeball" the reveal when you put up the trim.
Prefinishing saves a ton of time
Once you get your trim home, sand and stain or paint the trim before you install it. To be perfectly honest, this part of the project isn't much fun. But it's a lot easier to finish trim before installation, working on sawhorses, than afterward, lying on the floor with sandpaper and a staining rag. Plus you can do a better job of sanding and finishing the pieces. After you've installed the pieces, be prepared to touch them up a bit. Do all the finish work in a well-ventilated area.
We applied a Salem maple stain to our trim and three coats of low-sheen varnish to protect it.
CAUTION: Dispose of any staining rags carefully to avoid spontaneous combustion: Open up the oil-soaked rags and hang them up until they're completely dry. Then dispose of them in the trash.
The test-piece technique simplifies the toughest part--getting the miters tight
Check the miters at the corners with two 12-in. sections of casing cut at exactly 45 degrees (Photo 3). Even though the corners should be a perfect 90 degrees, often they're not. In addition, if the jamb sticks out or is set back slightly from the wall, a 45-degree miter cut won't fit tight. By holding the test pieces at the corner you can see exactly how your casings will fit. If you see a gap, adjust the saw slightly and cut both pieces at the new angle (Photo 3).
TIP: Make small adjustments. Even one-quarter of a degree makes a big difference.
If the angle of the miter is accurate but a gap still appears along the face, the pieces are probably tipping back against the wall. Cut or file the backside of the miter (back cut). This allows the joint to fit tight on the face of the miter. Don't worry about taking too much off the back; it won't be visible.
Mark and cut the first side casing at the angle you established with your test pieces (Photo 4). Always cut the pieces a little long and check the fit; the power miter saw gives you the ability to cut very slight amounts off with a high degree of accuracy. When the inside angle of the miter lines up with the reveal mark on the top of the jamb, tack the casing in place.
Don't split that perfect miter--predrill nail holes
With maple, oak and other dense wood, predrilling your nail holes in the casing is a must (Photo 5). Even with a softwood like pine, I prefer to predrill to avoid splitting a perfectly fit piece. Use a 1/16-in. bit for 4d nails, 3/32-in. for 6d nails and 1/8-in. for 8d nails.
TIP: Use a nail with the head snipped off as a substitute for a drill bit. The same size nail you're driving works best.
Tack the casing into the jamb first, then to the wall. Wait until you've fit all the casings before you drive the nails in completely in case something doesn't fit right and you have to remove the trim to recut it. We used 4d nails for the jamb and 6d nails for walls. If you're using thicker casing, increase your nail size one increment, using 6d nails in the jamb and 8d nails in the wall. Your nails should penetrate the studs and the jamb at least 3/4 in.
TIP: On wood with a strong grain pattern, place your nails in the dark portion of the grain to make them less noticeable.
With your first corner fit perfectly, set the top casing aside and check the second corner with your test pieces the same way you did the first. Once you have established the angle of the miter, hold your top casing in place and transfer the reveal mark from the side jamb to your top casing (Photo 6). Cut the miter, check your fit and tack in place.
TIP: Match your pieces of wood so the grain pattern and color are similar at the joints.
Then mark and cut the second side casing, leaving an extra 1/32 in. for fitting purposes (Photo 7). Slide the casing into place parallel to your reveal marks and check your fit. If the miter is tight and the length is a little long, trim a hair off the bottom at a 90-degree angle until you get a perfect fit.
This pinning technique will hold the miters tight
When your miters fit perfectly, "pin" the corners (Photos 8 end 9) to help align the two casings and keep the joint tight. Use your finger to press the casings flush with each other. You may have to slip a small shim behind one of the casings to align them. Next predrill the corners for 3d finishing nails, one from the top and one from the side (Photo 8). If your casing is less than 1/2 in. thick, you'll have to predrill the corners before tacking the casing up.
Finally, work around the door, driving the nailheads slightly below the surface with a hammer and a nail set (Photo 10). Nail sets are sold in various sizes; choose one that matches the size of the nailhead you're using. Set the nails deep enough to hold nail putty: A good rule of thumb is half the diameter of the nailhead.
TRIM SIMPLIFIED: 2 case a window
The trick to `picture-frame' window trimming is fitting that fourth piece
There are two basic ways to trim a window. One way is to "picture frame" the window, so that all four corners are mitered to 90 degrees. This method is common on most newer homes, especially with casement windows. The second way is to install a stool and apron. Basically, this is a small ledge (a stool) at the bottom of the window with a piece of casing (an apron) under it. This method is normally found in older homes and is more often used on double-hung windows.
