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Interactions between butterflies (Lepidoptera: rhopalocera) and plants (spermatophyta: magnoliophyta) in south central Idaho.

ABSTRACT

A summary of a photographic catalog of interactions between butterflies and plants observed in Cassia, Gooding, Minidoka, Oneida, and Twin Falls Counties of South Central Idaho is presented. Butterfly-plant interactions were photographed during butterfly counts, surveys, and other field efforts during the years 2003-2007. One hundred and eighty photographic records document 49 species of butterfly utilizing 50 plant species within 21 plant families. Published information on butterfly plant use within Idaho sagebrush steppe habitats is lacking, this survey begins to fill this void in our knowledge.

Key words: Idaho, butterflies, behavior, nectar plants, sagebrush steppe, bioindicators, invasive species

INTRODUCTION

Public interest in butterflies is rapidly growing (Pyle 1984, Fox et al. 2006) and this interest fuels butterfly conservation activities. Butterflies are of conservation interest as bioindicators (Hammond and McCorkle 1984, New 1997), pollinators (Ehrlich 2003), prey for other species (Guppy and Shepard 2001) including Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte), (Gregg 2006), and as charismatic conservation taxa. The foundation of insect conservation includes a basic understanding of species occurrence, distribution, density, and biology.

For the continuation of their respective species, adult Lepidoptera must locate mates, find oviposition sites, and, in females who emerge with immature eggs, obtain and allocate resources to oocyte growth. The quality and availability of nutrient resources during the adult stage correlates with fecundity (Mevi-Schutz and Erhardt 2002), egg weight (O'Brien et al. 2004), and longevity (Boggs 1997) of many holometabolous insects (such as Lepidoptera). As such, the primary effort of most butterfly species is locating nutrient sources and feeding (Pyle 1984). Nutrient sources utilized by butterflies include nectar, dung, carrion, sap, rotting fruit, aphid honeydew and moisture from mud puddles and seeps (Pyle 1984). The very specific food requirements of larval Lepidoptera are not constraining of adult Lepidoptera whom generally have more options for choosing nutrient sources. Nectar, a primary nutrient source for adult Lepidoptera varies by plant species in both its carbohydrate and constituent components; differences in these components affect fecundity (Romeis and Wackers 2002). Therefore, nectar resources available to adult Lepidoptera influence species occurrence, distribution and density.

The Snake River Plain in Southern Idaho was historically dominated by shrub steppe vegetation communities (Kuchler 1964). Much of these plant communities have been cleared since settlement (early 1900's) in order to make room for cities and agriculture, which has fragmented and diminished the sagebrush sea (Welch 2005). In addition to outright losses, much of the present shrub steppe exists in an impoverished condition (West 1999). The native forb diversity is dwindling as shrub and introduced grasses and weedy forbs increase due to changes in disturbance regime associated with anthropogenic causes. This impoverishment has led to a suite of sage-dependent avian species becoming species of conservation concern (Paige and Ritter 1999), including the Greater Sage Grouse.

Recent surveys have documented 85 butterfly species in Cassia, Gooding, Minidoka, Oneida, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho (Austin and Fothergill 2006, RWR 2005, NABA 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006) amounting to approximately 50% of the butterfly species present in Idaho (Austin and Fothergill 2006). Larval food plants for most butterfly species are known and listed in most butterfly field guides (Scott 1986, Pyle 2002, Brock and Kaufman 2003). Local field studies are required to elucidate which plants are important to local butterfly populations in all developmental stages, larval and adult. The object of this research is to document butterfly-plant interactions within these counties.

METHODS

During 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 butterflies were photographed during butterfly counts, surveys, and other field efforts documenting butterfly-plant interactions, primarily within sagebrush-steppe habitats in the previously mentioned. These photographs are maintained at Conservation Seeding and Restoration, Inc. Butterflies were identified utilizing Brock and Kaufman (2003) and names were standardized to the taxonomy of Miller and Brown (1981), as amended by Ferris (1989), the most recent peer reviewed list of butterfly names. Common names for butterflies are from Cassie et al. (2001). Plants were identified using Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973) from fresh material, pressed specimens, or photographs. Preserved plant specimens are housed at Conservation Seeding and Restoration, Inc. The opportunistic nature of the data means that species associations can be reported. However, the absence of recorded interactions cannot be categorically interpreted as non-associations.

Butterfly and plant interactions were classified as follows:

Nectaring: butterfly has proboscis in or on flower.

Ovipositing: butterfly observed ovipositing and eggs found after butterfly had left.

Larval Food Plant (LFP): caterpillar observed feeding on plant.

Sugaring: butterfly has proboscis in plant fluids associated with wounds, buds about to open, or extrafloral nectaries.

Strongly Associated: butterfly is seen predominately around plant but other class of specific interaction is not observed.

