Interactions between butterflies (Lepidoptera: rhopalocera) and plants (spermatophyta: magnoliophyta) in south central Idaho.
A summary of a photographic catalog of interactions between butterflies and plants observed in Cassia, Gooding, Minidoka, Oneida, and Twin Falls Counties of South Central Idaho is presented. Butterfly-plant interactions were photographed during butterfly counts, surveys, and other field efforts during the years 2003-2007. One hundred and eighty photographic records document 49 species of butterfly utilizing 50 plant species within 21 plant families. Published information on butterfly plant use within Idaho sagebrush steppe habitats is lacking, this survey begins to fill this void in our knowledge.
Key words: Idaho, butterflies, behavior, nectar plants, sagebrush steppe, bioindicators, invasive species
Public interest in butterflies is rapidly growing (Pyle 1984, Fox et al. 2006) and this interest fuels butterfly conservation activities. Butterflies are of conservation interest as bioindicators (Hammond and McCorkle 1984, New 1997), pollinators (Ehrlich 2003), prey for other species (Guppy and Shepard 2001) including Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte), (Gregg 2006), and as charismatic conservation taxa. The foundation of insect conservation includes a basic understanding of species occurrence, distribution, density, and biology.
For the continuation of their respective species, adult Lepidoptera must locate mates, find oviposition sites, and, in females who emerge with immature eggs, obtain and allocate resources to oocyte growth. The quality and availability of nutrient resources during the adult stage correlates with fecundity (Mevi-Schutz and Erhardt 2002), egg weight (O'Brien et al. 2004), and longevity (Boggs 1997) of many holometabolous insects (such as Lepidoptera). As such, the primary effort of most butterfly species is locating nutrient sources and feeding (Pyle 1984). Nutrient sources utilized by butterflies include nectar, dung, carrion, sap, rotting fruit, aphid honeydew and moisture from mud puddles and seeps (Pyle 1984). The very specific food requirements of larval Lepidoptera are not constraining of adult Lepidoptera whom generally have more options for choosing nutrient sources. Nectar, a primary nutrient source for adult Lepidoptera varies by plant species in both its carbohydrate and constituent components; differences in these components affect fecundity (Romeis and Wackers 2002). Therefore, nectar resources available to adult Lepidoptera influence species occurrence, distribution and density.
The Snake River Plain in Southern Idaho was historically dominated by shrub steppe vegetation communities (Kuchler 1964). Much of these plant communities have been cleared since settlement (early 1900's) in order to make room for cities and agriculture, which has fragmented and diminished the sagebrush sea (Welch 2005). In addition to outright losses, much of the present shrub steppe exists in an impoverished condition (West 1999). The native forb diversity is dwindling as shrub and introduced grasses and weedy forbs increase due to changes in disturbance regime associated with anthropogenic causes. This impoverishment has led to a suite of sage-dependent avian species becoming species of conservation concern (Paige and Ritter 1999), including the Greater Sage Grouse.
Recent surveys have documented 85 butterfly species in Cassia, Gooding, Minidoka, Oneida, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho (Austin and Fothergill 2006, RWR 2005, NABA 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006) amounting to approximately 50% of the butterfly species present in Idaho (Austin and Fothergill 2006). Larval food plants for most butterfly species are known and listed in most butterfly field guides (Scott 1986, Pyle 2002, Brock and Kaufman 2003). Local field studies are required to elucidate which plants are important to local butterfly populations in all developmental stages, larval and adult. The object of this research is to document butterfly-plant interactions within these counties.
During 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 butterflies were photographed during butterfly counts, surveys, and other field efforts documenting butterfly-plant interactions, primarily within sagebrush-steppe habitats in the previously mentioned. These photographs are maintained at Conservation Seeding and Restoration, Inc. Butterflies were identified utilizing Brock and Kaufman (2003) and names were standardized to the taxonomy of Miller and Brown (1981), as amended by Ferris (1989), the most recent peer reviewed list of butterfly names. Common names for butterflies are from Cassie et al. (2001). Plants were identified using Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973) from fresh material, pressed specimens, or photographs. Preserved plant specimens are housed at Conservation Seeding and Restoration, Inc. The opportunistic nature of the data means that species associations can be reported. However, the absence of recorded interactions cannot be categorically interpreted as non-associations.
Butterfly and plant interactions were classified as follows:
Nectaring: butterfly has proboscis in or on flower.
Ovipositing: butterfly observed ovipositing and eggs found after butterfly had left.
Larval Food Plant (LFP): caterpillar observed feeding on plant.