Trim a window using the same techniques as with a door. Mark your reveal lines, use test pieces to check your corners, and transfer the reveal lines to the casings for cutting and nailing. When you "picture frame" a window, however, install the top casing first (Photo 11), then the two sides, and finally, the bottom. Fitting the bottom is the toughest part, because you have to fit both corners at once (Photo 12). But if you use your test pieces and always cut the casing a little long, you shouldn't have any problem. Cutting the piece long allows you to adjust the miters if you have to. Once the miters are tight, gradually trim a small amount off with your miter saw until you have the proper length.
Trim out a window with a stool in the same order as you would a door, but with a few added steps. Install the stool first, then one side, the top and the other side. Install the apron under the stool last. For more stool details, see "For More Information," p. 91.
TRIM SIMPLIFIED: 3 install a baseboard
Installing a three-piece base is well worth the extra effort
Begin by using a stud finder to locate the studs, and mark their location on the wall with a narrow piece of painter's tape (Photo 13). You can pull the tape off without leaving a mark. Rough-cut the baseboard about 2 in. overlong and lay the pieces along the wall. Install the longest section first and work away from the ends until you reach an opening or door. This ensures that the last cut will be a simple 90-degree cut.
In general, measure and cut each piece about 1/16 in. overlong to ensure a tight fit. If you don't have a piece of baseboard long enough to cover the entire wall, splice two pieces with a "scarf joint" (see photo, p. 82). Bow the casing slightly to fit between the walls and press it into place. This ensures a nice, tight fit. But don't force the piece in. Trim a bit off and try the fit again.
Continue around the room butting the inside corners at 90 degrees. When you come to an outside corner, use test pieces to find exact angles (Photo 14).
TIP: If you're adding a base cap, as we are, overcut the miter slightly, leaving the backside slightly open (Photo 16). The front side will be tight and the cap will cover the gap.
Nail the pieces in place using 6d finishing nails. You can also put a small amount of glue at the miters and cross-nail them with 4d finishing nails. But remember to predrill to avoid splitting the ends (Photo 16).
The coping technique simplifies the cap installation
Install the base cap pieces in the same order as the baseboard. However, because base cap has a curved profile, you can't butt the inside corners. Instead, make a "coped joint" by cutting off one piece square and cutting the adjoining piece to match the profile of the molding (Photo 19). Just follow the steps in Photos 17 - 20 and you'll find it's easier than it looks. (Actually, coping is kind of fun once you get the hang of it.) Practice a few times on scrap pieces to get used to it.
Install the base shoe last. Base shoe is usually used on hard-surface floors to conceal any irregularities or gaps between the floor and the baseboard. Even if your baseboards fit perfectly tight to the floor, you can install the shoe to add another dimension to your trim. Install the shoe the same as the cap, mitering outside corners and coping inside corners (Photo 21). Be sure to nail the shoe into the baseboard, not the floor, so it won't pull away from the baseboard when the flooring expands and contracts. Finally, set all your nails and fill them with putty. We couldn't find a putty color to exactly match the stain we chose, so we mixed two shades together (Photo 22).
TIP: With light-colored wood, always mix the color on the light side; darker putty stands out.
For More Information
* "Air Trim Nailers," March '99, p. 76.
* "Workshop Tips Special Section," Sept. '98, pp. 53 and 55.
* "Making Door and Window Casings," Feb. '97, p. 39.
* "Making Window Stools," Dec./Jan. '98, p. 72.
For information on how to order back issues, copies of articles or the Five-Year Index, please see "Reader Services" on p. 120.
If possible, purchase your trim in lengths long enough to cover an entire wall. If you have to splice two pieces on a wall, use a "scarf joint." Cut a 30-degree angle on each piece; if the joint opens slightly, this angle will hide the crack. Select pieces with similar grain color and pattern so the joint is less visible. Always locate a splice over a wall stud.
If the drywall tapers in at the bottom of the wall or stops short of the floor, simply drive a screw at the bottom of the wall and turn it in until the head of the screw is at the same plane as the main wall. The head will prevent the baseboard from tipping in.
1 MARK A REVEAL LINE 3/16 in. from the edge of the jamb with a combination square. Use a sharp pencil and position the marks in the corners and about every foot along the jamb edge.
2 CUT TWO 12-IN. LONG TEST PIECES of casing at opposite 45-degree angles on the power miter box to check the fit of your casing on the door jamb.
3 HOLD THE TEST PIECES on the reveal marks to check the fit of the miter in the corner. If the joint is even slightly open at the top or bottom of the miter, adjust the angle on the miter saw slightly, recut both pieces and check the fit again. Take your time--you may be surprised how tight you can get the joint to fit.
4 CUT THE SIDE CASING about 1/2 in. overlong and hold it in place on the door jamb along your reveal marks. Use a sharp pencil to transfer the top reveal mark from the head jamb to the side casing. Then cut the miter at the angle you established with your test pieces.