RESULTS

One hundred and eighty photographic records documented 49 species of butterflies (Table 1) utilizing 50 plant species (Table 2). Twenty-one plant families were represented. Of these, 22 plant species (44%) were members of the Asteraceae, four (8%) were from the Cruciferae, three (6%) were from the Boraginaceae, and two each (4%) were members of the Chenopodiaceae, Leguminosae, Polemoniaceae, Polygonaceae, and Rosaceae. The remaining 11 (22 %) Families were represented by a single taxon. Ten of the plant species visited (20%) were introduced to south central Idaho. Plant species with yellow flowers are the most numerous in the list, but the most visited plant species was the purple-flowered Dipsacus sylvestrus Huds.

Butterflies exhibited nectaring behavior toward 46 of the 50 documented plant species. Among the 49 photographically documented butterflies, all species except Polygonia satyrus (Edwards) and Vanessa atalanta (L.) were observed nectaring. Of the species observed: seven species (14%) were Hesperidae, four species (8%) were Papilionidae, nine species (18%) were of the Pieridae, 14 species (29%) were Lycaenidae, and 15 species (31%) were Nymphalidae. The percentages of the total encounters within each family of butterflies do not differ significantly (P>0.05, chi square) from the percentage of species within each family from a list of species known from the study area.

Plant species visited by the greatest number of butterflies were D. sylvestrus (Dipsacaceae) with 14 species associations, Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (Hook.) (Asteraceae) with eight associations, Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pall.) (Asteraceae) with seven, Cirsium arvense (L.) (Asteraceae) and Sisymbrium altissimum L. (Cruciferae) with six associations and Cirsium canovirens (Rydb.) (Asteraceae) with five associations.

Butterflies associated with the greatest number of plants include Coenonympha tulla complex and Icaria icarioides (Bois.) with nine associations, Lycaeides melissa (W.H. Edwards) with eight associations, Hesperiajuba (Scud.) and Vanessa cardui (L) with seven associations, and Hesperia comma (L.) and Pontia beckerii (W.H. Edwards) with six associations. Twenty butterfly species were only found interacting with a single species of plant.

Six plant species were documented as LFP's. Urtica dioica L. was found to be utilized as an LFP by P. satyrus and V. atalanta. Atriplex canescens (Pursch), Arabis divercarpa Nels., Cymopterus terebinthinus (Hook.), Asclepias speciosus Torr., and Cirsium arvense (L.) were all documented as LFP's for single species of butterflies.

DISCUSSION

These data show adult use of floral nectar resources by all families of butterfly found in the study area and reinforce the importance of a nectar resource to butterflies. Flower color or plant family did not appear be a predictor of use for nectaring. While plants from the Asteraceae represented many of the species with documented nectaring associations, a wide variety of plant families with differing floral structures were also found to be utilized as nectar sources. From these data it appears that some species of butterflies will utilize a wide variety of flowers as nectar sources, while other species may not.

Butterflies utilize introduced plants, but no information on quality and suitability of nectar, frequency of use, or preference can be made because of the opportunistic nature of this methodology. Introduced plants may be the only nectar resource available at certain times in some habitats. Some butterflies have plant needs that are very exacting and can only utilize certain species, while others can utilize a variety of plants including non-native species, even as larval food plants (Thacker 2004). Miller and Hammond (2007) detail special case-histories for eight Pacific Northwest butterflies of conservation concern. In each case-history cascading ecological effects of exotic plant species introductions are mentioned as a conservation issue.

The data presented here are a beginning of an understanding of the myriad interactions between butterflies and plants in south-central Idaho. Only documented butterfly-plant interactions are reported within the tables; many more interactions remain to be documented. Butterflies represent an important ecological component of south-central Idaho's ecosystems as species of conservation interest and as efficient bioindicators. The imperiled and rapidly shifting state of the shrub steppe matrix in south-central Idaho (Knick et al. 2003) presents numerous challenges to the state and federal agencies mandated to manage for the entire flora and fauna associated with these lands.

Future studies are warranted to further increase our understanding of the interactions between Idaho's flora and fauna. Specifically, a more thorough examination of butterfly-plant interactions in the study area coupled with regular monitoring of butterfly occurrence and density are needed to better understand the interactions between land management and the environment. This understanding will be crucial for responsible management that emphasizes native bio-diversity retention while providing benefits to all land users, the American people at large, local butterfly populations and the stability of the sage-steppe ecosystem.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to thank the following people for assistance with this project: Peggy Bartels of the Burley B/M Field Office, Steve Bouffard of US Fish and Wildlife Service, Miriam Austin of Red Willow Research, and Steve Paulsen, Joelene Diehl and the staff of Conservation Seeding and Restoration, Inc.

REFERENCES

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Brock J. and K. Kaufman. 2003. Butterflies of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company: New York.