Sugaring: butterfly has proboscis in plant fluids associated with wounds, buds about to open, or extrafloral nectaries.
Strongly Associated: butterfly is seen predominately around plant but other class of specific interaction is not observed.
One hundred and eighty photographic records documented 49 species of butterflies (Table 1) utilizing 50 plant species (Table 2). Twenty-one plant families were represented. Of these, 22 plant species (44%) were members of the Asteraceae, four (8%) were from the Cruciferae, three (6%) were from the Boraginaceae, and two each (4%) were members of the Chenopodiaceae, Leguminosae, Polemoniaceae, Polygonaceae, and Rosaceae. The remaining 11 (22 %) Families were represented by a single taxon. Ten of the plant species visited (20%) were introduced to south central Idaho. Plant species with yellow flowers are the most numerous in the list, but the most visited plant species was the purple-flowered Dipsacus sylvestrus Huds.
Butterflies exhibited nectaring behavior toward 46 of the 50 documented plant species. Among the 49 photographically documented butterflies, all species except Polygonia satyrus (Edwards) and Vanessa atalanta (L.) were observed nectaring. Of the species observed: seven species (14%) were Hesperidae, four species (8%) were Papilionidae, nine species (18%) were of the Pieridae, 14 species (29%) were Lycaenidae, and 15 species (31%) were Nymphalidae. The percentages of the total encounters within each family of butterflies do not differ significantly (P>0.05, chi square) from the percentage of species within each family from a list of species known from the study area.
Plant species visited by the greatest number of butterflies were D. sylvestrus (Dipsacaceae) with 14 species associations, Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (Hook.) (Asteraceae) with eight associations, Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pall.) (Asteraceae) with seven, Cirsium arvense (L.) (Asteraceae) and Sisymbrium altissimum L. (Cruciferae) with six associations and Cirsium canovirens (Rydb.) (Asteraceae) with five associations.
Butterflies associated with the greatest number of plants include Coenonympha tulla complex and Icaria icarioides (Bois.) with nine associations, Lycaeides melissa (W.H. Edwards) with eight associations, Hesperiajuba (Scud.) and Vanessa cardui (L) with seven associations, and Hesperia comma (L.) and Pontia beckerii (W.H. Edwards) with six associations. Twenty butterfly species were only found interacting with a single species of plant.
Six plant species were documented as LFP's. Urtica dioica L. was found to be utilized as an LFP by P. satyrus and V. atalanta. Atriplex canescens (Pursch), Arabis divercarpa Nels., Cymopterus terebinthinus (Hook.), Asclepias speciosus Torr., and Cirsium arvense (L.) were all documented as LFP's for single species of butterflies.
These data show adult use of floral nectar resources by all families of butterfly found in the study area and reinforce the importance of a nectar resource to butterflies. Flower color or plant family did not appear be a predictor of use for nectaring. While plants from the Asteraceae represented many of the species with documented nectaring associations, a wide variety of plant families with differing floral structures were also found to be utilized as nectar sources. From these data it appears that some species of butterflies will utilize a wide variety of flowers as nectar sources, while other species may not.
Butterflies utilize introduced plants, but no information on quality and suitability of nectar, frequency of use, or preference can be made because of the opportunistic nature of this methodology. Introduced plants may be the only nectar resource available at certain times in some habitats. Some butterflies have plant needs that are very exacting and can only utilize certain species, while others can utilize a variety of plants including non-native species, even as larval food plants (Thacker 2004). Miller and Hammond (2007) detail special case-histories for eight Pacific Northwest butterflies of conservation concern. In each case-history cascading ecological effects of exotic plant species introductions are mentioned as a conservation issue.
The data presented here are a beginning of an understanding of the myriad interactions between butterflies and plants in south-central Idaho. Only documented butterfly-plant interactions are reported within the tables; many more interactions remain to be documented. Butterflies represent an important ecological component of south-central Idaho's ecosystems as species of conservation interest and as efficient bioindicators. The imperiled and rapidly shifting state of the shrub steppe matrix in south-central Idaho (Knick et al. 2003) presents numerous challenges to the state and federal agencies mandated to manage for the entire flora and fauna associated with these lands.
Future studies are warranted to further increase our understanding of the interactions between Idaho's flora and fauna. Specifically, a more thorough examination of butterfly-plant interactions in the study area coupled with regular monitoring of butterfly occurrence and density are needed to better understand the interactions between land management and the environment. This understanding will be crucial for responsible management that emphasizes native bio-diversity retention while providing benefits to all land users, the American people at large, local butterfly populations and the stability of the sage-steppe ecosystem.