5 HOLD THE SIDE CASING in place. Predrill nail holes every 12 to 16 in., using a drill bit about 1/32 in. smaller than the nail size. Stay 1 in. away from the ends to avoid splitting. Drive 4d finishing nails into the jamb and 6d finishing nails into the wall.
6 CUT THE CORRESPONDING ANGLE on the top casing, leaving the opposite side at least 1 in. overlong. Check your miter at the second corner with your test pieces, and adjust if necessary to fit tight. Then mark the opposite corner on the top casing, cut it and tack it up.
7 CUT THE SECOND SIDE casing about 1 in. overlong. Then hold the casing backward and parallel to the door jamb. Make a mark where the edge of the side casing intersects the upper edge of the top casing. Cut the side casing about 1/32 in. overlong. Slide the casing into place. Check your fit, and then trim it to its final length. Once the miter fits, nail the casing in place.
8 ALIGN THE MITERS and predrill a 1/16-in. hole for 3d finish nails, one from the top and one from the side. Hold a piece of cardboard against the wall to prevent marring the wall while drilling.
9 DRIVE THE NAILS into the casing gradually, alternating between the two nails so the miter doesn't slide out of alignment. Use cardboard again between the wall and the hammer to avoid marring the wall.
10 TAP THE NAILS just below the surface with a hammer and a nail set.
11 TRIM a window using the same techniques as we showed for a door. However, cut and tack the top casing first. Then fit the sides and finish with the bottom.
12 FIT ONE MITER on the bottom, then overlap the opposite miter and mark it. Cut the miter 1/8 in. overlong, slide the casing into place and trim it down gradually while checking the fit.
13 ROUGH-CUT ALL THE BASEBOARDS about 2 in. overlong and lay them in place around the perimeter of the floor. Start with the longest wall, cut the first piece to length and nail it into the studs with 6d finishing nails. Remember to predrill your holes. Continue around the room, cutting the inside corners off at 90 degrees and butting them together.
14 MITER TWO 1-FT. TEST PIECES about a foot long and press them tightly against the outside corners to determine the correct angle. Adjust the miter saw to get a tight fit.
15 HOLD THE BASEBOARD in place and mark the backside at the corner. Now cut the piece to length at the predetermined angle for an exact fit.
16 CUT THE SECOND PIECE to length at the same angle. Predrill, glue and nail the outside corner.
17 RUN THE BASE CAP in the same order as the baseboard. To cope the inside corner of the base cap for a tight fit, first cut one end at a 45-degree angle as if you were cutting an inside miter.
18 USE A COPING SAW to cut along the profile left by the miter. Angle your coping saw back slightly (back cut) to get a tighter fit on the face of the profile.
19 CHECK THE FIT against the adjoining base cap in the corner.
20 TRIM WITH A FILE as necessary. After fitting the cope, measure the cap for length, cut the other end and nail it up.
21 INSTALL BASE SHOE the same as the base cap, coping inside corners and mitering outside corners. Where the shoe meets the door casing, cut at a 30-degree angle the portion that sticks out. Predrill and nail the base shoe to the baseboard with 4d finishing nails.
22 SET THE NAILS and fill the holes with colored putty to match the wood stain. We mixed two shades of putty together to get a good color match. Press the putty into the holes with your finger and wipe the excess off with a cloth.
RELATED ARTICLE: How to shop for trim
Stock trim is available in a wide range of styles from most lumberyards and home centers.
We chose a relatively wide (3-1/4 in.) beaded casing to go around our doors and windows. It's 11/16 in. thick and costs $2.40 per ft. We used three components to create the base: a 1/2-in. x 3-1/4 in. "hook strip," a 9/16-in. x 1-3/8 in. base cap, and a 7/16-in. x 3/4-in. base shoe (see "Trim Terms," p. 68). The three together cost $2.70 per ft. Combine other standard trim types to create wider and more detailed shapes.
If you don't find a trim style you like or you're trying to match a molding in an older house, look in the Yellow Pages under "Millwork." Millwork shops can custom-produce almost any type of trim from most species of wood. Custom work, however, comes at a price; be prepared to pay as much as three times the cost of stock moldings, plus setup charges of as much as $200. In addition, you may have to wait four to eight weeks.
Most trim is made of solid wood or medium-density fiberboard with a wood veneer. Oak, pine, birch, maple and poplar are the most common types available. We chose maple for our project.
Sometimes you can find trim made of various types of plastic, most often prefinished in white, brown or simulated wood. This trim is far more stable than wood but cuts much the same, if not easier. What it lacks, however, is the warmth and varied grain pattern you can only find in real wood.
Purchase your trim in lengths long enough to cover each wall. If you can't purchase the trim in long enough lengths, don't worry. On p. 82, we show you how to splice two pieces to cover the length of a long wall.