Cassie B., J. Glassberg, A. Swengel, and G. Tudor. 2001. The North American Butterfly Association (NABA) checklist & English names of North American Butterflies second edition. NABA: Morristown, NJ.

Ehrlich P.R. 2003. Butterflies, test systems, and biodiversity. In: Boggs C.L., Watt W.B., and Ehrlich P.R. (eds) Butterflies: ecology and evolution taking flight. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL.

Ferris C.D. 1989. Supplement to: A Catalogue/Checklist of the Butterflies of America North of Mexico. The Lepidopterists' Society: Sarasota, FL.

Fox R., J. Asher, T. Brereton, D. Roy, and M. Warren. 2006. The state of butterflies in Britain and Ireland. Butterfly Conservation and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology: Newbury, Berkshire, UK.

Gregg M.A. 2006. Greater Sage-Grouse reproductive ecology: linkages among habitat resources, maternal nutrition, and chick survival. Oregon State University. Ph.D. dissertation: Corvallis, OR.

Guppy C.S. and J.H. Shepard. 2001. Butterflies of British Columbia. The Royal British Columbia Museum: Vancouver, BC.

Hammond P.C. and D.V. McCorkle. 1984. The decline and extinction of Speyeria populations resulting from human disturbances (Nymphalidae: Argynninae). J. Res. Lepid. 22:217-224.

Hitchcock C.L., and A. Cronquist. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press: Seattle, WA.

Knick, S. T., D.S. Dobkin, J. Rotenberry, M.A. Schroeder, W.M. VanderHaegen, and C. van Riper. 2003. Teetering on the edge or too late? Conservation and research issues for avifauna of sagebrush habitats. Condor 105:611-634.

Kuchler AW. 1964. Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States. American Geographical Society. Special Publication No. 36. Accessed online at: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/ecosys/cdroms/ged_iib/datasets/b13/ reprints/ek1.htm accessed 17-April-2008

Mevi-Schutz J., and Erhardt. 2003. Effects of nectar amino acid on fecundity of the Wall Brown butterfly (Lasiommata megera L.). Basic Appl. Ecol. 4:413-421.

Miller J.C. and P.C. Hammond. 2007. Butterflies and moths of Pacific Northwest forests and woodlands: rare, endangered, and management-sensitive species. FHTET-2006-07. Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team: Morgantown, WV.

Miller L.D. and F.M. Brown. 1981. A catalogue/checklist of the butterflies of America north of Mexico. Sarasota, FL: The Lepidopterists' Society.

New T.R. 1997. Butterfly conservation second edition. Oxford University Press: Melbourne, Australia.

North American Butterfly Association. 2002. NABA Fourth of July butterfly counts 2001 Report. North American Butterfly Association: Morristown, NJ.

North American Butterfly Association. 2003. NABA Fourth of July butterfly counts 2002 Report. North American Butterfly Association: Morristown, NJ.

North American Butterfly Association. 2004. NABA Fourth of July butterfly counts 2003 Report. North American Butterfly Association: Morristown, NJ.

North American Butterfly Association. 2005. NABA Fourth of July butterfly counts 2004 Report. North American Butterfly Association: Morristown, NJ.

North American Butterfly Association. 2006. NABA Fourth of July butterfly counts 2005 Report. North American Butterfly Association: Morristown, NJ.

O'Brien D.M., C.L. Boggs, and M.L. Fogel. 2004. Making eggs from nectar: the role of life history and dietary carbon turnover in butterfly reproductive resource allocation. Oikos 105:279-291.

Paige C. and S.A. Ritter. 1999. Birds in a sagebrush sea: managing sagebrush habitats for bird communities. Partners in Flight Western Working Group: Bosie, ID.

Pyle R.M. 1984. Handbook for Butterfly Watchers. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Pyle R.M. 2002. The butterflies of Cascadia. Seattle Audubon Society: Seattle, WA.

Red Willow Research. 2005. Butterfly occurrences on lands managed by the Burley Bureau of Land Management Field Office, Twin Falls and Cassia Counties, Idaho. Report for Burley Bureau of Land Management Field Office.

Romeis J. and F.L. Wackers. 2002. Nutritional suitability of individual carbohydrates and amino acides for adult Pieris brassicae. Physiological Entomology 27:148-156.

Scott J.A. 1986. Butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press: Stanford, CA.

Thacker P.D. 2004. California Butterflies: at home with aliens. Bioscience. 54:182-187

Welch B.L. 2005. Big sagebrush: A sea fragmented into lakes, ponds, and puddles. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-144. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: Fort Collins, CO.

West N. E. 1999. Synecology and disturbance regimes of sagebrush steppe ecosystems. In Entwhistle, P.G., A.M. DeBolt, J.H. Kaltenecker, and K. Steenhof, compilers. 2000. Proceedings: Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems Symposium. Bureau of Land Management Publication No. BLM/ID/PT001001+1150, Boise, ID, USA. 15-34.