The authors would like to thank the following people for assistance with this project: Peggy Bartels of the Burley B/M Field Office, Steve Bouffard of US Fish and Wildlife Service, Miriam Austin of Red Willow Research, and Steve Paulsen, Joelene Diehl and the staff of Conservation Seeding and Restoration, Inc.
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Kent Fothergill and Dylan Levy-Boyd Conservation Seeding and Restoration, Inc 506 Center Street West * Kimberly, ID 83341
Table 1. Plant-butterfly interactions in South-central Idaho, sorted by butterfly species (generic epithet), 2003-2007 Butterfly Butterfly (scientific (scientific Plant Plant name) name) (nectar) (other) Anthocharis Sara Lithophragma sara Lucas Orangetip parviflora, Phlox longifolia Artogeia Cabbage Cirsium rapae (L.) White arvense, Asclepias speciosus Basilarchia Weidemeyer's Apocynum weidemeyerii Admiral androsaemifolium (W. H. Edwards) Brephidium Western Chrysothamnus Atriplex exilis (Bois.) Pygmy Blue nauseous. canescens Chrysothamnus (LFP, viscidiflorus, association) Cirsium arvense, Salsola kali Celastrina Spring Allium textile ladon (Cramer) Azure Cercyonis Great Basin Dipsacus sthenele (Bois.) Wood-nymph sylvestrus, Medicago sativa, Cirsium canovirens Coenonympha Common Achillea tullia complex Ringlet millefolium, Apocynum androsaemifolium, Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus. Engeron aphanactis, Phalecia heterophylla, Ronppa nasturtiium- aquaticum, Salix exigua, Sisymbrium altissimum, Solidago occidentalis Colias alexandra Queen Balsamorhiza Astragalus (W.H. Edwards) Alexandra's hooker, Cirsium sp. (ova) Sulphur arvense, Cirsium canovirens, Dipsacus sylvestrus Colias Orange Chrysothamnus eurytheme Bois. Sulphur nauseous Colias Clouded Chrysothamnus philodice Godart Sulphur viscidiflorus, Grindelia squarrosa Danaus Monarch Helianthus Asclepias plexippus (L.) annuus speciosus (LFP) Epargyreus Silver- Dipsacus clarus (Cramer) spotted sylvestrus Skipper Epidemia Purplish Achillea helloides Copper millefolium, (Bois.) Apocynum androsaemifolium, Solidago occidentalis. Amsinckia tessellata Euchloe Large Arabis Arabis ausonides (Lucas) Marble divaricarpa, divaricarpa Cryptantha (LFP) celosioides Euchloe hyantis Pearly Sisymbrium (W.H. Edwards) Marble altissimum Glaucopsyche Silvery Arabis lygdamus Blue divaricarpa. (Doubleday) Cryptantha celosioides Harkenclenus Coral Dipsacus titus (F.) Hairstreak sylvestrus Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Hesperia Common Cirsium arvense, comma (L.) Branded Dipsacus Skipper sylvestrus, Grindelia squarrosa, Guterirhizia sarothrae, Helianthus annus. Machearanthera canescens Hesperia Juba Skipper Chrysothamnus juba (Scud.) nauseous, Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Erigeron aphanactis, Guterirhizia sarothrae, Haplopappus acaulis, Polygonum bistortoides, Sisymbrium altissimum Icaria acmon Acmon Blue Erigeron (Westwood and aphanactis Hewiston) Icaria Boisduval's Allium textile, icarioides Blue Balsamorhiza (Bois.) hookeri, Chaenactis douglasii, Crepis accuminata, Engeron aphanactis, Enogonum umbellatum, Phalecia heterophylla, Rorippa nasturtium- aquaticum, Salix exigua Leptotes Marine Blue Medicago sativa marina Allium textile, (Reakirt) Centaurea maculosa, Lycaeides Melissa Blue Chrysothamnus melissa (W.H. viscidiflorus, Edwards) Dipsacus sylvestrus, Grindelia squarrosa, Guterirhizia sarothrae, Medicago sativa, Hackelia patens Lycaena Lustrous Anaphalis cupreus (W.H. Copper margaritacea Edwards) Mitoura Juniper Achillea gryneus (Hubner) Hairstreak millefolium, Apocynum androsaemifolium. Eriogonum umbellatum, Sisymbrium altissimum, Veronica anagallis- aquatica Nymphalis California Dipsacus californica Tortoiseshell sylvestrus (Bois.) Ochlodes Woodland Dipsacus sylvanoides Skipper sylvestrus (Bois.) Papilio Indra Phlox indra Reakirt Swallowtail longifolia Papilio Anise Cymopterus zelicaon Lucas Swallowtail terebinthinus Cymopterus terebinthinus (LFP) Pholisora Common Dipsacus catullus (F.) Sootywing sylvestrus Phyciodes Mylitta Chrysothamnus mylitta (W.H. Crescent nauseous, Edwards) Machearanthera canescens, Solidago occidentalis Phyciodes Field Machearanthera pratensis (Behr) Crescent canescens Polites Sandhill Potentilla sabuleti (Bois.) Skipper fruticosa Polygonia Hoary Comma Phlox hoodii gracilis (Grote and Robinson) Polygonia Satyr Comma Urtica satyrus (W.H. dioica (LFP) Edwards) Pontia beckerii Becker's Chorispora (W. H. Edwards) White tenella, Cirsium arvense, Cryptantha celosioides, Dipsacus sylvestrus, Guterirhizia sarothrae, Sisymbrium altissimum Pontia protodice Checkered Dipsacus (Bois. and White sylvestrus, Leconte) Grindelia squarrosa Pterourus Two-tailed Cirsium multicaudata Swallowtail canovirens (W.F. Kirby) Pterourus Western Tiger Asclepias rutulus Swallowtail speciosus, (Lucas) Cirsium canovirens, Dipsacus sylvestrus Pyrgus communis Common Chorispora (Grote) Checkered tenella, Skipper Helenium autumnale, Taraxacum officinale Satyrium behrii Behr's Centaurea (W. H. Edwards) Hairstreak maculosa, Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus Satyrium California Centaurea Amelanchier californica Hairstreak maculosa, alnifolia (W.H. Edwards) Cirsium (associated) arvense, Eriogonum umbellatum, Senecio integerrimus Speyeria Callippe Cirsium callippe Fritillary canovirens, (Bois.) Senecio integerrimus Speyeria Coronis Apocynum coronis (Behr) Fritillary androsaemifolium, Cirsium undulatum, Dipsacus sylvestrus Speyeria Great Cirsium cybele (F.) Spangled undulatum Fritillary Strymon Gray Cleome serrulata, Dipsacus melinus Hairstreak Geranium sylvestrus (Hubner) viscossimum, (ova) Solidago occidentalis Vanessa annabella West Coast Chrysothamnus (Field) Lady nauseous, Taraxacum officinale Vanessa Red Admiral Urtica atalanta (L.) dioica (ova, LFP), Elaeagnus angustifolia (Sugar) Vanessa Painted Lady Chrysothamnus cardui (L.) nauseous, Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Cirsium arvense, Cirsium canovirens. Cryptantha celosioides, Sisymbrium altissimum, Taraxacum officinale Table 2. Plant-butterfly interactions in South-central Idaho sorted by plant family (alphabetical) with dates, 2003-2007 Plant (common Plant Family name, (Scientific Use introduced) Name) Apocynaceae Dogbane Apocynum Nectar androsaemifolium L. Asclepidaceae Milkweed Asclepias LFP speciosus Torr. Asclepidaceae Milkweed Asclepias Nectar speciosus Torr. Boraginaceae Cryptantha Nectar celosioides (Eastw.) Boraginaceae Amsinckia Nectar tessellata Gray Boraginaceae Hackelia Nectar patens (Nutt.) Capparidaceae Bee plant Cleome Nectar serrulata Pursch Chenopodiaceae Fourwing Atriplex LFP Saltbush canescens (Pursch) Chenopodiaceae Fourwing Atriplex Strong Saltbush canescens association (Pursch) Chenopodiaceae Tumbleweed Salsola Nectar (introduced) kali L. Compositae Yarrow Achillea Nectar millefolium L. Compositae Pearly Anaphalis Nectar Everlasting margaritacea (L.) Compositae Balsamroot Balsamorhiza Nectar hookeri Nutt. Compositae Spotted Centaurea Nectar Knapweed maculosa Lam. (introduced) Compositae Chaenactis Nectar