Kent Fothergill and Dylan Levy-Boyd Conservation Seeding and Restoration, Inc 506 Center Street West * Kimberly, ID 83341
Table 1. Plant-butterfly interactions in South-central Idaho,
sorted by butterfly species (generic epithet), 2003-2007

Butterfly           Butterfly
(scientific         (scientific     Plant                Plant
name)               name)           (nectar)             (other)

Anthocharis         Sara            Lithophragma
sara Lucas          Orangetip       parviflora,
                                    Phlox
                                    longifolia

Artogeia            Cabbage         Cirsium
rapae (L.)          White           arvense,
                                    Asclepias
                                    speciosus

Basilarchia         Weidemeyer's    Apocynum
weidemeyerii        Admiral         androsaemifolium
(W. H. Edwards)

Brephidium          Western         Chrysothamnus        Atriplex
exilis (Bois.)      Pygmy Blue      nauseous.            canescens
                                    Chrysothamnus        (LFP,
                                    viscidiflorus,       association)
                                    Cirsium arvense,
                                    Salsola kali

Celastrina          Spring          Allium textile
ladon (Cramer)      Azure

Cercyonis           Great Basin     Dipsacus
sthenele (Bois.)    Wood-nymph      sylvestrus,
                                    Medicago
                                    sativa, Cirsium
                                    canovirens

Coenonympha         Common          Achillea
tullia complex      Ringlet         millefolium,
                                    Apocynum
                                    androsaemifolium,
                                    Chrysothamnus
                                    viscidiflorus.
                                    Engeron
                                    aphanactis,
                                    Phalecia
                                    heterophylla,
                                    Ronppa
                                    nasturtiium-
                                    aquaticum, Salix
                                    exigua,
                                    Sisymbrium
                                    altissimum,
                                    Solidago
                                    occidentalis

Colias alexandra    Queen           Balsamorhiza         Astragalus
(W.H. Edwards)      Alexandra's     hooker, Cirsium      sp. (ova)
                    Sulphur         arvense, Cirsium
                                    canovirens,
                                    Dipsacus
                                    sylvestrus

Colias              Orange          Chrysothamnus
eurytheme Bois.     Sulphur         nauseous

Colias              Clouded         Chrysothamnus
philodice Godart    Sulphur         viscidiflorus,
                                    Grindelia
                                    squarrosa

Danaus              Monarch         Helianthus           Asclepias
plexippus (L.)                      annuus               speciosus
                                                         (LFP)
Epargyreus          Silver-         Dipsacus
clarus (Cramer)     spotted         sylvestrus
                    Skipper

Epidemia            Purplish        Achillea
helloides           Copper          millefolium,
(Bois.)                             Apocynum
                                    androsaemifolium,
                                    Solidago
                                    occidentalis.
                                    Amsinckia
                                    tessellata

Euchloe             Large           Arabis               Arabis
ausonides (Lucas)   Marble          divaricarpa,         divaricarpa
                                    Cryptantha           (LFP)
                                    celosioides

Euchloe hyantis     Pearly          Sisymbrium
(W.H. Edwards)      Marble          altissimum

Glaucopsyche        Silvery         Arabis
lygdamus            Blue            divaricarpa.
(Doubleday)                         Cryptantha
                                    celosioides

Harkenclenus        Coral           Dipsacus
titus (F.)          Hairstreak      sylvestrus
                                    Chrysothamnus
                                    viscidiflorus,

Hesperia            Common          Cirsium arvense,
comma (L.)          Branded         Dipsacus
                    Skipper         sylvestrus,
                                    Grindelia
                                    squarrosa,
                                    Guterirhizia
                                    sarothrae,
                                    Helianthus
                                    annus.
                                    Machearanthera
                                    canescens

Hesperia            Juba Skipper    Chrysothamnus
juba (Scud.)                        nauseous,

                                    Chrysothamnus
                                    viscidiflorus,

                                    Erigeron
                                    aphanactis,
                                    Guterirhizia
                                    sarothrae,
                                    Haplopappus
                                    acaulis,
                                    Polygonum
                                    bistortoides,
                                    Sisymbrium
                                    altissimum

Icaria acmon        Acmon Blue      Erigeron
(Westwood and                       aphanactis
Hewiston)

Icaria              Boisduval's     Allium textile,
icarioides          Blue            Balsamorhiza
(Bois.)                             hookeri,
                                    Chaenactis
                                    douglasii,
                                    Crepis
                                    accuminata,
                                    Engeron
                                    aphanactis,
                                    Enogonum
                                    umbellatum,
                                    Phalecia
                                    heterophylla,
                                    Rorippa
                                    nasturtium-
                                    aquaticum,
                                    Salix exigua

Leptotes            Marine Blue     Medicago sativa
marina                              Allium textile,
(Reakirt)                           Centaurea
                                    maculosa,

Lycaeides           Melissa Blue    Chrysothamnus
melissa (W.H.                       viscidiflorus,
Edwards)                            Dipsacus
                                    sylvestrus,
                                    Grindelia
                                    squarrosa,
                                    Guterirhizia
                                    sarothrae,
                                    Medicago sativa,
                                    Hackelia patens

Lycaena             Lustrous        Anaphalis
cupreus (W.H.       Copper          margaritacea
Edwards)

Mitoura             Juniper         Achillea
gryneus (Hubner)    Hairstreak      millefolium,
                                    Apocynum
                                    androsaemifolium.
                                    Eriogonum
                                    umbellatum,
                                    Sisymbrium
                                    altissimum,
                                    Veronica
                                    anagallis-
                                    aquatica

Nymphalis           California      Dipsacus
californica         Tortoiseshell   sylvestrus
(Bois.)

Ochlodes            Woodland        Dipsacus
sylvanoides         Skipper         sylvestrus
(Bois.)

Papilio             Indra           Phlox
indra Reakirt       Swallowtail     longifolia

Papilio             Anise           Cymopterus
zelicaon Lucas      Swallowtail     terebinthinus

                                    Cymopterus
                                    terebinthinus
                                    (LFP)

Pholisora           Common          Dipsacus
catullus (F.)       Sootywing       sylvestrus

Phyciodes           Mylitta         Chrysothamnus
mylitta (W.H.       Crescent        nauseous,
Edwards)                            Machearanthera
                                    canescens,
                                    Solidago
                                    occidentalis

Phyciodes           Field           Machearanthera
pratensis (Behr)    Crescent        canescens

Polites             Sandhill        Potentilla
sabuleti (Bois.)    Skipper         fruticosa

Polygonia           Hoary Comma     Phlox hoodii
gracilis
(Grote and
Robinson)

Polygonia           Satyr Comma                          Urtica
satyrus (W.H.                                            dioica (LFP)
Edwards)

Pontia beckerii     Becker's        Chorispora
(W. H. Edwards)     White           tenella, Cirsium
                                    arvense,
                                    Cryptantha
                                    celosioides,
                                    Dipsacus
                                    sylvestrus,
                                    Guterirhizia
                                    sarothrae,
                                    Sisymbrium
                                    altissimum

Pontia protodice    Checkered       Dipsacus
(Bois. and          White           sylvestrus,
Leconte)                            Grindelia
                                    squarrosa

Pterourus           Two-tailed      Cirsium
multicaudata        Swallowtail     canovirens
(W.F. Kirby)

Pterourus           Western Tiger   Asclepias
rutulus             Swallowtail     speciosus,
(Lucas)                             Cirsium
                                    canovirens,
                                    Dipsacus
                                    sylvestrus

Pyrgus communis     Common          Chorispora
(Grote)             Checkered       tenella,
                    Skipper         Helenium
                                    autumnale,
                                    Taraxacum
                                    officinale

Satyrium behrii     Behr's          Centaurea
(W. H. Edwards)     Hairstreak      maculosa,
                                    Chrysothamnus
                                    viscidiflorus

Satyrium            California      Centaurea            Amelanchier
californica         Hairstreak      maculosa,            alnifolia
(W.H. Edwards)                      Cirsium              (associated)
                                    arvense,
                                    Eriogonum
                                    umbellatum,
                                    Senecio
                                    integerrimus

Speyeria            Callippe        Cirsium
callippe            Fritillary      canovirens,
(Bois.)                             Senecio
                                    integerrimus

Speyeria            Coronis         Apocynum
coronis (Behr)      Fritillary      androsaemifolium,
                                    Cirsium
                                    undulatum,
                                    Dipsacus
                                    sylvestrus

Speyeria            Great           Cirsium
cybele (F.)         Spangled        undulatum
                    Fritillary

Strymon             Gray            Cleome serrulata,    Dipsacus
melinus             Hairstreak      Geranium             sylvestrus
(Hubner)                            viscossimum,         (ova)
                                    Solidago
                                    occidentalis

Vanessa annabella   West Coast      Chrysothamnus
(Field)             Lady            nauseous,
                                    Taraxacum
                                    officinale

Vanessa             Red Admiral                          Urtica
atalanta (L.)                                            dioica
                                                         (ova, LFP),
                                                         Elaeagnus
                                                         angustifolia
                                                         (Sugar)

Vanessa             Painted Lady    Chrysothamnus
cardui (L.)                         nauseous,
                                    Chrysothamnus
                                    viscidiflorus,
                                    Cirsium arvense,
                                    Cirsium
                                    canovirens.
                                    Cryptantha
                                    celosioides,
                                    Sisymbrium
                                    altissimum,
                                    Taraxacum
                                    officinale

Table 2. Plant-butterfly interactions in South-central Idaho
sorted by plant family (alphabetical) with dates, 2003-2007

                   Plant
                   (common        Plant
Family             name,          (Scientific        Use
                   introduced)    Name)

Apocynaceae        Dogbane        Apocynum           Nectar
                                  androsaemifolium
                                  L.