douglasii (Hook.) Compositae Rabbitbrush Chrysothamnus Nectar nauseous (Pall.) Compositae Rabbitbrush Chrysothamnus Nectar viscidiflorus (Hook.) Compositae Canada Cirsium LFP Thistle arvense (L.) (introduced) Compositae Canada Cirsium Nectar Thistle arvense (L.) introduced Compositae Thistle Cirsium Nectar canovirens (Rydb.) Compositae Thistle Cirsium Nectar undulatum (Nutt.) Compositae Hapertip Crepis Nectar Hawksbeard accuminata Nutt. Compositae Basin Erigeron Nectar Rayless aphanactis Daisy (Gray) Compositae Curly-cup Grindelia Nectar Gumweed squarrosa (native (Pursch) and introduced) Compositae Broom Gutierrezia Nectar Snakeweed sarothrae (Pursch) Compositae Goldenweed Haplopappus Nectar acaulis (Nutt.) Compositae Sneezeweed Helenium Nectar autumnale Compositae Sunflower Helianthus Nectar annuus L. Compositae Spiny Aster Machearanthera Nectar canescens (Pursch) Compositae Groundsel Senecio Nectar integerrimus Nutt. Compositae Goldenrod Solidago Nectar occidentalis (Nutt.) Compositae Dandelion Taraxacum Nectar (introduced) officinale Weber Cruciferae Arabis Arabis Nectar divaricarpa Nels. Cruciferae Arabis Arabis LFP divaricarpa Nels. Cruciferae Blue Chorispora Nectar Mustard tenella (Pall.) Cruciferae Water Rorippa Nectar Cress nasturtium- aquaticum (L.) Cruciferae Tumble Sisymbrium Nectar Mustard altissimum L. (introduced) Dipsacaceae Teasel Dipsacus Ovipositing (introduced) sylvestrus Huds. Dipsacaceae Teasel Dipsacus Nectar (introduced) sylvestrus Huds. Elaeagnaceae Russian Elaeagnus Sugaring Olive angustifolia L. (introduced) Geraniaceae Sticky Geranium Nectar & ranium viscossimum F. Hydrophyllaceae Phalecia Nectar heterophylla Pursch Leguminosae Astragalus Astragalus sp. Ovipositing Leguminosae Alfalfa Medicago Nectar (introduced) sativa L. Liliaceae Onion Allium Nectar textile Nels. & Macbr. Polemoniaceae Hood's Phlox Nectar Phlox hoodii Rich. Polemoniaceae Long-leaved Phlox Nectar Phlox longifolia Nutt. Polygonaceae Sulphur Eriogonum Nectar Buckwheat umbellatum Torr. Polygonaceae Bistort Polygonum Nectar bistortoides Pursch Rosaceae Serviceberry Amelanchier Strong alnifolia Nutt. association Rosaceae Shrubby Potentilla Nectar Cinquefoil fruticosa L. Saliaceae Coyote Salix Sugaring Willow exigua Nutt. Saxifragaceae Prairie Lithophragma Nectar Star parviflora (Hook.) Scrophulariaceae Water Veronica Nectar Speedwell anagallis- aquatica L. Umbelliferae Cymopterus LFP terebinthinus (Hook.) Umbelliferae Cymopterus Nectar terebinthinus (Hook.) Urticaceae Stinging Urtica LFP nettle dioica L. Urticaceae Stinging Urtica Ovipositing nettle dioica L. Dates of Flower Family interactions Color 1st-last Butterflies Apocynaceae 17-Jun-- Purplish 25-Jun Copper, Juniper Pink Hairstreak, Coronis Fritillary, Weidemeyer's Admiral, Common Ringlet Asclepidaceae 26-Jun-- Monarch -- 4-Sep Asclepidaceae 19-Jun-- Western Tiger Pink 6-Jul Swallowtail, Cabbage White Boraginaceae 10-May-- Becker's White, White 23-May Large Marble, Silvery Blue, Painted Lady Boraginaceae 10-Jun Purplish Copper Boraginaceae 10-Jun Melissa Blue Capparidaceae 28-Aug Gray Hairstreak Purple Chenopodiaceae 5-Sep Western -- Pygmy Blue Chenopodiaceae 13-Aug-- Western -- 7-Sep Pygmy Blue Chenopodiaceae 17-Jul Western Green Pygmy Blue Compositae 19-Jun-- Purplish White 7-Aug Copper, Juniper Hairstreak, Common Ringlet Compositae 25-Jun Lustrous White Copper Compositae 13-May-- Queen Yellow 25-May Alexandra's Sulphur, Boisduval's Blue Compositae 24-Jul California Purple Hairstreak, Behr's Hairstreak, Melissa Blue Compositae 25-May Boisduval's