Asclepidaceae      Milkweed       Asclepias          LFP
                                  speciosus
                                  Torr.

Asclepidaceae      Milkweed       Asclepias          Nectar
                                  speciosus
                                  Torr.

Boraginaceae                      Cryptantha         Nectar
                                  celosioides
                                  (Eastw.)

Boraginaceae                      Amsinckia          Nectar
                                  tessellata
                                  Gray

Boraginaceae                      Hackelia           Nectar
                                  patens
                                  (Nutt.)

Capparidaceae      Bee plant      Cleome             Nectar
                                  serrulata
                                  Pursch

Chenopodiaceae     Fourwing       Atriplex           LFP
                   Saltbush       canescens
                                  (Pursch)

Chenopodiaceae     Fourwing       Atriplex           Strong
                   Saltbush       canescens          association
                                  (Pursch)

Chenopodiaceae     Tumbleweed     Salsola            Nectar
                   (introduced)   kali L.

Compositae         Yarrow         Achillea           Nectar
                                  millefolium L.

Compositae         Pearly         Anaphalis          Nectar
                   Everlasting    margaritacea
                                  (L.)

Compositae         Balsamroot     Balsamorhiza       Nectar
                                  hookeri Nutt.

Compositae         Spotted        Centaurea          Nectar
                   Knapweed       maculosa Lam.
                   (introduced)

Compositae                        Chaenactis         Nectar
                                  douglasii
                                  (Hook.)

Compositae         Rabbitbrush    Chrysothamnus      Nectar
                                  nauseous
                                  (Pall.)

Compositae         Rabbitbrush    Chrysothamnus      Nectar
                                  viscidiflorus
                                  (Hook.)

Compositae         Canada         Cirsium            LFP
                   Thistle        arvense (L.)
                   (introduced)

Compositae         Canada         Cirsium            Nectar
                   Thistle        arvense (L.)
                   introduced

Compositae         Thistle        Cirsium            Nectar
                                  canovirens
                                  (Rydb.)

Compositae         Thistle        Cirsium            Nectar
                                  undulatum
                                  (Nutt.)

Compositae         Hapertip       Crepis             Nectar
                   Hawksbeard     accuminata
                                  Nutt.

Compositae         Basin          Erigeron           Nectar
                   Rayless        aphanactis
                   Daisy          (Gray)

Compositae         Curly-cup      Grindelia          Nectar
                   Gumweed        squarrosa
                   (native        (Pursch)
                   and
                   introduced)

Compositae         Broom          Gutierrezia        Nectar
                   Snakeweed      sarothrae
                                  (Pursch)

Compositae         Goldenweed     Haplopappus        Nectar
                                  acaulis
                                  (Nutt.)

Compositae         Sneezeweed     Helenium           Nectar
                                  autumnale

Compositae         Sunflower      Helianthus         Nectar
                                  annuus L.

Compositae         Spiny Aster    Machearanthera     Nectar
                                  canescens
                                  (Pursch)

Compositae         Groundsel      Senecio            Nectar
                                  integerrimus
                                  Nutt.

Compositae         Goldenrod      Solidago           Nectar
                                  occidentalis
                                  (Nutt.)

Compositae         Dandelion      Taraxacum          Nectar
                   (introduced)   officinale
                                  Weber

Cruciferae         Arabis         Arabis             Nectar
                                  divaricarpa
                                  Nels.

Cruciferae         Arabis         Arabis             LFP
                                  divaricarpa
                                  Nels.

Cruciferae         Blue           Chorispora         Nectar
                   Mustard        tenella (Pall.)

Cruciferae         Water          Rorippa            Nectar
                   Cress          nasturtium-
                                  aquaticum (L.)

Cruciferae         Tumble         Sisymbrium         Nectar
                   Mustard        altissimum L.
                   (introduced)

Dipsacaceae        Teasel         Dipsacus           Ovipositing
                   (introduced)   sylvestrus
                                  Huds.

Dipsacaceae        Teasel         Dipsacus           Nectar
                   (introduced)   sylvestrus
                                  Huds.

Elaeagnaceae       Russian        Elaeagnus          Sugaring
                   Olive          angustifolia L.
                   (introduced)

Geraniaceae        Sticky         Geranium           Nectar
                                  & ranium
                                  viscossimum F.

Hydrophyllaceae                   Phalecia           Nectar
                                  heterophylla
                                  Pursch

Leguminosae        Astragalus     Astragalus sp.     Ovipositing

Leguminosae        Alfalfa        Medicago           Nectar
                   (introduced)   sativa L.

Liliaceae          Onion          Allium             Nectar
                                  textile Nels. &
                                  Macbr.

Polemoniaceae      Hood's         Phlox              Nectar
                   Phlox          hoodii Rich.

Polemoniaceae      Long-leaved    Phlox              Nectar
                   Phlox          longifolia
                                  Nutt.

Polygonaceae       Sulphur        Eriogonum          Nectar
                   Buckwheat      umbellatum
                                  Torr.

Polygonaceae       Bistort        Polygonum          Nectar
                                  bistortoides
                                  Pursch

Rosaceae           Serviceberry   Amelanchier        Strong
                                  alnifolia Nutt.    association

Rosaceae           Shrubby        Potentilla         Nectar
                   Cinquefoil     fruticosa L.

Saliaceae          Coyote         Salix              Sugaring
                   Willow         exigua Nutt.

Saxifragaceae      Prairie        Lithophragma       Nectar
                   Star           parviflora
                                  (Hook.)

Scrophulariaceae   Water          Veronica           Nectar
                   Speedwell      anagallis-
                                  aquatica L.

Umbelliferae                      Cymopterus         LFP
                                  terebinthinus
                                  (Hook.)

Umbelliferae                      Cymopterus         Nectar
                                  terebinthinus
                                  (Hook.)

Urticaceae         Stinging       Urtica             LFP
                   nettle         dioica L.

Urticaceae         Stinging       Urtica             Ovipositing
                   nettle         dioica L.

                   Dates of                          Flower
Family             interactions                      Color
                   1st-last       Butterflies

Apocynaceae        17-Jun--       Purplish
                   25-Jun         Copper, Juniper    Pink
                                  Hairstreak,
                                  Coronis
                                  Fritillary,
                                  Weidemeyer's
                                  Admiral,
                                  Common Ringlet

Asclepidaceae      26-Jun--       Monarch            --
                   4-Sep

Asclepidaceae      19-Jun--       Western Tiger      Pink
                   6-Jul          Swallowtail,
                                  Cabbage White

Boraginaceae       10-May--       Becker's White,    White
                   23-May         Large Marble,
                                  Silvery Blue,
                                  Painted Lady

Boraginaceae       10-Jun         Purplish Copper

Boraginaceae       10-Jun         Melissa Blue

Capparidaceae      28-Aug         Gray Hairstreak    Purple

Chenopodiaceae     5-Sep          Western            --
                                  Pygmy Blue

Chenopodiaceae     13-Aug--       Western            --
                   7-Sep          Pygmy Blue

Chenopodiaceae     17-Jul         Western            Green
                                  Pygmy Blue

Compositae         19-Jun--       Purplish           White
                   7-Aug          Copper,
                                  Juniper
                                  Hairstreak,
                                  Common Ringlet

Compositae         25-Jun         Lustrous           White
                                  Copper

Compositae         13-May--       Queen              Yellow
                   25-May         Alexandra's
                                  Sulphur,
                                  Boisduval's
                                  Blue

Compositae         24-Jul         California         Purple
                                  Hairstreak,
                                  Behr's
                                  Hairstreak,
                                  Melissa Blue

Compositae         25-May         Boisduval's        White
                                  Blue
                                  Orange Sulphur,
                                  Western

Compositae         12-Sep--       Pygmy Blue,        Yellow
                   21-Nov         Mylitta
                                  Crescent,
                                  West Coast Lady,
                                  Painted Lady,
                                  Juba Skipper

Compositae         21-Jul--       Clouded Sulphur,   Yellow
                   18-Sep         Behr's
                                  Hairstreak,
                                  Western Pygmy
                                  Blue, Melissa
                                  Blue, Painted
                                  Lady, Common
                                  Ringlet,
                                  Common Branded
                                  Skipper,
                                  Juba Skipper

Compositae         4-Jul          Painted Lady       --

Compositae         7-Jul--        Becker's White,    Purple
                   22-Aug         Cabbage White,
                                  Queen
                                  Alexandra's
                                  Sulphur,
                                  California
                                  Hairstreak,
                                  Western Pygmy
                                  Blue, Common
                                  Branded Skipper

Compositae         1-Jun--        Western Tiger      White
                   25-Jul         Swallowtail,
                                  Two-tailed
                                  Swallowtail,
                                  Queen
                                  Alexandra's
                                  Sulphur,
                                  Callippe
                                  Fritillary,
                                  Painted Lady,
                                  Great Basin
                                  Wood-Nymph

Compositae         12-Jul--       Great Spangled     Purple
                   7-Aug          Fritillary,
                                  Coronis
                                  Fritillary