White Blue Orange Sulphur, Western Compositae 12-Sep-- Pygmy Blue, Yellow 21-Nov Mylitta Crescent, West Coast Lady, Painted Lady, Juba Skipper Compositae 21-Jul-- Clouded Sulphur, Yellow 18-Sep Behr's Hairstreak, Western Pygmy Blue, Melissa Blue, Painted Lady, Common Ringlet, Common Branded Skipper, Juba Skipper Compositae 4-Jul Painted Lady -- Compositae 7-Jul-- Becker's White, Purple 22-Aug Cabbage White, Queen Alexandra's Sulphur, California Hairstreak, Western Pygmy Blue, Common Branded Skipper Compositae 1-Jun-- Western Tiger White 25-Jul Swallowtail, Two-tailed Swallowtail, Queen Alexandra's Sulphur, Callippe Fritillary, Painted Lady, Great Basin Wood-Nymph Compositae 12-Jul-- Great Spangled Purple 7-Aug Fritillary, Coronis Fritillary Compositae 25-May Boisduval's Yellow Blue Compositae 25-May-- Boisduval's 1-Jun Blue, Acmon Yellow Blue, Common Ringlet, Juba Skipper Compositae 19-Jul-- Checkered White, 13-Aug Clouded Sulphur, Yellow Melissa Blue, Common Branded Skipper Compositae 14-Jul-- Becker's White, 18-Sep Melissa Blue, Yellow Common Branded Skipper, Juba Skipper Compositae 22-Jun Juba Skipper Yellow Compositae 25-May Common Orange Checkered- Skipper Compositae 11-Aug-- Monarch, Common Yellow 7-Sep Branded Skipper Compositae 7-Aug-- Field Crescent, 7-Sep Mylitta Purple Crescent, Common Branded Skipper Compositae 21-Jun California Yellow Hairstreak, Callippe Fritillary Compositae 5-Sep-- Purplish Yellow 12-Sep Copper, Gray Hairstreak, Mylitta Crescent, Common Ringlet Compositae 2-May-- West Coast Yellow 23-Jun Lady, Painted Lady, Common Checkered Skipper Cruciferae 13-May Large Marble, Pink, Silvery Blue Purple Cruciferae 1-Jun Large Marble -- Cruciferae 14-May Becker's White, Blue, Common Purple Checkered Skipper Cruciferae 1 - Jun Boisduval's White Blue, Common Ringlet Cruciferae 22-May-- Becker's Yellow 30-Jul White, Pearly Marble, Juniper Hairstreak, Painted Lady, Common Ringlet, Juba Skipper Dipsacaceae 25-Jul-- Gray -- 1-Aug Hairstreak Dipsacaceae 17-Jul-- Western Tiger Purple 21-Aug Swallowtail, Becker's White, Checkered White, Queen Alexandra's Sulphur, Coral Hairstreak, Melissa Blue, Coronis Fritillary, California Tortoiseshell, Great Basin Wood-Nymph, Silver-spotted Skipper, Common Sootywing, Common Branded Skipper, Woodland Skipper Elaeagnaceae 8-Oct Red Admiral -- Geraniaceae 12-Jul Gray Hairstreak Pink Hydrophyllaceae 25-May-- Boisduval's Purple 1-Jun Blue, Common Ringlet Leguminosae 14-Jul Queen -- Alexandra's Sulphur Leptotes marina, Melissa Leguminosae 14-Jul-- Blue, Great Purple 7-Aug Basin Wood-Nymph Liliaceae 20-May-- Spring Azure, White 1-Jun Boisduval's Blue, Melissa Blue Polemoniaceae 1-May Hoary Comma White Polemoniaceae 8-May-- Indra Pink 26-May Swallowtail, Sara Orangetip Polygonaceae 25-May-- California Yellow, 4-Jul Hairstreak, White Juniper Hairstreak, Boisduval's Blue Polygonaceae 17-Jun Juba Skipper White Rosaceae 21-Jun California -- Hairstreak Rosaceae 22-May Sandhill Yellow Skipper Saliaceae 25-May Boisduval's -- Blue, Common Ringlet Saxifragaceae 8-May Sara White Orangetip Scrophulariaceae 21-Jun Juniper Blue Hairstreak Umbelliferae 23-Jun Anise -- Swallowtail Umbelliferae 4-Jul Anise Yellow Swallowtail Urticaceae 27-Jun-- Satyr Comma, -- 4-Jul Red Admiral Urticaceae 25-Jun Red Admiral --
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|Author:||Fothergill, Kent; Levy-Boyd, Dylan|
|Publication:||Journal of the Idaho Academy of Science|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2008|
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