Compositae         25-May         Boisduval's        Yellow
                                  Blue

Compositae         25-May--       Boisduval's
                   1-Jun          Blue, Acmon        Yellow
                                  Blue, Common
                                  Ringlet, Juba
                                  Skipper

Compositae         19-Jul--       Checkered White,
                   13-Aug         Clouded Sulphur,   Yellow
                                  Melissa Blue,
                                  Common Branded
                                  Skipper

Compositae         14-Jul--       Becker's White,
                   18-Sep         Melissa Blue,      Yellow
                                  Common Branded
                                  Skipper,
                                  Juba Skipper

Compositae         22-Jun         Juba Skipper       Yellow

Compositae         25-May         Common             Orange
                                  Checkered-
                                  Skipper

Compositae         11-Aug--       Monarch, Common    Yellow
                   7-Sep          Branded Skipper

Compositae         7-Aug--        Field Crescent,
                   7-Sep          Mylitta            Purple
                                  Crescent,
                                  Common Branded
                                  Skipper

Compositae         21-Jun         California         Yellow
                                  Hairstreak,
                                  Callippe
                                  Fritillary

Compositae         5-Sep--        Purplish           Yellow
                   12-Sep         Copper, Gray
                                  Hairstreak,
                                  Mylitta
                                  Crescent,
                                  Common Ringlet

Compositae         2-May--        West Coast         Yellow
                   23-Jun         Lady, Painted
                                  Lady, Common
                                  Checkered
                                  Skipper

Cruciferae         13-May         Large Marble,      Pink,
                                  Silvery Blue       Purple

Cruciferae         1-Jun          Large Marble       --

Cruciferae         14-May         Becker's White,    Blue,
                                  Common             Purple
                                  Checkered
                                  Skipper

Cruciferae         1 - Jun        Boisduval's        White
                                  Blue, Common
                                  Ringlet

Cruciferae         22-May--       Becker's           Yellow
                   30-Jul         White, Pearly
                                  Marble, Juniper
                                  Hairstreak,
                                  Painted Lady,
                                  Common Ringlet,
                                  Juba Skipper

Dipsacaceae        25-Jul--       Gray               --
                   1-Aug          Hairstreak

Dipsacaceae        17-Jul--       Western Tiger      Purple
                   21-Aug         Swallowtail,
                                  Becker's White,
                                  Checkered White,
                                  Queen
                                  Alexandra's
                                  Sulphur, Coral
                                  Hairstreak,
                                  Melissa Blue,
                                  Coronis
                                  Fritillary,
                                  California
                                  Tortoiseshell,
                                  Great Basin
                                  Wood-Nymph,
                                  Silver-spotted
                                  Skipper, Common
                                  Sootywing,
                                  Common Branded
                                  Skipper, Woodland
                                  Skipper

Elaeagnaceae       8-Oct          Red Admiral        --

Geraniaceae        12-Jul         Gray Hairstreak    Pink

Hydrophyllaceae    25-May--       Boisduval's        Purple
                   1-Jun          Blue, Common
                                  Ringlet

Leguminosae        14-Jul         Queen              --
                                  Alexandra's
                                  Sulphur
                                  Leptotes marina,
                                  Melissa

Leguminosae        14-Jul--       Blue, Great        Purple
                   7-Aug          Basin Wood-Nymph

Liliaceae          20-May--       Spring Azure,      White
                   1-Jun          Boisduval's
                                  Blue, Melissa
                                  Blue

Polemoniaceae      1-May          Hoary Comma        White

Polemoniaceae      8-May--        Indra              Pink
                   26-May         Swallowtail,
                                  Sara Orangetip

Polygonaceae       25-May--       California         Yellow,
                   4-Jul          Hairstreak,        White
                                  Juniper
                                  Hairstreak,
                                  Boisduval's Blue

Polygonaceae       17-Jun         Juba Skipper       White

Rosaceae           21-Jun         California         --
                                  Hairstreak

Rosaceae           22-May         Sandhill           Yellow
                                  Skipper

Saliaceae          25-May         Boisduval's        --
                                  Blue, Common
                                  Ringlet

Saxifragaceae      8-May          Sara               White
                                  Orangetip

Scrophulariaceae   21-Jun         Juniper            Blue
                                  Hairstreak

Umbelliferae       23-Jun         Anise              --
                                  Swallowtail

Umbelliferae       4-Jul          Anise              Yellow
                                  Swallowtail

Urticaceae         27-Jun--       Satyr Comma,       --
                   4-Jul          Red Admiral

Urticaceae         25-Jun         Red Admiral        --
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Author:Fothergill, Kent; Levy-Boyd, Dylan
Publication:Journal of the Idaho Academy of Science
Date:Dec 1, 2008
Words:3894
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